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  1. Ethicists' Courtesy at Philosophy Conferences.Eric Schwitzgebel, Joshua Rust, Linus Ta-Lun Huang, Alan T. Moore & D. Justin Coates - 2012 - Philosophical Psychology 25 (3):331 - 340.
    If philosophical moral reflection tends to promote moral behavior, one might think that professional ethicists would behave morally better than do socially comparable non-ethicists. We examined three types of courteous and discourteous behavior at American Philosophical Association conferences: talking audibly while the speaker is talking (versus remaining silent), allowing the door to slam shut while entering or exiting mid-session (versus attempting to close the door quietly), and leaving behind clutter at the end of a session (versus leaving one's seat tidy). (...)
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  • Game Mechanisms for Training Moral Sensitivity: A Research Design.Katsarov Johannes, Seidenberg Manasseh & Christen Markus - unknown
    The competence of moral sensitivity is increasingly regarded as key for the morality of people's social and professional behavior. However, specialized training strategies have yet to be developed. Training moral sensitivity through video games seems to be a particularly promising approach. This paper presents a research design for a strategic evaluation of numerous game mechanisms concerning their ability to support the development of moral sensitivity. In the first step, the competence of moral sensitivity is broken down into more concrete sub-competences (...)
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  • Using a Scoring Rubric to Assess the Writing of Bioethics Students.Hugh A. Stoddard, Cory A. Labrecque & Toby Schonfeld - 2016 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 25 (2):301-311.
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  • Does Studying ‘Ethics’ Improve Engineering Students’ Meta-Moral Cognitive Skills?Reena Cheruvalath - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (2):583-596.
    This study examines the assumption that training in professional ethics is a predictor of the meta-moral cognitive ability of engineering students. The main purpose of the study was to check the difference in the meta-moral cognitive abilities between those students who studied a course on professional ethics, as part of the engineering curriculum, and those who did not undertake such a course. Using the survey method, the author conducted a pilot study amongst 243 engineering undergraduates. The meta-moral cognitive awareness inventory (...)
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  • An Evaluation of a Data Linkage Training Workshop for Research Ethics Committees.Kate M. Tan, Felicity S. Flack, Natasha L. Bear & Judy A. Allen - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):13.
    In Australia research projects proposing the use of linked data require approval by a Human Research Ethics Committee . A sound evaluation of the ethical issues involved requires understanding of the basic mechanics of data linkage, the associated benefits and risks, and the legal context in which it occurs. The rapidly increasing number of research projects utilising linked data in Australia has led to an urgent need for enhanced capacity of HRECs to review research applications involving this emerging research methodology. (...)
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  • Compliance Disengagement in Research: Development and Validation of a New Measure.James M. DuBois, John T. Chibnall & John Gibbs - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4):965-988.
    In the world of research, compliance with research regulations is not the same as ethics, but it is closely related. One could say that compliance is how most societies with advanced research programs operationalize many ethical obligations. This paper reports on the development of the How I Think about Research questionnaire, which is an adaptation of the How I Think questionnaire that examines the use of cognitive distortions to justify antisocial behaviors. Such an adaptation was justified based on a review (...)
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  • Standards of Scientific Conduct: Are There Any?Michael Kalichman, Monica Sweet & Dena Plemmons - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (4):885-896.
    The practice of research is full of ethical challenges, many of which might be addressed through the teaching of responsible conduct of research . Although such training is increasingly required, there is no clear consensus about either the goals or content of an RCR curriculum. The present study was designed to assess community standards in three domains of research practice: authorship, collaboration, and data management. A survey, developed through advice from content matter experts, focus groups, and interviews, was distributed in (...)
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  • Engineering Ethics Education: A Comparative Study of Japan and Malaysia.Balamuralithara Balakrishnan, Fumihiko Tochinai & Hidekazu Kanemitsu - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-15.
    This paper reports the findings of a comparative study in which students’ perceived attainment of the objectives of an engineering ethics education and their attitude towards engineering ethics were investigated and compared. The investigation was carried out in Japan and Malaysia, involving 163 and 108 engineering undergraduates respectively. The research method used was based on a survey in which respondents were sent a questionnaire to elicit relevant data. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed on the data. The results (...)
