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An argument for basic emotions

Cognition and Emotion 6 (3-4):169-200 (1992)

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  1. Comment: Moving (Further) Beyond Private Experience: On the Radicalization of the Social Approach to Emotions and the Emancipation of Verbal Emotional Expressions.Gerben A. Van Kleef - 2021 - Emotion Review 13 (2):90-94.
    Emotions have traditionally been viewed as intrapersonal phenomena. Over the past decades, theory and research have shifted toward a more social perspective that emphasizes the role of emotional ex...
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  • Emoción y percepción: una aproximación ecológica.José Ramón Torices - 2017 - Análisis Filosófico 37 (1):5-26.
    The aim of this paper is to sketch a theory of emotion. Our thesis is that emotional experience is a type of perceptual experience. Agents perceive emotionally the world whose objects and situations present to them as being relevant to their well-being and they do it by means of practical relations towards their environment. Our proposal attempts to avoid, in this way, the problem of some classical theories of emotions such as James’s theory of emotions as feelings and cognitivist theories (...)
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  • Homing in on Consciousness in the Nervous System: An Action-Based Synthesis.Ezequiel Morsella, Christine A. Godwin, Tiffany K. Jantz, Stephen C. Krieger & Adam Gazzaley - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39:1-70.
    What is the primary function of consciousness in the nervous system? The answer to this question remains enigmatic, not so much because of a lack of relevant data, but because of the lack of a conceptual framework with which to interpret the data. To this end, we have developed Passive Frame Theory, an internally coherent framework that, from an action-based perspective, synthesizes empirically supported hypotheses from diverse fields of investigation. The theory proposes that the primary function of consciousness is well-circumscribed, (...)
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  • Meaning and Emotion.Constant Bonard - 2021 - Dissertation, Université de Genève
    This dissertation may be divided into two parts. The first part is about the Extended Gricean Model of information transmission. This model, introduced here, is meant to better explain how humans communicate and understand each other. It has been developed to apply to cases that were left unexplained by the two main models of communication found in contemporary philosophy and linguistics, i.e. the Gricean model and the code model. In particular, I show that these latter two models cannot apply to (...)
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  • Anxiety, Normative Uncertainty, and Social Regulation.Charlie Kurth - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (1):1-21.
    Emotion plays an important role in securing social stability. But while emotions like fear, anger, and guilt have received much attention in this context, little work has been done to understand the role that anxiety plays. That’s unfortunate. I argue that a particular form of anxiety—what I call ‘practical anxiety’—plays an important, but as of yet unrecognized, role in norm-based social regulation. More specifically, it provides a valuable form of metacognition, one that contributes to social stability by helping individuals negotiate (...)
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  • Emotions and the Problem of Variability.Juan R. Loaiza - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology (2):1-23.
    In the last decades there has been a great controversy about the scientific status of emotion categories. This controversy stems from the idea that emotions are heterogeneous phenomena, which precludes classifying them under a common kind. In this article, I analyze this claim—which I call the Variability Thesis—and argue that as it stands, it is problematically underdefined. To show this, I examine a recent formulation of the thesis as offered by Scarantino (2015). On one hand, I raise some issues regarding (...)
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  • Excavating “Excavating AI”: The Elephant in the Gallery.Michael J. Lyons - 2020 - arXiv 2009:1-15.
    Two art exhibitions, “Training Humans” and “Making Faces,” and the accompanying essay “Excavating AI: The politics of images in machine learning training sets” by Kate Crawford and Trevor Paglen, are making substantial impact on discourse taking place in the social and mass media networks, and some scholarly circles. Critical scrutiny reveals, however, a self-contradictory stance regarding informed consent for the use of facial images, as well as serious flaws in their critique of ML training sets. Our analysis underlines the non-negotiability (...)
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  • Toward an Emotional Individual Motor Signature.Juliette Lozano-Goupil, Benoît G. Bardy & Ludovic Marin - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Bodily expression of felt emotion has been documented in the literature. However, it is often associated with high motor variability between individuals. This study aimed to identify individual motor signature of emotions. IMS is a new method of motion analysis and visualization able to capture the subtle differences in the way each of us moves, seen as a kinematic fingerprint. We hypothesized that the individual motor signature would be different depending on the induced emotional state and that an emotional motor (...)
