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  1. What a Rational Parser Would Do.John T. Hale - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (3):399-443.
    This article examines cognitive process models of human sentence comprehension based on the idea of informed search. These models are rational in the sense that they strive to find a good syntactic analysis quickly. Informed search derives a new account of garden pathing that handles traditional counterexamples. It supports a symbolic explanation for local coherence as well as an algorithmic account of entropy reduction. The models are expressed in a broad framework for theories of human sentence comprehension.
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  • Composition in Distributional Models of Semantics.Jeff Mitchell & Mirella Lapata - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (8):1388-1429.
    Vector-based models of word meaning have become increasingly popular in cognitive science. The appeal of these models lies in their ability to represent meaning simply by using distributional information under the assumption that words occurring within similar contexts are semantically similar. Despite their widespread use, vector-based models are typically directed at representing words in isolation, and methods for constructing representations for phrases or sentences have received little attention in the literature. This is in marked contrast to experimental evidence (e.g., in (...)
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  • A Probabilistic Model of Semantic Plausibility in Sentence Processing.Ulrike Padó, Matthew W. Crocker & Frank Keller - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (5):794-838.
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  • Predicting Syntactic Choice in Mandarin Chinese: A Corpus-Based Analysis of Ba Sentences and SVO Sentences.Haitao Liu & Yu Fang - 2021 - Cognitive Linguistics 32 (2):219-250.
    This paper investigates the effects of 10 factors on the choice between alternative ba sentences and SVO sentences in Mandarin Chinese. These factors are givenness, definiteness, animacy and pronominality of NP2s, NP2 length, VP length, verb sense, syntactic parallelism, dependency distance, and surprisal. Using corpus data and mixed-effects logistic regression modeling, we find that on the one hand, givenness, syntactic parallelism, and the log-transformed ratio of NP2 length and VP length are significant predictors of the choice between ba sentences and (...)
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  • A Rose by Any Other Verb: The Effect of Expectations and Word Category on Processing Effort in Situated Sentence Comprehension.Les Sikos, Katharina Stein & Maria Staudte - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Recent work has shown that linguistic and visual contexts jointly modulate linguistic expectancy and, thus, the processing effort for a expected critical word. According to these findings, uncertainty about the upcoming referent in a visually-situated sentence can be reduced by exploiting the selectional restrictions of a preceding word, which then reduces processing effort on the critical word. Interestingly, however, no such modulation was observed in these studies on the expectation-generating word itself. The goal of the current study is to investigate (...)
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  • Word Order Typology Interacts With Linguistic Complexity: A Cross‐Linguistic Corpus Study.Himanshu Yadav, Ashwini Vaidya, Vishakha Shukla & Samar Husain - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (4).
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  • Exploration and Exploitation of Victorian Science in Darwin’s Reading Notebooks.Jaimie Murdock, Colin Allen & Simon DeDeo - 2017 - Cognition 159:117-126.
    Search in an environment with an uncertain distribution of resources involves a trade-off between exploitation of past discoveries and further exploration. This extends to information foraging, where a knowledge-seeker shifts between reading in depth and studying new domains. To study this decision-making process, we examine the reading choices made by one of the most celebrated scientists of the modern era: Charles Darwin. From the full-text of books listed in his chronologically-organized reading journals, we generate topic models to quantify his local (...)
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  • The Role of UID for the Usage of Verb Phrase Ellipsis: Psycholinguistic Evidence From Length and Context Effects.Lisa Schäfer, Robin Lemke, Heiner Drenhaus & Ingo Reich - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    We investigate the underexplored question of when speakers make use of the omission phenomenon verb phrase ellipsis in English given that the full form is also available to them. We base the interpretation of our results on the well-established information-theoretic Uniform Information Density hypothesis: Speakers tend to distribute processing effort uniformly across utterances and avoid regions of low information by omitting redundant material through, e.g., VPE. We investigate the length of the omittable VP and its predictability in context as sources (...)