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  • Mentoring for Responsible Research: The Creation of a Curriculum for Faculty to Teach RCR in the Research Environment.Dena K. Plemmons & Michael W. Kalichman - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (1):207-226.
    Despite more than 25 years of a requirement for training in the responsible conduct of research, there is still little consensus about what such training should include, how it should be delivered, nor what constitutes “effectiveness” of such training. This lack of consensus on content, approaches and outcomes is evident in recent data showing high variability in the development and implementation of RCR instruction across universities and programs. If we accept that one of the primary aims of instruction in RCR/research (...)
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  • The Importance of Virtue Ethics in the IRB.Marilyn C. Morris & Jason Z. Morris - 2016 - Research Ethics 12 (4):201-216.
    Institutional review boards have a dual goal: first, to protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects, and second, to support and facilitate the conduct of valuable research. In striving to achieve these goals, IRBs must often consider conflicting interests. In the discussion below, we characterize research oversight as having three elements: research regulations, which establish a minimum acceptable standard for research conduct; ethical principles, which help us identify and define relevant ethical issues; and virtue ethics, which guides the (...)
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  • A Systems Perspective on the Role Mentors Play in the Cultivation of Virtue.Jeanne Nakamura & Michael Condren - 2018 - Journal of Moral Education 47 (3):316-332.
    Mentoring during training and the early career is one possible means of cultivating virtue in the practice of science. To examine its perceived impact, we approached virtue and its cultivation using a conceptual framework compatible with virtue ethics: the systems model of good work. We discuss two studies which show that many leading scientists report a wide range of ethical responsibilities and that scientists mentored by moral exemplars absorb ethical commitments from their mentors. A third study found that early-career scientists’ (...)
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  • Threats to Moral Identity: Testing the Effects of Incentives and Consequences of One's Actions on Moral Cleansing.Lauren N. Harkrider, Michael A. Tamborski, Xiaoqian Wang, Ryan P. Brown, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (2):133-147.
    Individuals engage in moral cleansing, a compensatory process to reaffirm one's moral identity, when one's moral self-concept is threatened. However, too much moral cleansing can license individuals to engage in future unethical acts. This study examined the effects of incentives and consequences of one's actions on cheating behavior and moral cleansing. Results found that incentives and consequences interacted such that unethical thoughts were especially threatening, resulting in more moral cleansing, when large incentives to cheat were present and cheating explicitly harmed (...)
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  • Toward Evidence-Based Conflicts of Interest Training for Physician-Investigators.Kate Greenwood, Carl H. Coleman & Kathleen M. Boozang - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (3):500-510.
    The increased focus in recent years on the risks posed by conflicts of interest arising from financial relationships between physician-investigators and the pharmaceutical and medical device industries has led to a variety of measures that can broadly be described as “regulatory” interventions, including new federal and state laws, criminal prosecutions and private lawsuits, requirements attached to government funding, and institutional policies. Studies suggest, however, that physician-investigators have not internalized the message that financial conflicts of interest have the potential to influence (...)
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  • A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Face-to-Face and Online Delivery in Ethics Instruction: The Case for a Hybrid Approach.E. Michelle Todd, Logan L. Watts, Tyler J. Mulhearn, Brett S. Torrence, Megan R. Turner, Shane Connelly & Michael D. Mumford - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (6):1719-1754.
    Despite the growing body of literature on training in the responsible conduct of research, few studies have examined the effectiveness of delivery formats used in ethics courses. The present effort sought to address this gap in the literature through a meta-analytic review of 66 empirical studies, representing 106 ethics courses and 10,069 participants. The frequency and effectiveness of 67 instructional and process-based content areas were also assessed for each delivery format. Process-based contents were best delivered face-to-face, whereas contents delivered online (...)
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  • The Effectiveness of Ethics Education: A Quasi-Experimental Field Study.Douglas R. May & Matthew T. Luth - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):545-568.
    Ethical conduct is the hallmark of excellence in engineering and scientific research, design, and practice. While undergraduate and graduate programs in these areas routinely emphasize ethical conduct, few receive formal ethics training as part of their curricula. The first purpose of this research study was to assess the relative effectiveness of ethics education in enhancing individuals’ general knowledge of the responsible conduct of research practices and their level of moral reasoning. Secondly, we examined the effects of ethics education on the (...)
