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  1. Scientific Phenomena and Patterns in Data.Pascal Ströing - 2018 - Dissertation, LMU München
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  • Quantum Information Theory & the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics.Christopher Gordon Timpson - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Quantum Information Theory and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics is a conceptual analysis of one of the most prominent and exciting new areas of physics, providing the first full-length philosophical treatment of quantum information theory and the questions it raises for our understanding of the quantum world. -/- Beginning from a careful, revisionary, analysis of the concepts of information in the everyday and classical information-theory settings, Christopher G. Timpson argues for an ontologically deflationary account of the nature of quantum information. (...)
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  • Quantum Information Theory and the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics.Christopher Gordon Timpson - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Christopher G. Timpson provides the first full-length philosophical treatment of quantum information theory and the questions it raises for our understanding of the quantum world. He argues for an ontologically deflationary account of the nature of quantum information, which is grounded in a revisionary analysis of the concepts of information.
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  • Alan Turing and the Mathematical Objection.Gualtiero Piccinini - 2003 - Minds and Machines 13 (1):23-48.
    This paper concerns Alan Turing’s ideas about machines, mathematical methods of proof, and intelligence. By the late 1930s, Kurt Gödel and other logicians, including Turing himself, had shown that no finite set of rules could be used to generate all true mathematical statements. Yet according to Turing, there was no upper bound to the number of mathematical truths provable by intelligent human beings, for they could invent new rules and methods of proof. So, the output of a human mathematician, for (...)
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  • Physical Hypercomputation and the Church–Turing Thesis.Oron Shagrir & Itamar Pitowsky - 2003 - Minds and Machines 13 (1):87-101.
    We describe a possible physical device that computes a function that cannot be computed by a Turing machine. The device is physical in the sense that it is compatible with General Relativity. We discuss some objections, focusing on those which deny that the device is either a computer or computes a function that is not Turing computable. Finally, we argue that the existence of the device does not refute the Church–Turing thesis, but nevertheless may be a counterexample to Gandy's thesis.
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  • Effective Computation by Humans and Machines.Shagrir Oron - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (2):221-240.
    There is an intensive discussion nowadays about the meaning of effective computability, with implications to the status and provability of the Church–Turing Thesis (CTT). I begin by reviewing what has become the dominant account of the way Turing and Church viewed, in 1936, effective computability. According to this account, to which I refer as the Gandy–Sieg account, Turing and Church aimed to characterize the functions that can be computed by a human computer. In addition, Turing provided a highly convincing argument (...)
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  • Generating, Solving and the Mathematics of Homo Sapiens. Emil Post's Views on Computation.Liesbeth De Mol - unknown
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  • Can Ai Be Intelligent?Kazimierz Trzęsicki - 2016 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 48 (1):103-131.
    The aim of this paper is an attempt to give an answer to the question what does it mean that a computational system is intelligent. We base on some theses that though debatable are commonly accepted. Intelligence is conceived as the ability of tractable solving of some problems that in general are not solvable by deterministic Turing Machine.
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  • Negation and Infinity.Kazimierz Trzęsicki - 2018 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 54 (1):131-148.
    Infinity and negation are in various relations and interdependencies one to another. The analysis of negation and infinity aims to better understanding them. Semantical, syntactical, and pragmatic issues will be considered.
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  • How Could You Tell How Grammars Are Represented?John C. Marshall - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):411-412.
  • Computational Theories and Mental Representation.Edward P. Stabler - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):416-421.
  • Grammars-as-Programs Versus Grammars- as-Data.Jerry Samet - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):414-414.
  • On Speculating Across Opaque Barriers.Abe Lockman - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):410-410.
  • Levels of Grammatic Representation: A Tempest in a Teapot.Michael R. Lipton - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):409-410.
  • Computational Commitment and Physical Realization.Robert M. Harrish - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):408-409.
  • On the Hypothesis That Grammars Are Mentally Represented.William Demopoulos & Robert J. Matthews - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):405-406.
  • Church's Thesis and Representation of Grammars.Martin Davis - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):404-404.
  • On a Computational Perspective Without Substance.Rudolf P. Botha - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):403-404.
  • Using What You Know: A Computer-Science Perspective.Robert C. Berwick - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):402-403.
  • How Are Grammers Represented?Edward P. Stabler - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):391-402.
