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  1. Neutral Theory, Biased World.William Bausman - 2016 - Dissertation, University of Minnesota
    The ecologist today finds scarce ground safe from controversy. Decisions must be made about what combination of data, goals, methods, and theories offers them the foundations and tools they need to construct and defend their research. When push comes to shove, ecologists often turn to philosophy to justify why it is their approach that is scientific. Karl Popper’s image of science as bold conjectures and heroic refutations is routinely enlisted to justify testing hypotheses over merely confirming them. One of the (...)
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  • Bayesian Estimation Supersedes the T Test.John K. Kruschke - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 142 (2):573-603.
  • Implicit Learning of Mappings Between Forms and Metaphorical Meanings.Fengying Li, Xiuyan Guo, Lei Zhu, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):174-183.
    Previous research has shown that people can implicitly acquire mappings between word forms and literal meanings . We argue, from the metaphor-representation and embodiment perspectives, that people can unconsciously establish mappings between word forms and not only literal but also metaphorical meanings. Using Williams’ paradigm, we found that transfer of form-meaning connections from a concrete domain to an abstract domain was achieved in a metaphor-consistent way without awareness. Our results support the view that unconscious knowledge can be flexibly deployed in (...)
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  • The Speed of Metacognition: Taking Time to Get to Know One’s Structural Knowledge.Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):123-136.
    The time course of different metacognitive experiences of knowledge was investigated using artificial grammar learning. Experiment 1 revealed that when participants are aware of the basis of their judgments decisions are made most rapidly, followed by decisions made with conscious judgment but without conscious knowledge of underlying structure , and guess responses were made most slowly, even when controlling for differences in confidence and accuracy. In experiment 2, short response deadlines decreased the accuracy of unconscious but not conscious structural knowledge. (...)
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  • Electrocortical N400 Effects of Semantic Satiation.Kim Ströberg, Lau M. Andersen & Stefan Wiens - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Subliminally and Supraliminally Acquired Long-Term Memories Jointly Bias Delayed Decisions.Simon Ruch, Elizabeth Herbert & Katharina Henke - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Unconsciously Learning Task-Irrelevant Perceptual Sequences.Xiuyan Guo, Shan Jiang, Hongyi Wang, Lei Zhu, Jinghua Tang, Zoltan Dienes & Zhiliang Yang - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):203-211.
    We demonstrated unconscious learning of task-irrelevant perceptual regularities in a Serial Reaction Time task in both visual and auditory domains. Participants were required to respond to different letters or syllables which occurred in random order. Unbeknownst to participants, the color of the two letters or the tone of the syllables varied according to certain rules. Reaction times indicated that people indeed learnt both the color and tonal regularities indicating that task-irrelevant sequence structure can be learned perceptually. In a subsequent prediction (...)
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  • When Love Meets Money: Priming the Possession of Money Influences Mating Strategies.Yi Ming Li, Jian Li, Darius K.-S. Chan & Bo Zhang - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Interocular Suppression Prevents Interference in a Flanker Task.Qiong Wu, Jonathan T. H. Lo Voi, Thomas Y. Lee, Melissa-Ann Mackie, Yanhong Wu & Jin Fan - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Facial Beauty Affects Implicit and Explicit Learning of Men and Women Differently.Eleni Ziori & Zoltán Dienes - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Differential Impact of Affective and Cognitive Attributes on Preference Under Deliberation and Distraction.Zuo-Jun Wang, Kai-Qin Chan, Jiao-Jiao Chen, Ai Chen & Fei Wang - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • What Levels of Explanation in the Behavioural Sciences?Giuseppe Boccignone & Roberto Cordeschi (eds.) - 2015 - Frontiers Media SA.
    Complex systems are to be seen as typically having multiple levels of organization. For instance, in the behavioural and cognitive sciences, there has been a long lasting trend, promoted by the seminal work of David Marr, putting focus on three distinct levels of analysis: the computational level, accounting for the What and Why issues, the algorithmic and the implementational levels specifying the How problem. However, the tremendous developments in neuroscience knowledge about processes at different scales of organization together with the (...)
