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The Foundations of Bioethics

Hypatia 4 (2):179-185 (1986)

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  1. A Critique Of Traditional Relationship Models.Roberta Springer Loewy - 1994 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3 (1):27-37.
    Today's ever-widening expert/novice gap–in technology generally but in healthcare technology especially–has been implicated as both cause and consequence of a sharp rise in fundamental misunderstandings between medical professionals and lay populace. Recently created social roles and institutions have further prompted critics to suggest that a multiplication of “disinterested” experts not only fails to resolve such misunderstandings, it compounds them. As a result, it should come as no surprise that the problem of paternalistic expertise has emerged as an ethical issue of (...)
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  • When Religious Language Blocks Discussion About Health Care Decision Making.George Khushf - 2019 - HEC Forum 31 (2):151-166.
    There is a curious asymmetry in cases where the use of religious language involves a breakdown in communication and leads to a seemingly intractable dispute. Why does the use of religious language in such cases almost always arise on the side of patients and their families, rather than on the side of clinicians or others who work in healthcare settings? I suggest that the intractable disputes arise when patients and their families use religious language to frame their problem and the (...)
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  • The Independence of Medical Ethics.Johan Brännmark - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (1):5-15.
    This paper discusses the relation between medical ethics and general moral theory, the argument being that medical ethics is best seen as independent from general moral theory. According to this independence thesis, here explicated in terms of what is called a disunitarian stance, the very idea of applied ethics, which is often seen as underlying medical ethics, is misguided. We should instead think of medical ethics as a domain-specific ethical inquiry among other domain-specific ethical inquiries. On this alternative kind of (...)
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  • The History of Autonomy in Medicine From Antiquity to Principlism.Toni C. Saad - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (1):125-137.
    Respect for Autonomy has been a mainstay of medical ethics since its enshrinement as one of the four principles of biomedical ethics by Beauchamp and Childress’ in the late 1970s. This paper traces the development of this modern concept from Antiquity to the present day, paying attention to its Enlightenment origins in Kant and Rousseau. The rapid C20th developments of bioethics and RFA are then considered in the context of the post-war period and American socio-political thought. The validity and utility (...)
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  • Patient Education as Empowerment and Self-Rebiasing.Fabrice Jotterand, Antonio Amodio & Bernice S. Elger - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (4):553-561.
    The fiduciary nature of the patient-physician relationship requires clinicians to act in the best interest of their patients. Patients are vulnerable due to their health status and lack of medical knowledge, which makes them dependent on the clinicians’ expertise. Competent patients, however, may reject the recommendations of their physician, either refusing beneficial medical interventions or procedures based on their personal views that do not match the perceived medical indication. In some instances, the patients’ refusal may jeopardize their health or life (...)
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  • The Four-Principle Formulation of Common Morality is at the Core of Bioethics Mediation Method.Shahram Ahmadi Nasab Emran - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (3):371-377.
    Bioethics mediation is increasingly used as a method in clinical ethics cases. My goal in this paper is to examine the implicit theoretical assumptions of the bioethics mediation method developed by Dubler and Liebman. According to them, the distinguishing feature of bioethics mediation is that the method is useful in most cases of clinical ethics in which conflict is the main issue, which implies that there is either no real ethical issue or if there were, they are not the key (...)
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  • Balancing the Principles: Why the Universality of Human Rights is Not the Trojan Horse of Moral Imperialism. [REVIEW]Stefano Semplici - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (4):653-661.
    The new dilemmas and responsibilities which arise in bioethics both because of the unprecedented pace of scientific development and of growing moral pluralism are more and more difficult to grapple with. At the ‘global’ level, the call for the universal nature at least of some fundamental moral values and principles is often being contended as a testament of arrogance, if not directly as a new kind of subtler imperialism. The human rights framework itself, which provided the basis for the most (...)
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  • Conscientious Objection in Medicine: Making it Public.Nir Ben-Moshe - forthcoming - HEC Forum:1-21.
    The literature on conscientious objection in medicine presents two key problems that remain unresolved: Which conscientious objections in medicine are justified, if it is not feasible for individual medical practitioners to conclusively demonstrate the genuineness or reasonableness of their objections? How does one respect both medical practitioners’ claims of conscience and patients’ interests, without leaving practitioners complicit in perceived or actual wrongdoing? My aim in this paper is to offer a new framework for conscientious objections in medicine, which, by bringing (...)
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  • Taxonomizing Views of Clinical Ethics Expertise.Erica K. Salter & Abram Brummett - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (11):50-61.