    Noam Chomsky and other linguists and psychologists have suggested that human linguistic behavior is somehow governed by a mental representation of a transformational grammar. Challenges to this controversial claim have often been met by invoking an explicitly computational perspective: It makes perfect sense to suppose that a grammar could be represented in the memory of a computational device and that this grammar could govern the device's use of a language. This paper urges, however, that the claim that humans are such (...)
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  • Gödel, Nagel, Minds, and Machines.Solomon Feferman - 2009 - Journal of Philosophy 106 (4):201-219.
    Ernest Nagel Lecture, Columbia University, Sept. 27, 2007.
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  • Philosophy of Computer Science: An Introductory Course.William J. Rapaport - 2005 - Teaching Philosophy 28 (4):319-341.
    There are many branches of philosophy called “the philosophy of X,” where X = disciplines ranging from history to physics. The philosophy of artificial intelligence has a long history, and there are many courses and texts with that title. Surprisingly, the philosophy of computer science is not nearly as well-developed. This article proposes topics that might constitute the philosophy of computer science and describes a course covering those topics, along with suggested readings and assignments.
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  • What is Categorical Structuralism?Geoffrey Hellman - 2006 - In Johan van Benthem, Gerhard Heinzman, M. Rebushi & H. Visser (eds.), The Age of Alternative Logics. Springer. pp. 151--161.
  • Three Dogmas of First-Order Logic and Some Evidence-Based Consequences for Constructive Mathematics of Differentiating Between Hilbertian Theism, Brouwerian Atheism and Finitary Agnosticism.Bhupinder Singh Anand - manuscript
    We show how removing faith-based beliefs in current philosophies of classical and constructive mathematics admits formal, evidence-based, definitions of constructive mathematics; of a constructively well-defined logic of a formal mathematical language; and of a constructively well-defined model of such a language. -/- We argue that, from an evidence-based perspective, classical approaches which follow Hilbert's formal definitions of quantification can be labelled `theistic'; whilst constructive approaches based on Brouwer's philosophy of Intuitionism can be labelled `atheistic'. -/- We then adopt what may (...)
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  • La historia y la gramática de la recursión: una precisión desde la obra de Wittgenstein.Sergio Mota - 2014 - Pensamiento y Cultura 17 (1):20-48.
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  • Unifying Foundations – to Be Seen in the Phenomenon of Language.Lars Löfgren - 2004 - Foundations of Science 9 (2):135-189.
    Scientific knowledge develops in an increasingly fragmentary way.A multitude of scientific disciplines branch out. Curiosity for thisdevelopment leads into quests for a unifying understanding. To a certain extent, foundational studies provide such unification. There is a tendency, however, also of a fragmentary growth of foundational studies, like in a multitude of disciplinaryfoundations. We suggest to look at the foundational problem, not primarily as a search for foundations for one discipline in another, as in some reductionist approach, but as a steady (...)
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  • In Memory of Torkel Franzén.Solomon Feferman - unknown
    1. Logic, determinism and free will. The determinism-free will debate is perhaps as old as philosophy itself and has been engaged in from a great variety of points of view including those of scientific, theological and logical character; my concern here is to limit attention to two arguments from logic. To begin with, there is an argument in support of determinism that dates back to Aristotle, if not farther. It rests on acceptance of the Law of Excluded Middle, according to (...)
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  • Dependency Grammar.Geert-Jan M. Kruijff - 2006 - In Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. pp. 444--450.
  • Enciclopédia de Termos Lógico-Filosóficos.João Branquinho, Desidério Murcho & Nelson Gonçalves Gomes (eds.) - 2006 - São Paulo, SP, Brasil: Martins Fontes.
    Esta enciclopédia abrange, de uma forma introdutória mas desejavelmente rigorosa, uma diversidade de conceitos, temas, problemas, argumentos e teorias localizados numa área relativamente recente de estudos, os quais tem sido habitual qualificar como «estudos lógico-filosóficos». De uma forma apropriadamente genérica, e apesar de o território teórico abrangido ser extenso e de contornos por vezes difusos, podemos dizer que na área se investiga um conjunto de questões fundamentais acerca da natureza da linguagem, da mente, da cognição e do raciocínio humanos, bem (...)
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  • The Insufficiency of Formal Design Methods.Bruce Edmonds - manuscript
    We highlight the limitations of formal methods by exhibiting two results in recursive function theory: that there is no effective means of finding a program that satisfies a given formal specification; or checking that a program meets a specification. We also exhibit a ‘simple’ MAS which has all the power of a Turing machine. We then argue that any ‘pure design’ methodology will face insurmountable difficulties in today’s open and complex MAS. Rather we suggest a methodology based on the classic (...)