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  • Dimensions and Clusters of Aesthetic Emotions: A Semantic Profile Analysis.Ursula Beermann, Georg Hosoya, Ines Schindler, Klaus R. Scherer, Michael Eid, Valentin Wagner & Winfried Menninghaus - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Aesthetic emotions are elicited by different sensory impressions generated by music, visual arts, literature, theater, film, or nature scenes. Recently, the AESTHEMOS scale has been developed to facilitate the empirical assessment of such emotions. In this article we report a semantic profile analysis of aesthetic emotion terms that had been used for the development of this scale, using the GRID approach. This method consists of obtaining ratings of emotion terms on a set of meaning facets which represent five components of (...)
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  • How to Feel About Emotionalized Artificial Intelligence? When Robot Pets, Holograms, and Chatbots Become Affective Partners.Eva Weber-Guskar - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    Interactions between humans and machines that include artificial intelligence are increasingly common in nearly all areas of life. Meanwhile, AI-products are increasingly endowed with emotional characteristics. That is, they are designed and trained to elicit emotions in humans, to recognize human emotions and, sometimes, to simulate emotions. The introduction of such systems in our lives is met with some criticism. There is a rather strong intuition that there is something wrong about getting attached to a machine, about having certain emotions (...)
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  • No Need to Get Emotional? Emotions and Heuristics.Andras Szigeti - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (4):845-862.
    Many believe that values are crucially dependent on emotions. This paper focuses on epistemic aspects of the putative link between emotions and value by asking two related questions. First, how exactly are emotions supposed to latch onto or track values? And second, how well suited are emotions to detecting or learning about values? To answer the first question, the paper develops the heuristics-model of emotions. This approach models emotions as sui generis heuristics of value. The empirical plausibility of the heuristics-model (...)
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  • Biology and Culture in Musical Emotions.Kathleen M. Higgins - 2012 - Emotion Review 4 (3):273-282.
    In this article I show that although biological and neuropsychological factors enable and constrain the construction of music, culture is implicated on every level at which we can indicate an emotion-music connection. Nevertheless, music encourages an affective sense of human affiliation and security, facilitating feelings of transcultural solidarity.
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  • The Contribution of Empathy to Ethics.Sarah Songhorian - 2019 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 27 (2):244-264.
    ABSTRACTEmpathy has been taken to play a crucial role in ethics at least since the Scottish Enlightenment. More recently, a revival of moral sentimentalism and empirical research on moral behavior has prompted a renewed interest in empathy and related concepts and on their contribution to moral reasoning and to moral behavior. Furthermore, empathy has recently entered our public discourse as having the power to ameliorate our social and political interactions with others.The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent (...)
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  • What is the Point of Love?Carolyn Price - 2012 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 20 (2):217-237.
    Abstract Why should we love the people we do and why does love motivate us to act as it does? In this paper, I explore the idea that these questions can be answered by appealing to the idea that love has to do with close personal relationships (the relationship claim). Niko Kolodny (2003) has already developed a relationship theory of love: according to Kolodny, love centres on the belief that the subject shares a valuable personal relationship with the beloved. However, (...)
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  • The Autonomic Nervous System and Emotion.Robert W. Levenson - 2014 - Emotion Review 6 (2):100-112.
    In many evolutionary/functionalist theories, emotions organize the activity of the autonomic nervous system and other physiological systems. Two kinds of patterned activity are discussed: coherence, and specificity. For each kind of patterning, significant methodological obstacles are considered that need to be overcome before empirical studies can adequately test theories and resolve controversies. Finally, links that coherence and specificity have with health and well-being are considered.
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  • Advancing Emotion Theory with Multivariate Pattern Classification.Philip A. Kragel & Kevin S. LaBar - 2014 - Emotion Review 6 (2):160-174.
    Characterizing how activity in the central and autonomic nervous systems corresponds to distinct emotional states is one of the central goals of affective neuroscience. Despite the ease with which individuals label their own experiences, identifying specific autonomic and neural markers of emotions remains a challenge. Here we explore how multivariate pattern classification approaches offer an advantageous framework for identifying emotion-specific biomarkers and for testing predictions of theoretical models of emotion. Based on initial studies using multivariate pattern classification, we suggest that (...)
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  • More on James and the Physical Basis of Emotion.Rainer Reisenzein & Achim Stephan - 2014 - Emotion Review 6 (1):35-46.
    We first present a reconstruction of James’s theory of emotion and then argue for four theses: Despite constructivist elements, James’s views are overall in line with basic emotions theory. JATE does not exclude an influence of emotion on intentional action even in its original formulation; nevertheless, this influence is quite limited. It seems possible, however, to repair this problem of the theory. Cannon’s theory of emotion is a centralized version of JATE that inherits from the latter theory a potentially fatal (...)