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  • Application of the Ex-Gaussian Function to the Effect of the Word Blindness Suggestion on Stroop Task Performance Suggests No Word Blindness.Benjamin A. Parris, Zoltan Dienes & Timothy L. Hodgson - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  • Testing the Motor Simulation Account of Source Errors for Actions in Recall.Nicholas Lange, Timothy J. Hollins & Patric Bach - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Using Bayes to Get the Most Out of Non-Significant Results.Zoltan Dienes - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Not Null Enough: Pseudo-Null Hypotheses in Community Ecology and Comparative Psychology.William Bausman & Marta Halina - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (3-4):30.
    We evaluate a common reasoning strategy used in community ecology and comparative psychology for selecting between competing hypotheses. This strategy labels one hypothesis as a “null” on the grounds of its simplicity and epistemically privileges it as accepted until rejected. We argue that this strategy is unjustified. The asymmetrical treatment of statistical null hypotheses is justified through the experimental and mathematical contexts in which they are used, but these contexts are missing in the case of the “pseudo-null hypotheses” found in (...)
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  • Implicit Learning.Axel Cleeremans - 1998 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (10):406-416.
    Implicit learning is the process through which we become sensitive to certain regularities in the environment (1) in the absence of intention to learn about those regularities (2) in the absence of awareness that one is learning, and (3) in such a way that the resulting knowledge is difficult to express.
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  • Gambling on the Unconscious: A Comparison of Wagering and Confidence Ratings as Measures of Awareness in an Artificial Grammar Task☆.Zoltán Dienes & Anil Seth - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):674-681.
    We explore three methods for measuring the conscious status of knowledge using the artificial grammar learning paradigm. We show wagering is no more sensitive to conscious knowledge than simple verbal confidence reports but is affected by risk aversion. When people wager rather than give verbal confidence they are less ready to indicate high confidence. We introduce a “no-loss gambling” method which is insensitive to risk aversion. We show that when people are just as ready to bet on a genuine random (...)
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  • Learning Without Consciously Knowing: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials in Sequence Learning.Qiufang Fu, Guangyu Bin, Zoltan Dienes, Xiaolan Fu & Xiaorong Gao - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):22-34.
    This paper investigated how implicit and explicit knowledge is reflected in event-related potentials in sequence learning. ERPs were recorded during a serial reaction time task. The results showed that there were greater RT benefits for standard compared with deviant stimuli later than early on, indicating sequence learning. After training, more standard triplets were generated under inclusion than exclusion tests and more standard triplets under exclusion than chance level, indicating that participants acquired both explicit and implicit knowledge. However, deviant targets elicited (...)
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  • Unconscious Structural Knowledge of Tonal Symmetry: Tang Poetry Redefines Limits of Implicit Learning.Shan Jiang, Lei Zhu, Xiuyan Guo, Wendy Ma, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):476-486.
    The study aims to help characterize the sort of structures about which people can acquire unconscious knowledge. It is already well established that people can implicitly learn n-grams and also repetition patterns. We explore the acquisition of unconscious structural knowledge of symmetry. Chinese Tang poetry uses a specific sort of mirror symmetry, an inversion rule with respect to the tones of characters in successive lines of verse. We show, using artificial poetry to control both n-gram structure and repetition patterns, that (...)
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  • Conscious and Unconscious Thought in Artificial Grammar Learning.Andy David Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):865-874.
    Unconscious Thought Theory posits that a period of distraction after information acquisition leads to unconscious processing which enhances decision making relative to conscious deliberation or immediate choice . Support thus far has been mixed. In the present study, artificial grammar learning was used in order to produce measurable amounts of conscious and unconscious knowledge. Intermediate phases were introduced between training and testing. Participants engaged in conscious deliberation of grammar rules, were distracted for the same period of time, or progressed immediately (...)
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  • Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Brain–Computer Interface Performance.Lee-Fan Tan, Zoltan Dienes, Ashok Jansari & Sing-Yau Goh - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 23:12-21.
    Electroencephalogram based Brain–Computer Interfaces enable stroke and motor neuron disease patients to communicate and control devices. Mindfulness meditation has been claimed to enhance metacognitive regulation. The current study explores whether mindfulness meditation training can thus improve the performance of BCI users. To eliminate the possibility of expectation of improvement influencing the results, we introduced a music training condition. A norming study found that both meditation and music interventions elicited clear expectations for improvement on the BCI task, with the strength of (...)
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