    Our aim in this article is to bring some clarity to the clinical ethics expertise debate by critiquing and replacing the taxonomy offered by the Core Competencies report. The orienting question for our taxonomy is: Can clinical ethicists offer justified, normative recommendations for active patient cases? Views that answer “no” are characterized as a “negative” view of clinical ethics expertise and are further differentiated based on why they think ethicists cannot give justified normative recommendations and what they think ethicists can (...)
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  • Some Ethical Implications of Neursciences.Charles Susanne & M. Szente - 1997 - Global Bioethics 10 (1-4):111-121.
    The new methods of modern sciences can contribute to understand the genesis of mental illness, the disturbances in brain chemistry, physiology, anatomy or genetical information underlying different diseases of the nervous system. Understanding mental illness is not only challenging to science, but is also of great social importance. Moreover, the new developments of neurosciences put new lights on discussions such as brain-mind concepts, unity of mind, definition of consciousness and even definition of the person.For the majority of the scientists, it (...)
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  • Human Experimentation.C. Susanne - 1997 - Global Bioethics 10 (1-4):123-128.
    Human experimentation can have different meanings: indeed, with the development of medical research, therapeutic acts have to be distinguished from acts of cognitive values. For each kind of acts, specific conditions of acceptability and specific protections of human beings have to be defined.Human experimentation must be envisaged at different levels to evaluate ethical aspects: its scientific value, the risks, benefits envisaged, the populations implicated, etc…The individual consent must be present too in the relationship between the subject and the doctors. In (...)
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  • Bioethics: History, Scope, Object.A. F. Cascais - 1997 - Global Bioethics 10 (1-4):9-24.
    A comprehensive analysis of the evolving conditions that provided for the emergence and autonomization of the field of bioethical inquiry, as well as the social, cultural and political background against which its birth can be set, should enlighten us about the problematic nature that characterises it from its very onset. Those conditions are: abuses in experimentation on human subjects, availability of new biomedical technologies, the challenging of prevalent medical paradigms and the ultimate meaning and purpose of medical care, new scientific (...)
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  • Whose Dignity, Which Capacity?Rachelle Barina - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (8):18 - 20.
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  • Professional Responsibility to and for Patients and the Ethics of Health Policy.Laurence B. McCullough - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (8):16-18.
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  • Deception, Catholicism, and Hope: Understanding Problems in the Communication of Unfavorable Prognoses in Traditionally-Catholic Countries.Franco Toscani & Calliope Farsides - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (1):W6-W18.
    The doctor's use of deception in appropriate circumstances has commonly been considered a necessity of the medical art. Resistance to full and frank communication is typical of many traditionally Catholic countries, and particularly of Italy, a western country where Catholicism remains particularly influential. The Catholic teaching on truth and lies, and the problem of telling the truth to a severely ill patient is discussed. It is suggested that the contemporary Catholic model of gradually telling a terminal patient the truth, which (...)
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  • Personhood and Neuroscience: Naturalizing or Nihilating?Martha J. Farah & Andrea S. Heberlein - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (1):37-48.
    Personhood is a foundational concept in ethics, yet defining criteria have been elusive. In this article we summarize attempts to define personhood in psychological and neurological terms and conclude that none manage to be both specific and non-arbitrary. We propose that this is because the concept does not correspond to any real category of objects in the world. Rather, it is the product of an evolved brain system that develops innately and projects itself automatically and irrepressibly onto the world whenever (...)
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  • The Place for Religious Content in Clinical Ethics Consultations: A Reply to Janet Malek.Nicholas Colgrove & Kelly Kate Evans - 2019 - HEC Forum 31 (4):305-323.
    Janet Malek (91–102, 2019) argues that a “clinical ethics consultant’s religious worldview has no place in developing ethical recommendations or communicating about them with patients, surrogates, and clinicians.” She offers five types of arguments in support of this thesis: arguments from consensus, clarity, availability, consistency, and autonomy. This essay shows that there are serious problems for each of Malek’s arguments. None of them is sufficient to motivate her thesis. Thus, if it is true that the religious worldview of clinical ethics (...)
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  • The Politics of Communities A Review of H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr.'S The Foundations of Bioethics.Christine Overall - 1989 - Hypatia 4 (2):179-185.
    This review essay examines H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.'s The Foundations of Bioethics, a contemporary nonfeminist text in mainstream biomedical ethics. it fo-cuses upon a central concept, Engelhardt's idea of the moral community and argues that the most serious problem in the book is its failure to take account of the political and social structures of moral communities, structures which deeply affect issues in biomedical ethics.
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  • The Role of Caring in a Theory of Nursing Ethics.Sara T. Fry - 1989 - Hypatia 4 (2):88 - 103.