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  • Comment: Evidence for Basicness From Noise-Like Interjections of Emotions.Disa A. Sauter - 2014 - Emotion Review 6 (1):65-66.
    Goddard proposes a three-partite division of emotive interjections, which is helpful in delineating this heterogeneous set of phenomena. The distinction also explains inconsistencies between Goddard’s and previous findings: While his study demonstrates variability across languages in word-like primary interjections, previous work investigating noise-like interjections has found evidence for universality. Such cross-culturally consistent, categorical perception of emotional signals can be explained as emerging from bottom–up information without the need for top–down learning via language or interjections.
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  • Interjections and Emotion (with Special Reference to "Surprise" and "Disgust").Cliff Goddard - 2014 - Emotion Review 6 (1):53-63.
    “All languages have ‘emotive interjections’ ” —and yet emotion researchers have invested only a tiny research effort into interjections, as compared with the huge body of research into facial expressions and words for emotion categories. This article provides an overview of the functions, meanings, and cross-linguistic variability of interjections, concentrating on non-word-based ones such as Wow!, Yuck!, and Ugh! The aims are to introduce an area that will be unfamiliar to most readers, to illustrate how one leading linguistic approach deals (...)
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  • Psychological Construction: The Darwinian Approach to the Science of Emotion.Lisa Feldman Barrett - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (4):379-389.
    Psychological construction constitutes a different paradigm for the scientific study of emotion when compared to the current paradigm that is inspired by faculty psychology. This new paradigm is more consistent with the post-Darwinian conceptual framework in biology that includes a focus on (a) population thinking (vs. typologies), (b) domain-general core systems (vs. physical essences), and (c) constructive analysis (vs. reductionism). Three psychological construction approaches (the OCC model, the iterative reprocessing model, and the conceptual act theory) are discussed with respect to (...)
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  • Comment: On the Role of Appraisal Processes in the Construction of Emotion.Tobias Brosch - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (4):369-373.
    Appraisal and constructivist theories of emotion both emphasize that emotions are not modular phenomena, but are constructed from more basic psychological parts. In the scientific debate, differences between the two approaches are sometimes overplayed, by classifying appraisal theories as “natural kinds” models, and sometimes underplayed, by basically merging them into constructivist accounts. The aim of this contribution is to illustrate some similarities and some differences between contemporary appraisal and constructivist approaches, and to highlight the fact that appraisal theory has indeed (...)
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  • Emotional States From Affective Dynamics.William A. Cunningham, Kristen A. Dunfield & Paul E. Stillman - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (4):344-355.
    Psychological constructivist models of emotion propose that emotions arise from the combinations of multiple processes, many of which are not emotion specific. These models attempt to describe both the homogeneity of instances of an emotional “kind” (why are fears similar?) and the heterogeneity of instances (why are different fears quite different?). In this article, we review the iterative reprocessing model of affect, and suggest that emotions, at least in part, arise from the processing of dynamical unfolding representations of valence across (...)
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  • Appraisal in the Emotion System: Coherence in Strategies for Coping.Ira J. Roseman - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (2):141-149.
    Emotions can be understood as a coherent, integrated system of general-purpose coping strategies, guided by appraisal, for responding to situations of crisis and opportunity (when specific-purpose motivational systems may be less effective). This perspective offers functional explanations for the presence of particular emotions in the emotion repertoire, and their elicitation by particular appraisal combinations. Implications of the Emotion System model for debated issues, such as the dimensional vs. discrete nature of appraisals and emotions, are also discussed.
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  • Contextualizing Facial Activity.Brian Parkinson - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (1):97-103.
    Drawing on research reviewed in this special section, the present article discusses how various contextual factors impact on production and decoding of emotion-related facial activity. Although emotion-related variables often contribute to activation of prototypical “emotion expressions” and perceivers can often infer emotional meanings from these facial configurations, neither process is invariant or direct. Many facial movements are directed towards or away from events in the shared environment, and their effects depend on these relational orientations. Facial activity is not only a (...)
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  • Toward a Working Definition of Emotion.Kevin Mulligan & Klaus R. Scherer - 2012 - Emotion Review 4 (4):345-357.
    A definition of emotion common to the affective sciences is an urgent desideratum. Lack of such a definition is a constant source of numerous misunderstandings and a series of mostly fruitless debates. There is little hope that there ever will be agreement on a common definition of emotion, given the sacred traditions of the disciplines involved and the egos of the scholars working in these disciplines. Our aim here is more modest. We propose a list of elements for a working (...)
