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  1. What's New Here?Bruce Mangan - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):160-161.
    O'Brien & Opie's (O&O's) theory demands a view of unconscious processing that is incompatible with virtually all current PDP models of neural activity. Relative to the alternatives, the theory is closer to an AI than a parallel distributed processing (PDP) perspective, and its treatment of phenomenology is ad hoc. It raises at least one important question: Could features of network relaxation be the “switch” that turns an unconscious into a conscious network?
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  • A Theory of Implicit and Explicit Knowledge.Zoltan Dienes & Josef Perner - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):735-808.
    The implicit-explicit distinction is applied to knowledge representations. Knowledge is taken to be an attitude towards a proposition which is true. The proposition itself predicates a property to some entity. A number of ways in which knowledge can be implicit or explicit emerge. If a higher aspect is known explicitly then each lower one must also be known explicitly. This partial hierarchy reduces the number of ways in which knowledge can be explicit. In the most important type of implicit knowledge, (...)
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  • Implicit Learning of Mappings Between Forms and Metaphorical Meanings.Fengying Li, Xiuyan Guo, Lei Zhu, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):174-183.
    Previous research has shown that people can implicitly acquire mappings between word forms and literal meanings . We argue, from the metaphor-representation and embodiment perspectives, that people can unconsciously establish mappings between word forms and not only literal but also metaphorical meanings. Using Williams’ paradigm, we found that transfer of form-meaning connections from a concrete domain to an abstract domain was achieved in a metaphor-consistent way without awareness. Our results support the view that unconscious knowledge can be flexibly deployed in (...)
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  • Positive Transfer and Negative Transfer/Antilearning of Problem-Solving Skills.Magda Osman - 2008 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 137 (1):97-115.
  • Beyond Dissociation Logic: Evidence for Controlled and Automatic Influences in Artificial Grammar Learning.Philip A. Higham, John R. Vokey & J. Lynne Pritchard - 2000 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 129 (4):457-470.
  • Incubation, Insight, and Creative Problem Solving: A Unified Theory and a Connectionist Model.Ron Sun - 2010 - Psychological Review 117 (3):994-1024.
    This article proposes a unified framework for understanding creative problem solving, namely, the explicit–implicit interaction theory. This new theory of creative problem solving constitutes an attempt at providing a more unified explanation of relevant phenomena (in part by reinterpreting/integrating various fragmentary existing theories of incubation and insight). The explicit–implicit interaction theory relies mainly on 5 basic principles, namely, (a) the coexistence of and the difference between explicit and implicit knowledge, (b) the simultaneous involvement of implicit and explicit processes in most (...)
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  • Representation and Knowledge Are Not the Same Thing.Leslie Smith - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):784-785.
    Two standard epistemological accounts are conflated in Dienes & Perner's account of knowledge, and this conflation requires the rejection of their four conditions of knowledge. Because their four metarepresentations applied to the explicit-implicit distinction are paired with these conditions, it follows by modus tollens that if the latter are inadequate, then so are the former. Quite simply, their account misses the link between true reasoning and knowledge.
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  • Putting Content Into a Vehicle Theory of Consciousness.Gerard O'Brien & Jonathan Opie - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):175-196.
    The connectionist vehicle theory of phenomenal experience in the target article identifies consciousness with the brain’s explicit representation of information in the form of stable patterns of neural activity. Commentators raise concerns about both the conceptual and empirical adequacy of this proposal. On the former front they worry about our reliance on vehicles, on representation, on stable patterns of activity, and on our identity claim. On the latter front their concerns range from the general plausibility of a vehicle theory to (...)
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  • First- and Third-Person Approaches in Implicit Learning Research.Vinciane Gaillard, Muriel Vandenberghe, Arnaud Destrebecqz & Axel Cleeremans - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (4):709-722.
    How do we find out whether someone is conscious of some information or not? A simple answer is “We just ask them”! However, things are not so simple. Here, we review recent developments in the use of subjective and objective methods in implicit learning research and discuss the highly complex methodological problems that their use raises in the domain.
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  • Unconscious Representations 2: Towards an Integrated Cognitive Architecture.Luis M. Augusto - 2014 - Axiomathes 24 (1):19-43.
    The representational nature of human cognition and thought in general has been a source of controversies. This is particularly so in the context of studies of unconscious cognition, in which representations tend to be ontologically and structurally segregated with regard to their conscious status. However, it appears evolutionarily and developmentally unwarranted to posit such segregations, as,otherwise, artifact structures and ontologies must be concocted to explain them from the viewpoint of the human cognitive architecture. Here, from a by-and-large Classical cognitivist viewpoint, (...)
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  • Unconscious Representations 1: Belying the Traditional Model of Human Cognition.Luis M. Augusto - 2013 - Axiomathes 23 (4):1-19.
    The traditional model of human cognition (TMHC) postulates an ontological and/or structural gap between conscious and unconscious mental representations. By and large, it sees higher-level mental processes as commonly conceptual or symbolic in nature and therefore conscious, whereas unconscious, lower-level representations are conceived as non-conceptual or sub-symbolic. However, experimental evidence belies this model, suggesting that higher-level mental processes can be, and often are, carried out in a wholly unconscious way and/or without conceptual representations, and that these can be processed unconsciously. (...)