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  • Rule-Based and Rule-Generating Systems.Niels Ole Finnemann - 2000 - In P. B. Andersen, Claus Emmeche, N. O. Finnemann & P. V. Christiansen (eds.), Downward Causation. Aarhus, Denmark: University of Aarhus Press. pp. 278-301.
    The article discusses the limitations of psycho-physical parallellism and the implications of a pscycho-physical interaction paradigm considering the notion Downward Causation. The focus is on the notion of levels in nature and their interrelations, and it argues that the notion of rule-based systems should be considered a subcategory of rule-generating systems partly based on redundancy functions rather than rules.
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  • Axioms in Mathematical Practice.Dirk Schlimm - 2013 - Philosophia Mathematica 21 (1):37-92.
    On the basis of a wide range of historical examples various features of axioms are discussed in relation to their use in mathematical practice. A very general framework for this discussion is provided, and it is argued that axioms can play many roles in mathematics and that viewing them as self-evident truths does not do justice to the ways in which mathematicians employ axioms. Possible origins of axioms and criteria for choosing axioms are also examined. The distinctions introduced aim at (...)
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  • Godel on Computability.W. Sieg - 2006 - Philosophia Mathematica 14 (2):189-207.
    The identification of an informal concept of ‘effective calculability’ with a rigorous mathematical notion like ‘recursiveness’ or ‘Turing computability’ is still viewed as problematic, and I think rightly so. I analyze three different and conflicting perspectives Gödel articulated in the three decades from 1934 to 1964. The significant shifts in Gödel's position underline the difficulties of the methodological issues surrounding the Church-Turing Thesis.
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  • Paper Machines.Daniele Mundici & Wilfried Seig - 1995 - Philosophia Mathematica 3 (1):5-30.
    Machines were introduced as calculating devices to simulate operations carried out by human computers following fixed algorithms. The mathematical study of (paper) machines is the topic of our essay. The first three sections provide necessary logical background, examine the analyses of effective calculability given in the thirties, and describe results that are central to recursion theory, reinforcing the conceptual analyses. In the final section we pursue our investigation in a quite different way and focus on principles that govern the operations (...)
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  • Reasoning, Logic and Computation.Stewart Shapiro - 1995 - Philosophia Mathematica 3 (1):31-51.
    The idea that logic and reasoning are somehow related goes back to antiquity. It clearly underlies much of the work in logic, as witnessed by the development of computability, and formal and mechanical deductive systems, for example. On the other hand, a platitude is that logic is the study of correct reasoning; and reasoning is cognitive if anything Is. Thus, the relationship between logic, computation, and correct reasoning makes an interesting and historically central case study for mechanism. The purpose of (...)
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  • Positional Value and Linguistic Recursion.John Kadvany - 2007 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 35 (5-6):487-520.
  • Indistinguishable From Magic: Computation is Cognitive Technology. [REVIEW]John Kadvany - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (1):119-143.
    This paper explains how mathematical computation can be constructed from weaker recursive patterns typical of natural languages. A thought experiment is used to describe the formalization of computational rules, or arithmetical axioms, using only orally-based natural language capabilities, and motivated by two accomplishments of ancient Indian mathematics and linguistics. One accomplishment is the expression of positional value using versified Sanskrit number words in addition to orthodox inscribed numerals. The second is Pāṇini’s invention, around the fifth century BCE, of a formal (...)
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  • Complexity Level Analysis Revisited: What Can 30 Years of Hindsight Tell Us About How the Brain Might Represent Visual Information?John K. Tsotsos - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Church's Thesis: Prelude to a Proof.Janet Folina - 1998 - Philosophia Mathematica 6 (3):302-323.
  • The Alan Turing Bibliography.Andrew Hodges - manuscript
    Almost everything Turing wrote is now accessible on-line in some form, much of it in the Turing Digital Archive, which makes available scanned versions of the physical papers held in the archive at King's College, Cambridge University. See..
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  • Domains of Sciences, Universes of Discourse and Omega Arguments.Jose M. Saguillo - 1999 - History and Philosophy of Logic 20 (3-4):267-290.
    Each science has its own domain of investigation, but one and the same science can be formalized in different languages with different universes of discourse. The concept of the domain of a science and the concept of the universe of discourse of a formalization of a science are distinct, although they often coincide in extension. In order to analyse the presuppositions and implications of choices of domain and universe, this article discusses the treatment of omega arguments in three very different (...)