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  • Lossy‐Context Surprisal: An Information‐Theoretic Model of Memory Effects in Sentence Processing.Richard Futrell, Edward Gibson & Roger P. Levy - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (3).
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  • A Principled Approach to Feature Selection in Models of Sentence Processing.Garrett Smith & Shravan Vasishth - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (12).
    Among theories of human language comprehension, cue‐based memory retrieval has proven to be a useful framework for understanding when and how processing difficulty arises in the resolution of long‐distance dependencies. Most previous work in this area has assumed that very general retrieval cues like [+subject] or [+singular] do the work of identifying (and sometimes misidentifying) a retrieval target in order to establish a dependency between words. However, recent work suggests that general, handpicked retrieval cues like these may not be enough (...)
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  • Neurobehavioral Correlates of Surprisal in Language Comprehension: A Neurocomputational Model.Harm Brouwer, Francesca Delogu, Noortje J. Venhuizen & Matthew W. Crocker - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Expectation-based theories of language comprehension, in particular Surprisal Theory, go a long way in accounting for the behavioral correlates of word-by-word processing difficulty, such as reading times. An open question, however, is in which component of the Event-Related brain Potential signal Surprisal is reflected, and how these electrophysiological correlates relate to behavioral processing indices. Here, we address this question by instantiating an explicit neurocomputational model of incremental, word-by-word language comprehension that produces estimates of the N400 and the P600—the two most (...)
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  • Evaluating Models of Robust Word Recognition with Serial Reproduction.Stephan C. Meylan, Sathvik Nair & Thomas L. Griffiths - 2021 - Cognition 210:104553.
    Spoken communication occurs in a “noisy channel” characterized by high levels of environmental noise, variability within and between speakers, and lexical and syntactic ambiguity. Given these properties of the received linguistic input, robust spoken word recognition—and language processing more generally—relies heavily on listeners' prior knowledge to evaluate whether candidate interpretations of that input are more or less likely. Here we compare several broad-coverage probabilistic generative language models in their ability to capture human linguistic expectations. Serial reproduction, an experimental paradigm where (...)
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  • Quantifying Structural and Non‐Structural Expectations in Relative Clause Processing.Zhong Chen & John T. Hale - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (1):e12927.
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  • Do Programmers Prefer Predictable Expressions in Code?Casey Casalnuovo, Kevin Lee, Hulin Wang, Prem Devanbu & Emily Morgan - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (12).
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  • A Computational Model for Measuring Discourse Complexity.Wenxin Xiong & Kun Sun - 2019 - Discourse Studies 21 (6):690-712.
    In past studies, the few quantitative approaches to discourse structure were mostly confined to the presentation of the frequency of discourse relations. However, quantitative approaches should take into account both hierarchical and relational layers in the discourse structure. This study considers these factors and addresses the issue of how discourse relations and discourse units are related. It draws upon the available corpora of discourse structure ) from a new perspective. Since an RST tree can be converted into a syntactic dependency (...)
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  • Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing.Alessandra Zarcone, Marten van Schijndel, Jorrig Vogels & Vera Demberg - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Processing Relative Clause Extractions in Swedish.Damon Tutunjian, Fredrik Heinat, Eva Klingvall & Anna-Lena Wiklund - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • When High-Capacity Readers Slow Down and Low-Capacity Readers Speed Up: Working Memory and Locality Effects.Bruno Nicenboim, Pavel Logačev, Carolina Gattei & Shravan Vasishth - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  • Working Memory Differences in Long-Distance Dependency Resolution.Bruno Nicenboim, Shravan Vasishth, Carolina Gattei, Mariano Sigman & Reinhold Kliegl - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  • The Role of Domain-General Cognitive Control in Language Comprehension.Evelina Fedorenko - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • The Influence of Visual Uncertainty on Word Surprisal and Processing Effort.Christine S. Ankener, Mirjana Sekicki & Maria Staudte - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Uncertainty Reduction as a Measure of Cognitive Load in Sentence Comprehension.Stefan L. Frank - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):475-494.