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  • Lost in Dissociation: The Main Paradigms in Unconscious Cognition.Luis M. Augusto - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 42:293-310.
    Contemporary studies in unconscious cognition are essentially founded on dissociation, i.e., on how it dissociates with respect to conscious mental processes and representations. This is claimed to be in so many and diverse ways that one is often lost in dissociation. In order to reduce this state of confusion we here carry out two major tasks: based on the central distinction between cognitive processes and representations, we identify and isolate the main dissociation paradigms; we then critically analyze their key tenets (...)
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  • Implicit Learning: News From the Front.Axel Cleeremans, Arnaud Destrebecqz & Maud Boyer - 1998 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (10):406-416.
    69 Thompson-Schill, S.L. _et al. _(1997) Role of left inferior prefrontal cortex 59 Buckner, R.L. _et al. _(1996) Functional anatomic studies of memory in retrieval of semantic knowledge: a re-evaluation _Proc. Natl. Acad._ retrieval for auditory words and pictures _J. Neurosci. _16, 6219–6235 _Sci. U. S. A. _94, 14792–14797 60 Buckner, R.L. _et al. _(1995) Functional anatomical studies of explicit and 70 Baddeley, A. (1992) Working memory: the interface between memory implicit memory retrieval tasks _J. Neurosci. _15, 12–29 and cognition (...)
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  • From Implicit Skills to Explicit Knowledge: A Bottom‐Up Model of Skill Learning.Edward Merrillb & Todd Petersonb - 2001 - Cognitive Science 25 (2):203-244.
  • Global Repetition Influences Contextual Cueing.Xuelian Zang, Artyom Zinchenko, Lina Jia, Leonardo Assumpção & Hong Li - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • The Interaction of the Explicit and the Implicit in Skill Learning: A Dual-Process Approach.Ron Sun - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (1):159-192.
    This article explicates the interaction between implicit and explicit processes in skill learning, in contrast to the tendency of researchers to study each type in isolation. It highlights various effects of the interaction on learning (including synergy effects). The authors argue for an integrated model of skill learning that takes into account both implicit and explicit processes. Moreover, they argue for a bottom-up approach (first learning implicit knowledge and then explicit knowledge) in the integrated model. A variety of qualitative data (...)
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  • What About the Unconscious?Chris Mortensen - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):162-162.
    O'Brien & Opie do not address the question of the psychotherapeutic role of unconscious representational states such as beliefs. A dilemma is proposed: if they accept the legitimacy of such states then they should modify what they say about dissociation, and if they do not, they owe us an account of why.
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  • Interacting Effects of Instructions and Presentation Rate on Visual Statistical Learning.Julie Bertels, Arnaud Destrebecqz & Ana Franco - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Differential Contributions of Global, Local and Background Contexts in Contextual-Guided Visual Search.Xuelian Zang - unknown
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  • Subcategories of "Fringe Consciousness" and Their Related Nonconscious Contexts.Elisabeth Norman - 2002 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 8.
  • Measuring the Fringes of Experience.Mark Price - 2002 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 8.
    Mangan's concept of fringe consciousness is too heavily based on informal introspection, and too all-embracing to constitute a coherent family. It lacks the tight operationalisation needed to identify individual examples of fringe consciousness, and to test Mangan's theoretical account against detailed findings from empirical research. I propose a more focused two-component operationalisation of the fringe. The first component addresses how we can operationalise the consciousness of the fringe; here I draw lessons from research in implicit cognition, and suggest implications for (...)
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  • Unifying Consciousness with Explicit Knowledge.Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner - 2003 - In Axel Cleeremans (ed.), The Unity of Consciousness. Oxford University Press. pp. 214--232.
  • Implicit Sequence Learning and Conscious Awareness.Qiufang Fu, Xiaolan Fu & Zoltán Dienes - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (1):185-202.
    This paper uses the Process Dissociation Procedure to explore whether people can acquire unconscious knowledge in the serial reaction time task [Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. . Can sequence learning be implicit? New evidence with the Process Dissociation Procedure. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 343–350; Wilkinson, L., & Shanks, D. R. . Intentional control and implicit sequence learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30, 354–369]. Experiment 1 showed that people generated legal sequences above baseline levels under exclusion (...)
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  • Mapping Across Domains Without Feedback: A Neural Network Model of Transfer of Implicit Knowledge.Zoltán Dienes, Gerry T. M. Altmann & Shi-Ji Gao - 1999 - Cognitive Science 23 (1):53-82.
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  • The Effect of Subjective Awareness Measures on Performance in Artificial Grammar Learning Task.Ivan I. Ivanchei & Nadezhda V. Moroshkina - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 57:116-133.
  • Action Blindness in Response to Gradual Changes.Bruno Berberian, Stephanie Chambaron-Ginhac & Axel Cleeremans - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):152-171.