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  • Quantum Computing.Amit Hagar & Michael Cuffaro - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Combining physics, mathematics and computer science, quantum computing and its sister discipline of quantum information have developed in the past few decades from visionary ideas to two of the most fascinating areas of quantum theory. General interest and excitement in quantum computing was initially triggered by Peter Shor (1994) who showed how a quantum algorithm could exponentially “speed-up” classical computation and factor large numbers into primes far more efficiently than any (known) classical algorithm. Shor’s algorithm was soon followed by several (...)
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  • Cognition and the Power of Continuous Dynamical Systems.Whit Schonbein - 2004 - Minds and Machines 15 (1):57-71.
    Traditional approaches to modeling cognitive systems are computational, based on utilizing the standard tools and concepts of the theory of computation. More recently, a number of philosophers have argued that cognition is too subtle or complex for these tools to handle. These philosophers propose an alternative based on dynamical systems theory. Proponents of this view characterize dynamical systems as (i) utilizing continuous rather than discrete mathematics, and, as a result, (ii) being computationally more powerful than traditional computational automata. Indeed, the (...)
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  • Step by Recursive Step: Church's Analysis of Effective Calculability.Wilfried Sieg - 1997 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 3 (2):154-180.
    Alonzo Church's mathematical work on computability and undecidability is well-known indeed, and we seem to have an excellent understanding of the context in which it arose. The approach Church took to the underlying conceptual issues, by contrast, is less well understood. Why, for example, was "Church's Thesis" put forward publicly only in April 1935, when it had been formulated already in February/March 1934? Why did Church choose to formulate it then in terms of Gödel's general recursiveness, not his own λ (...)
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  • ¿Qué Es Un Algoritmo? Una Respuesta Desde la Obra de Wittgenstein.Sergio Mota - 2015 - Endoxa 36:317.
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  • Alan Turing: Person of the XXth Century?José M. Sánchez Ron - 2013 - Arbor 189 (764):a085.
  • Diagonalisation and Church's Thesis: Kleene's Homework.Enrique Alonso & Maria Manzano - 2005 - History and Philosophy of Logic 26 (2):93-113.
    In this paper we will discuss the active part played by certain diagonal arguments in the genesis of computability theory. 1?In some cases it is enough to assume the enumerability of Y while in others the effective enumerability is a substantial demand. These enigmatical words by Kleene were our point of departure: When Church proposed this thesis, I sat down to disprove it by diagonalizing out of the class of the ??definable functions. But, quickly realizing that the diagonalization cannot be (...)
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  • Undefinability of Truth. The Problem of Priority:Tarski Vs Gödel.Roman Murawski - 1998 - History and Philosophy of Logic 19 (3):153-160.
    The paper is devoted to the discussion of some philosophical and historical problems connected with the theorem on the undefinability of the notion of truth. In particular the problem of the priority of proving this theorem will be considered. It is claimed that Tarski obtained this theorem independently though he made clear his indebtedness to Gödel?s methods. On the other hand, Gödel was aware of the formal undefinability of truth in 1931, but he did not publish this result. Reasons for (...)
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  • Alonzo Church:His Life, His Work and Some of His Miracles.Maía Manzano - 1997 - History and Philosophy of Logic 18 (4):211-232.
    This paper is dedicated to Alonzo Church, who died in August 1995 after a long life devoted to logic. To Church we owe lambda calculus, the thesis bearing his name and the solution to the Entscheidungsproblem.His well-known book Introduction to Mathematical LogicI, defined the subject matter of mathematical logic, the approach to be taken and the basic topics addressed. Church was the creator of the Journal of Symbolic Logicthe best-known journal of the area, which he edited for several decades This (...)
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  • Mentalismo, mecanicismo : el nuevo argumento de Penrose. [REVIEW]Enrique Alonso - 2001 - Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 26 (1):139-164.
    Este ensayo ofrece un análisis crítico del último argumento que el matemático y filósofo Roger Penrose ofrece a favor de la tesis según la cual hay habilidades de la mente humana que nunca podrán ser igualadas por ingenio mecánico alguno. Al mismo tiempo se ofrece una descripción general de los últimos episodios del eterno enfrentamiento entre mentalismo y mecanicismo y se concluye con una sugerencia acerca de los puntos en los que cabe esperar nuevas situaciones de tensión entre estos dos (...)
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