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  • How to Define Emotions Scientifically.Andrea Scarantino - 2012 - Emotion Review 4 (4):358-368.
    The central contention of this article is that the classificatory scheme of contemporary affective science, with its traditional categories of emotion, anger, fear, and so on, is no longer suitable to the needs of affective science. Unlike psychological constructionists, who have urged the transition from a discrete to a dimensional approach in the study of affective phenomena, I argue that we can stick to a discrete approach as long as we accept that traditional emotion categories will have to be transformed (...)
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  • The Roles of Preceding Stimuli and Preceding Responses on Assimilative and Contrastive Sequential Effects During Facial Expression Perception.Shen-Mou Hsu & Zhao-Rong Wu - 2020 - Cognition and Emotion 34 (5):890-905.
    ABSTRACTIn contrast to the classic view that facial expressions convey specific emotional states, recent theories have postulated that perception is a highly contextualised phenomenon. The present...
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  • The Regulation of Recurrent Negative Emotion in the Aftermath of a Lost Election.Ashish Mehta, Magdalena Formanowicz, Andero Uusberg, Helen Uusberg, James J. Gross & Gaurav Suri - 2019 - Cognition and Emotion 34 (4):848-857.
    For some American voters, the news of Mr. Trump's victory in the 2016 presidential election caused recurrent emotions that were negative, persistent, and intense enough to elicit repeated attempts...
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  • Valence: A Reflection.Luca Barlassina - 2021 - Emotion Researcher: ISRE's Sourcebook for Research on Emotion and Affect (C. Todd and E. Wall Eds.).
    This article gives a short presentation of reflexive imperativism, the intentionalist theory of valence I developed with Max Khan Hayward. The theory says that mental states have valence in virtue of having reflexive imperative content. More precisely, mental states have positive valence (i.e., feel good) in virtue of issuing the command "More of me!", and they have negative valence (i.e., feel bad) in virtue of issuing the command "Less of me!" The article summarises the main arguments in favour of reflexive (...)
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  • The School Garden: A Social and Emotional Place.Susan Pollin & Carolin Retzlaff-Fürst - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    School gardens are part of many schools. Especially in primary schools, but also in secondary schools, they are used as a learning space and experience space for the pupils. Their importance for the development of cognitive and emotional-affective abilities of pupils is empirically well proven. It is also empirically well proven that exposure to nature has an influence on the prosocial behavior of children and adults. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the effect of the stay in the (...)
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  • Anger Makes You Feel Stronger: The Positive Influence of Trait Anger in a Real-Life Experiment.Sonja Rohrmann, Kerstin Schnell & Ana Nanette Tibubos - 2013 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 44 (2):147-156.
    Although anger as a negative emotion is associated with unpleasantness, recent research on anger highlights its motivational effect. The present study tested whether individuals experience both, an unpleasant and an activating affect, after real-life provocations. Results revealed that an anger situation evoked not only typical subjective and cardiovascular anger reactions but also a sense of strength, which is a positive affect. A comparison of participants with low versus high anger disposition according to the STAXI-2 at baseline, treatment, and recovery showed (...)
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  • Beyond Emotion: Love as an Encounter of Myth and Drive.Lubomir Lamy - 2016 - Emotion Review 8 (2):97-107.
    Starting with a review of research on love as an emotion, with an emphasis on romantic love, it is argued that despite strong emotional correlates evidence is lacking to conclude that love would meet the criteria of basic emotions. Theoretical developments are proposed where love is conceived of as a combination of an objectless drive, a desire for love, and a mythical and scripted representation that offers the possibility of labeling the current core affect. I argue that the basic motive (...)
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  • Approach and Avoidance as Organizing Structures for Motivated Distance Perception.Emily Balcetis - 2016 - Emotion Review 8 (2):115-128.
    Emerging demonstrations of the malleability of distance perception in affective situations require an organizing structure. These effects can be predicted by approach and avoidance orientation. Approach reduces perceptions of distance; avoidance exaggerates perceptions of distance. Moreover, hedonic valence, motivational intensity, and perceiver arousal cannot alone serve as organizing principles. Organizing the literature based on approach and avoidance can reconcile seeming inconsistent effects in the literature, and offers these motives as psychological mechanisms by which affective situations predict perceptions of distance. Moreover, (...)
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  • Human Emotions: An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective.Laith Al-Shawaf, Daniel Conroy-Beam, Kelly Asao & David M. Buss - 2016 - Emotion Review 8 (2):173-186.