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  • Modeling the Instructional Effectiveness of Responsible Conduct of Research Education: A Meta-Analytic Path-Analysis.Logan L. Watts, Tyler J. Mulhearn, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Logan M. Steele, Shane Connelly & Michael D. Mumford - 2017 - Ethics and Behavior 27 (8):632-650.
    Predictive modeling in education draws on data from past courses to forecast the effectiveness of future courses. The present effort sought to identify such a model of instructional effectiveness in scientific ethics. Drawing on data from 235 courses in the responsible conduct of research, structural equation modeling techniques were used to test a predictive model of RCR course effectiveness. Fit statistics indicated the model fit the data well, with the instructional characteristics included in the model explaining approximately 85% of the (...)
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  • How Did You Like This Course? The Advantages and Limitations of Reaction Criteria in Ethics Education.Megan R. Turner, Logan L. Watts, Logan M. Steele, Tyler J. Mulhearn, Brett S. Torrence, E. Michelle Todd, Michael D. Mumford & Shane Connelly - 2018 - Ethics and Behavior 28 (6):483-496.
    Ethics courses are most commonly evaluated using reaction measures. However, little is known about the specific types of reaction data being collected and how these reaction data relate to improvements in trainee performance. Using a sample of 381 ethics training sessions, major reaction data categories were identified. Content and course satisfaction were the most frequently collected types of reaction criteria. Furthermore, content relevance and course satisfaction showed strong, positive relationships with performance criteria, whereas content satisfaction demonstrated a moderate, negative relationship. (...)
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  • Forecasting and Ethical Decision Making: What Matters?Cheryl Stenmark - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (6):445-462.
    This study examined how the number and types of consequences considered are related to forecasting and ethical decision making. Undergraduate participants took on the role of the key actor in several ethical problems and were asked to forecast potential outcomes and make a decision about each problem. Performance pressure was manipulated by ostensibly making rewards contingent on good problem-solving performance. The results indicated that forecast quality was associated with decision ethicality, and the identification of the critical consequences of the problem (...)
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  • Evaluating Ethics Education Programs: A Multilevel Approach.Michael D. Mumford, Logan Steele & Logan L. Watts - 2015 - Ethics and Behavior 25 (1):37-60.
    Although education in the responsible conduct of research is considered necessary, evidence bearing on the effectiveness of these programs in improving research ethics has indicated that, although some programs are successful, many fail. Accordingly, there is a need for systematic evaluation of ethics education programs. In the present effort, we examine procedures for evaluation of ethics education programs from a multilevel perspective: examining both within-program evaluation and cross-program evaluation. With regard to within-program evaluation, we note requisite designs and measures for (...)
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  • Effects of Training and Environment on Graduate Students’ Self-Rated Knowledge and Judgments of Responsible Research Behavior.Philip J. Langlais & Blake J. Bent - 2018 - Ethics and Behavior 28 (2):133-153.
    Training programs, departmental/disciplinary norms, and individual factors have been hypothesized to influence ethical behavior. This exploratory study surveyed graduate students from a single university in the American Southeast. Relationships were examined among 496 participants’ individual characteristics, training, self-rated knowledge and decision-making skills in research conduct, and judgments of ethically questionable vignettes. Key findings include the increased likelihood of unethical action by students in online programs, a negative relationship between age and unethical actions, and a negative relationship between agreeableness and reports (...)
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  • Fictional Stories With Ethical Content: Guidelines for Using Stories to Improve Ethical Behavior.David Swanson - 2016 - Ethics and Behavior 26 (7):545-561.
    Fictional literature has been used as a pedagogical tool to elevate student awareness and moral reasoning, ultimately helping them to develop sound decision-making skills when they are confronted with ethical situations. However, the use of fiction for teaching ethics is still uncommon, leaving considerable potential for advancement. This particular study develops theoretical guidelines for using fictional stories with ethical content as a suitable method for teaching ethics. The FSEC guidelines include a working definition and 5 supporting principles that collectively differentiate (...)