    The goal of this study is to characterize observers’ abilities to detect gradual changes and to explore putative dissociations between conscious experience of change and behavioral adaptation to a changing stimulus. We developed a new experimental paradigm in which, on each trial, participants were shown a dot pattern on the screen. Next, the pattern disappeared and participants had to reproduce it. In some conditions, the target pattern was incrementally rotated over successive trials and participants were either informed or not of (...)
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  • Incidental Learning of Melodic Structure of North Indian Music.Martin Rohrmeier & Richard Widdess - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (5):1299-1327.
    Musical knowledge is largely implicit. It is acquired without awareness of its complex rules, through interaction with a large number of samples during musical enculturation. Whereas several studies explored implicit learning of mostly abstract and less ecologically valid features of Western music, very little work has been done with respect to ecologically valid stimuli as well as non-Western music. The present study investigated implicit learning of modal melodic features in North Indian classical music in a realistic and ecologically valid way. (...)
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  • Implicit Knowledge and Motor Skill: What People Who Know How to Catch Don’T Know.Nick Reed, Peter McLeod & Zoltan Dienes - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):63-76.
    People are unable to report how they decide whether to move backwards or forwards to catch a ball. When asked to imagine how their angle of elevation of gaze would change when they caught a ball, most people are unable to describe what happens although their interception strategy is based on controlling changes in this angle. Just after catching a ball, many people are unable to recognise a description of how their angle of gaze changed during the catch. Some people (...)
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  • Fringe Consciousness in Sequence Learning: The Influence of Individual Differences.Elisabeth Norman, Mark C. Price & Simon C. Duff - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (4):723-760.
    We first describe how the concept of “fringe consciousness” can characterise gradations of consciousness between the extremes of implicit and explicit learning. We then show that the NEO-PI-R personality measure of openness to feelings, chosen to reflect the ability to introspect on fringe feelings, influences both learning and awareness in the serial reaction time task under conditions that have previously been associated with implicit learning . This provides empirical evidence for the proposed phenomenology and functional role of fringe consciousness in (...)
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  • The Role of Reversal Frequency in Learning Noisy Second Order Conditional Sequences.Thomas Pronk & Ingmar Visser - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):627-635.
    The hallmark of implicit learning is that complex knowledge can be acquired unconsciously. The second order conditionals of Reed and Johnson were developed to be complex, and they are popular materials for implicit learning research. Recently, it was demonstrated that in a sequence made noisy , shared features of the SOCs may be learned explicitly . What are these shared features? We hypothesized that low reversal frequency may play a significant role. We have varied reversal frequency, and discovered that reversal (...)
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  • Gradations of Awareness in a Modified Sequence Learning Task.Elisabeth Norman, Mark C. Price, Simon C. Duff & Rune A. Mentzoni - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):809-837.
    We argue performance in the serial reaction time task is associated with gradations of awareness that provide examples of fringe consciousness [Mangan, B. . Taking phenomenology seriously: the “fringe” and its implications for cognitive research. Consciousness and Cognition, 2, 89–108, Mangan, B. . The conscious “fringe”: Bringing William James up to date. In B. J. Baars, W. P. Banks & J. B. Newman , Essential sources in the scientific study of consciousness . Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.], and address limitations (...)
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  • Absence of Advantageous Wagering Does Not Mean That Awareness is Fully Abolished.Remigiusz Szczepanowski - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):426-431.
    Post-decision wagering has been proposed as a method of demonstrating that perception can occur without conscious awareness. When wagering is independent from above-chance performance there is evidence of a lack of awareness of the correctness of the first-order discriminations. However, there are reasons to believe that the contingency analysis conducted by Persaud and colleagues failed to measure “the zero accuracy-wagering criterion”. The author shows that a Pearson chi-square test employed by Persaud and colleagues is unable to accommodate the hypothesis of (...)
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  • Explicit Pre-Training Instruction Does Not Improve Implicit Perceptual-Motor Sequence Learning.Daniel J. Sanchez & Paul J. Reber - 2013 - Cognition 126 (3):341-351.
  • Explicit Feedback Maintains Implicit Knowledge.Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):822-832.
    The role of feedback was investigated with respect to conscious and unconscious knowledge acquired during artificial grammar learning . After incidental learning of training sequences, participants classified further sequences in terms of grammaticality and reported their decision strategy with or without explicit veridical feedback. Sequences that disobeyed the learning structure conformed to an alternative structure. Feedback led to an increase in the amount of reported conscious knowledge of structure but did not increase its accuracy. Conversely, feedback maintained the accuracy of (...)
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  • Implicit Learning and Acquisition of Music.Martin Rohrmeier & Patrick Rebuschat - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (4):525-553.
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  • Subjective Measures of Unconscious Knowledge of Concepts.Eleni Ziori & Zoltán Dienes - 2006 - Mind and Society 5 (1):105-122.
    This paper considers different subjective measures of conscious and unconscious knowledge in a concept formation paradigm. In particular, free verbal reports are compared with two subjective measures, the zero-correlation and the guessing criteria, based on trial-by-trial confidence ratings (a type of on-line verbal report). Despite the fact that free verbal reports are frequently dismissed as being insensitive measures of conscious knowledge, a considerable bulk of research on implicit learning has traditionally relied on this measure of consciousness, because it is widely (...)
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