    Evolutionary approaches to the emotions have traditionally focused on a subset of emotions that are shared with other species, characterized by distinct signals, and designed to solve a few key adaptive problems. By contrast, an evolutionary psychological approach broadens the range of adaptive problems emotions have evolved to solve, includes emotions that lack distinctive signals and are unique to humans, and synthesizes an evolutionary approach with an information-processing perspective. On this view, emotions are superordinate mechanisms that evolved to coordinate the (...)
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  • The Evolution of Human Vocal Emotion.Gregory A. Bryant - 2020 - Emotion Review 13 (1):25-33.
    Vocal affect is a subcomponent of emotion programs that coordinate a variety of physiological and psychological systems. Emotional vocalizations comprise a suite of vocal behaviors shaped by evolution to solve adaptive social communication problems. The acoustic forms of vocal emotions are often explicable with reference to the communicative functions they serve. An adaptationist approach to vocal emotions requires that we distinguish between evolved signals and byproduct cues, and understand vocal affect as a collection of multiple strategic communicative systems subject to (...)
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  • Eifersucht – aus verschiedenen Perspektiven betrachtet.Susanne Döll-Hentschker - 2020 - Psyche 74 (9-10):635-659.
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  • Psychopathy, Autism, and Basic Moral Emotions: Evidence for Sentimentalist Constructivism.Erick Ramirez - 2019 - In Serife Tekin & Robyn Bluhm (eds.), The Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophy of Psychiatry. Bloomsbury.
    Philosophers and psychologists often claim that moral agency is connected with the ability to feel, understand, and deploy moral emotions. In this chapter, I investigate the nature of these emotions and their connection with moral agency. First, I examine the degree to which these emotional capacities are innate and/or ‘basic’ in a philosophically important sense. I examine three senses in which an emotion might be basic: developmental, compositional, and phylogenetic. After considering the evidence for basic emotion, I conclude that emotions (...)
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  • Social Intelligence in a Human-Machine Collaboration System.Hiroshi Nakajima, Yasunori Morishima, Ryota Yamada, Scott Brave, Heidy Maldonado, Clifford Nass & Shigeyasu Kawaji - 2004 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 19:184-196.
  • Measuring Positive Emotion Outcomes in Positive Psychology Interventions: A Literature Review.Judith T. Moskowitz, Elaine O. Cheung, Melanie Freedman, Christa Fernando, Madelynn W. Zhang, Jeff C. Huffman & Elizabeth L. Addington - 2020 - Emotion Review 13 (1):60-73.
    Accumulating evidence for the unique social, behavioral, and physical health benefits of positive emotion and related well-being constructs has led to the development and testing of positive psychological interventions to increase emotional well-being and enhance health promotion and disease prevention. PPIs are specifically aimed at improving emotional well-being and consist of practices such as gratitude, savoring, and acts of kindness. The purpose of this narrative review was to examine the literature on PPIs with a particular focus on positive emotion outcomes. (...)
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  • Varieties of Moral Emotional Experience.Hanah A. Chapman & Adam K. Anderson - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):255-257.
    Although much research on emotion and morality has treated emotion as a relatively undifferentiated construct, recent work shows that moral transgressions can evoke a variety of distinct emotions. To accommodate these results, we propose a multiple-appraisal model in which distinct appraisals lead to different moral emotions. The implications of this model for our understanding of the relationship between appraisals, emotions and judgments are discussed. The complexity of moral emotional experience presents a methodological challenge to researchers, but we submit that a (...)
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  • Emotional Action and Communication in Early Moral Development.Audun Dahl, Joseph J. Campos & David C. Witherington - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (2):147-157.
    Emotional action and communication are integral to the development of morality, here conceptualized as our concerns for the well-being of other people and the ability to act on those concerns. Focusing on the second year of life, this article suggests a number of ways in which young children’s emotions and caregivers’ emotional communication contribute to early forms of helping, empathy, and learning about prohibitions. We argue for distinguishing between moral issues and other normative issues also in the study of early (...)
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  • Looking Across Domains to Understand Infant Representation of Emotion.Paul C. Quinn, Gizelle Anzures, Carroll E. Izard, Kang Lee, Olivier Pascalis, Alan M. Slater & James W. Tanaka - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (2):197-206.
    A comparison of the literatures on how infants represent generic object classes, gender and race information in faces, and emotional expressions reveals both common and distinctive developments in the three domains. In addition, the review indicates that some very basic questions remain to be answered regarding how infants represent facial displays of emotion, including (a) whether infants form category representations for discrete classes of emotion, (b) when and how such representations come to incorporate affective meaning, (c) the developmental trajectory for (...)