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  • Does Studying Ethics Affect Moral Views? An Application to Economic Justice.James Konow - 2017 - Journal of Economic Methodology 24 (2):190-203.
    Recent years have witnessed a rapid increase in initiatives to expand ethics instruction in higher education. Numerous empirical studies have examined the possible effects on students of discipline-based ethics instruction, such business ethics and medical ethics. Nevertheless, the largest share of college ethics instruction has traditionally fallen to philosophy departments, and there is a paucity of empirical research on the individual effects of that approach. This paper examines possible effects of exposure to readings and lectures in mandatory philosophy classes on (...)
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  • Evaluating the Efficacy of the Education and Training Program of the TCPS 2.Denise Stockley, Laura Kinderman, Rylan Egan, Chi Yan Lam & Amber Hastings - 2017 - Research Ethics 13 (3-4):102-114.
    In 2011, the Secretariat on Responsible Conduct of Research launched a set of educational opportunities to facilitate and enhance the dissemination of TCPS 2, the 2nd edition of the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, which guides Canadian research ethics. Three educational modalities were implemented to aid participants in developing or refining their ethical understanding and practice: Regional Workshops, which brought together diverse disciplinary perspectives; the CORE tutorial, which enabled individuals to discover the various aspects and applications (...)
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  • Toward Evidence-Based Conflicts of Interest Training for Physician-Investigators.Kate Greenwood, Carl H. Coleman & Kathleen M. Boozang - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (3):500-510.
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  • Closing the Barn Door: Coping with Findings of Research Misconduct by Trainees in the Biomedical Sciences.Barbara K. Redman & Arthur L. Caplan - 2015 - Research Ethics 11 (3):124-132.
    The proportion of research misconduct cases among trainees in the biomedical sciences has risen, raising the question of why, and what are the responsibilities of research administrators and the research community to address this problem. Although there is no definitive research about causes, for trainees the relationship with a research mentor should play a major role in preventing actions that constitute research misconduct. Examination of the limited literature and of the number of cases closed by the US Office of Research (...)
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  • A Comparison of the Effects of Ethics Training on International and US Students.Logan M. Steele, James F. Johnson, Logan L. Watts, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & T. H. Lee Williams - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4):1217-1244.
    As scientific and engineering efforts become increasingly global in nature, the need to understand differences in perceptions of research ethics issues across countries and cultures is imperative. However, investigations into the connection between nationality and ethical decision-making in the sciences have largely generated mixed results. In Study 1 of this paper, a measure of biases and compensatory strategies that could influence ethical decisions was administered. Results from this study indicated that graduate students from the United States and international graduate students (...)
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  • Educating About Biomedical Research Ethics.Bratislav Stankovic & Mirjana Stankovic - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (4):541-548.
  • Retracted Article: Improving Case-Based Ethics Training: How Modeling Behaviors and Forecasting Influence Effectiveness.Lauren N. Harkrider, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (1):299-299.
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  • Scientists Admitting to Plagiarism: A Meta-Analysis of Surveys.Vanja Pupovac & Daniele Fanelli - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (5):1331-1352.
    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of anonymous surveys asking scientists whether they ever committed various forms of plagiarism. From May to December 2011 we searched 35 bibliographic databases, five grey literature databases and hand searched nine journals for potentially relevant studies. We included surveys that asked scientists if, in a given recall period, they had committed or knew of a colleague who committed plagiarism, and from each survey extracted the proportion of those who reported at least one case. (...)
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  • Ethicists' Courtesy at Philosophy Conferences.Eric Schwitzgebel, Joshua Rust, Linus Ta-Lun Huang, Alan T. Moore & Justin Coates - 2012 - Philosophical Psychology 25 (3):331-340.
    If philosophical moral reflection tends to promote moral behavior, one might think that professional ethicists would behave morally better than do socially comparable non-ethicists. We examined three types of courteous and discourteous behavior at American Philosophical Association conferences: talking audibly while the speaker is talking (versus remaining silent), allowing the door to slam shut while entering or exiting mid-session (versus attempting to close the door quietly), and leaving behind clutter at the end of a session (versus leaving one's seat tidy). (...)
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