    The entropy-reduction hypothesis claims that the cognitive processing difficulty on a word in sentence context is determined by the word's effect on the uncertainty about the sentence. Here, this hypothesis is tested more thoroughly than has been done before, using a recurrent neural network for estimating entropy and self-paced reading for obtaining measures of cognitive processing load. Results show a positive relation between reading time on a word and the reduction in entropy due to processing that word, supporting the entropy-reduction (...)
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  • A Framework for Modeling the Interaction of Syntactic Processing and Eye Movement Control.Felix Engelmann, Shravan Vasishth, Ralf Engbert & Reinhold Kliegl - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):452-474.
    We explore the interaction between oculomotor control and language comprehension on the sentence level using two well-tested computational accounts of parsing difficulty. Previous work (Boston, Hale, Vasishth, & Kliegl, 2011) has shown that surprisal (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008) and cue-based memory retrieval (Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) are significant and complementary predictors of reading time in an eyetracking corpus. It remains an open question how the sentence processor interacts with oculomotor control. Using a simple linking hypothesis proposed in Reichle, Warren, and (...)
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  • Probabilistic Modeling of Discourse‐Aware Sentence Processing.Amit Dubey, Frank Keller & Patrick Sturt - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):425-451.
    Probabilistic models of sentence comprehension are increasingly relevant to questions concerning human language processing. However, such models are often limited to syntactic factors. This restriction is unrealistic in light of experimental results suggesting interactions between syntax and other forms of linguistic information in human sentence processing. To address this limitation, this article introduces two sentence processing models that augment a syntactic component with information about discourse co-reference. The novel combination of probabilistic syntactic components with co-reference classifiers permits them to more (...)
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  • A Rational Model of Word Skipping in Reading: Ideal Integration of Visual and Linguistic Information.Yunyan Duan & Klinton Bicknell - 2020 - Topics in Cognitive Science 12 (1):387-401.
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  • Left‐Corner Parsing With Distributed Associative Memory Produces Surprisal and Locality Effects.Nathan E. Rasmussen & William Schuler - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):1009-1042.
    This article describes a left-corner parser implemented within a cognitively and neurologically motivated distributed model of memory. This parser's approach to syntactic ambiguity points toward a tidy account both of surprisal effects and of locality effects, such as the parsing breakdowns caused by center embedding. The model provides an algorithmic-level account of these breakdowns: The structure of the parser's memory and the nature of incremental parsing produce a smooth degradation of processing accuracy for longer center embeddings, and a steeper degradation (...)
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  • Uncertainty and Expectation in Sentence Processing: Evidence From Subcategorization Distributions.Tal Linzen & T. Florian Jaeger - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (6):1382-1411.
    There is now considerable evidence that human sentence processing is expectation based: As people read a sentence, they use their statistical experience with their language to generate predictions about upcoming syntactic structure. This study examines how sentence processing is affected by readers' uncertainty about those expectations. In a self-paced reading study, we use lexical subcategorization distributions to factorially manipulate both the strength of expectations and the uncertainty about them. We compare two types of uncertainty: uncertainty about the verb's complement, reflecting (...)
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  • Evidence for Implicit Learning in Syntactic Comprehension.Alex B. Fine & T. Florian Jaeger - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (3):578-591.
  • Direct Evidence of Memory Retrieval as a Source of Difficulty in Non-Local Dependencies in Language.Evelina Fedorenko, Rebecca Woodbury & Edward Gibson - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (2):378-394.
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  • The Length of Words Reflects Their Conceptual Complexity.Molly L. Lewis & Michael C. Frank - 2016 - Cognition 153:182-195.
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  • Alignment as a Consequence of Expectation Adaptation: Syntactic Priming is Affected by the Prime’s Prediction Error Given Both Prior and Recent Experience.T. Florian Jaeger & Neal E. Snider - 2013 - Cognition 127 (1):57-83.
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  • Effects of Early Cues on the Processing of Chinese Relative Clauses: Evidence for Experience‐Based Theories.Fuyun Wu, Elsi Kaiser & Shravan Vasishth - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):1101-1133.