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  • Looking Across Domains to Understand Infant Representation of Emotion.Paul C. Quinn, Gizelle Anzures, Carroll E. Izard, Kang Lee, Alan M. Slater, Olivier Pascalis & James W. Tanaka - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (2).
    A comparison of the literatures on how infants represent generic object classes, gender and race information in faces, and emotional expressions reveals both common and distinctive developments in the three domains. In addition, the review indicates that some very basic questions remain to be answered regarding how infants represent facial displays of emotion, including whether infants form category representations for discrete classes of emotion, when and how such representations come to incorporate affective meaning, the developmental trajectory for representation of emotional (...)
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  • Emergent Ghosts of the Emotion Machine.James A. Coan - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (3):274-285.
    Competing perspectives on the nature of emotion are illustrated with latent and emergent variable models. Latent variable models draw from classical test theory, assuming that the measured indicators of emotion covary by virtue of some common executive, organizing neural circuit or network in the brain. By contrast, emergent variable models draw from a theory-driven, operational definition tradition, positing that emotions do not cause, but rather are caused by, the measured indicators of emotion, assuming no executive neural circuit or network, and (...)
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  • Show and Tell: The Role of Language in Categorizing Facial Expression of Emotion.Debi Roberson, Ljubica Damjanovic & Mariko Kikutani - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (3):255-260.
    We review evidence that language is involved in the establishment and maintenance of adult categories of facial expressions of emotion. We argue that individual and group differences in facial expression interpretation are too great for a fully specified system of categories to be universal and hardwired. Variations in expression categorization, across individuals and groups, favor a model in which an initial “core” system recognizes only the grouping of positive versus negative emotional expressions. The subsequent development of a rich representational structure (...)
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  • Surveying the Emotions.Ruth Leys - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (2):109-110.
    A commentary on Robert Kagan’s What is Emotion? (2007). The commentary praises the author for the range and breadth of his analysis and for his skepticism concerning the common tendency to equate emotions with brain states. At the same time, I raise questions about the terms in which Kagan attempts to separate out the distinct components of the emotional “cascade.” In particular, I suggest that by treating the appraisal or interpretation of the changes in bodily feelings as a distinct phase (...)
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  • A Naturalist’s View of Pride.Jessica L. Tracy, Azim F. Shariff & Joey T. Cheng - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (2):163-177.
    Although pride has been central to philosophical and religious discussions of emotion for thousands of years, it has largely been neglected by psychologists. However, in the past decade a growing body of psychological research on pride has emerged; new theory and findings suggest that pride is a psychologically important and evolutionarily adaptive emotion. In this article we review this accumulated body of research and argue for a naturalist account of pride, which presumes that pride emerged by way of natural selection. (...)
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  • Two Movements in Emotions: Communication and Reflection.Keith Oatley - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (1):29-35.
    In understanding the degree of choice we have in our emotions, we benefit from the Stoics’ analysis into first and second movements: appraisals and reappraisals. The Stoics were concerned to avoid the harm that emotions can cause, but their idea of working on goals, rather than on emotions as such, generalizes beyond their concerns. For modern people, the problem of taking responsibility for our emotional life becomes less paradoxical when we consider interpersonal issues.
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  • Ur-Emotions and Your Emotions: Reconceptualizing Basic Emotion.W. Gerrod Parrott - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (1):14-21.
    The term ur-emotion is proposed to replace basic emotion as a name for the aspects of emotion that underlie perceived similarities of emotion types across cultures and species. The ur- prefix is borrowed from the German on analogy to similar borrowings in textual criticism and musicology. The proposed term ur-emotion is less likely to be interpreted as referring to the entirety of an emotional state than is the term basic emotion. Ur-emotion avoids reductionism by indicating an abstract underlying structure that (...)
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  • Emotion Experience and its Varieties.Nico H. Frijda - 2009 - Emotion Review 1 (3):264-271.
    Emotion experience reflects some of the outcomes of the mostly nonconscious processes that compose emotions. In my view, the major processes are appraisal, affect, action readiness, and autonomic arousal. The phenomenology of emotion experience varies according to mode of consciousness (nonreflective or reflective consciousness), and to direction and mode of attention. As a result, emotion experience may be either ineffable or articulate with respect to any or all of the underlying processes. In addition, emotion experience reflects the degree to which (...)
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