    We used Chinese prenominal relative clauses to test the predictions of two competing accounts of sentence comprehension difficulty: the experience-based account of Levy () and the Dependency Locality Theory. Given that in Chinese RCs, a classifier and/or a passive marker BEI can be added to the sentence-initial position, we manipulated the presence/absence of classifiers and the presence/absence of BEI, such that BEI sentences were passivized subject-extracted RCs, and no-BEI sentences were standard object-extracted RCs. We conducted two self-paced reading experiments, using (...)
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  • Determinants of Scanpath Regularity in Reading.Titus von der Malsburg, Reinhold Kliegl & Shravan Vasishth - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (7):1675-1703.
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  • Eye’Ll Help You Out! How the Gaze Cue Reduces the Cognitive Load Required for Reference Processing.Mirjana Sekicki & Maria Staudte - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2418-2458.
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  • Determinants of Scanpath Regularity in Reading.Titus Malsburg, Reinhold Kliegl & Shravan Vasishth - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (7):1675-1703.
    Scanpaths have played an important role in classic research on reading behavior. Nevertheless, they have largely been neglected in later research perhaps due to a lack of suitable analytical tools. Recently, von der Malsburg and Vasishth proposed a new measure for quantifying differences between scanpaths and demonstrated that this measure can recover effects that were missed with the traditional eyetracking measures. However, the sentences used in that study were difficult to process and scanpath effects accordingly strong. The purpose of the (...)
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  • Lexical Predictability During Natural Reading: Effects of Surprisal and Entropy Reduction.Matthew W. Lowder, Wonil Choi, Fernanda Ferreira & John M. Henderson - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):1166-1183.
    What are the effects of word-by-word predictability on sentence processing times during the natural reading of a text? Although information complexity metrics such as surprisal and entropy reduction have been useful in addressing this question, these metrics tend to be estimated using computational language models, which require some degree of commitment to a particular theory of language processing. Taking a different approach, this study implemented a large-scale cumulative cloze task to collect word-by-word predictability data for 40 passages and compute surprisal (...)
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  • Investigating Locality Effects and Surprisal in Written English Syntactic Choice Phenomena.Rajakrishnan Rajkumar, Marten van Schijndel, Michael White & William Schuler - 2016 - Cognition 155:204-232.
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  • Surprisal-Based Comparison Between a Symbolic and a Connectionist Model of Sentence Processing.Stefan L. Frank - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1139--1144.
  • Constraints Are the Solution, Not the Problem.Sebastian Wallot & Damian Kelty-Stephen - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  • The Effect of Word Predictability on Reading Time is Logarithmic.Nathaniel J. Smith & Roger Levy - 2013 - Cognition 128 (3):302-319.
  • Dynamic Integration of Pragmatic Expectations and Real-World Event Knowledge in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution.Klinton Bicknell & Hannah Rohde - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1216--1221.
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  • Semantic Similarity, Predictability, and Models of Sentence Processing.Douglas Roland, Hongoak Yun, Jean-Pierre Koenig & Gail Mauner - 2012 - Cognition 122 (3):267-279.
  • The Processing of Extraposed Structures in English.Roger Levy, Evelina Fedorenko, Mara Breen & Edward Gibson - 2012 - Cognition 122 (1):12-36.
  • Syntactic Complexity Effects in Sentence Production.Gregory Scontras, William Badecker, Lisa Shank, Eunice Lim & Evelina Fedorenko - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (3):559-583.
    Syntactic complexity effects have been investigated extensively with respect to comprehension . According to one prominent class of accounts , certain structures cause comprehension difficulty due to their scarcity in the language. But why are some structures less frequent than others? In two elicited-production experiments we investigated syntactic complexity effects in relative clauses and wh-questions varying in whether or not they contained non-local dependencies. In both experiments, we found reliable durational differences between subject-extracted structures and object-extracted structures : Participants took (...)
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