    The development of nursing ethics as a field of inquiry has largely relied on theories of medical ethics that use autonomy, beneficence, and/or justice as foundational ethical principles. Such theories espouse a masculine approach to moral decision-making and ethical analysis. This paper challenges the presumption of medical ethics and its associated system of moral justification as an appropriate model for nursing ethics. It argues that the value foundations of nursing ethics are located within the existential phenomenon of human caring within (...)
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  • A Call to Heal Medicine.Helen Bequaert Holmes - 1989 - Hypatia 4 (2):1 - 8.
    Authors in this special Hypatia issue seem called to heal ethics, medicine, and the new field - medical ethics. After explaining why feminists should feel this calling, I group authors' contributions as responses to questions: 1. Why hasn't medical ethics already healed medicine? 2. What role should 'caring' play? 3. Must we first heal science? 4. Are we calling health a virtue? 5. Why haven't the many medical ethics books helped? 6. How do our sisters in sociology support us?
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  • Feminist and Medical Ethics: Two Different Approaches to Contextual Ethics.Susan Sherwin - 1989 - Hypatia 4 (2):57-72.
    Feminist ethics and medical ethics are critical of contemporary moral theory in several similar respects. There is a shared sense of frustration with the level of abstraction and generality that characterizes traditional philosophic work in ethics and a common commitment to including contextual details and allowing room for the personal aspects of relationships in ethical analysis. This paper explores the ways in which context is appealed to in feminist and medical ethics, the sort of details that should be included in (...)
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  • The Principle of Equivalence Reconsidered: Assessing the Relevance of the Principle of Equivalence in Prison Medicine.Fabrice Jotterand & Tenzin Wangmo - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (7):4-12.
    In this article we critically examine the principle of equivalence of care in prison medicine. First, we provide an overview of how the principle of equivalence is utilized in various national and international guidelines on health care provision to prisoners. Second, we outline some of the problems associated with its applications, and argue that the principle of equivalence should go beyond equivalence to access and include equivalence of outcomes. However, because of the particular context of the prison environment, third, we (...)
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  • Animal Ethical Evaluation: An Observational Study of Canadian IACUCs.Thérèse Leroux, Claude Dumas & Lise Houde - 2003 - Ethics and Behavior 13 (4):333-350.
    Three Canadian institutional animal care and use committees were observed over a 1-year period to investigate animal ethical evaluation. While each protocol was evaluated, the observer collected information about the final decision, the type of protocol, and the category of invasiveness. The observer also wrote down verbatim all verbal interventions, which were coded according to the following categories: scientific, technical, politics, human analog, reduction, refinement, and replacement. The data revealed that only 16% of the comments were devoted to the 3 (...)
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  • Human Dignity and Transhumanism: Do Anthro-Technological Devices Have Moral Status?Fabrice Jotterand - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):45-52.
    In this paper, I focus on the concept of human dignity and critically assess whether such a concept, as used in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, is indeed a useful tool for bioethical debates. However, I consider this concept within the context of the development of emerging technologies, that is, with a particular focus on transhumanism. The question I address is not whether attaching artificial limbs or enhancing particular traits or capacities would dehumanize or undignify persons but (...)
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  • More Than “Spending Time with the Body”: The Role of a Family’s Grief in Determinations of Brain Death.Annie B. Friedrich - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (4):489-499.
    In many ways, grief is thought to be outside the realm of bioethics and clinical ethics, and grieving patients or family members may be passed off to grief counselors or therapists. Yet grief can play a particularly poignant role in the ethical encounter, especially in cases of brain death, where the line between life and death has been blurred. Although brain death is legally and medically recognized as death in the United States and elsewhere, the concept has been contentious since (...)
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  • The Scandal of Secular Bioethics: What Happens When the Culture Acts as If There is No God?Mark J. Cherry - 2017 - Christian Bioethics 23 (2):85-99.
    This article explores the limits of secular philosophy and philosophical reason. It argues that once one abandons God, philosophical reason is unable to establish any particular bioethics or understanding of morality as canonical; that is, as definitively true and binding. Philosophy simply cannot secure the truth of any particular account of the right, the good, the just, or the virtuous. Once one abandons God, all is approached as if it were without ultimate meaning. Throughout, the article explores H. Tristram Engelhardt (...)
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  • Rūpesčio Habitus Medicinoje: Reliacinė Bioetikos Prielaidų Interpretacija.Aistė Bartkienė, Diana Mincytė & Leonardas Rinkevičius - 2014 - Problemos 86:54-67.
    Straipsnyje analizuojamos bioetikoje vyraujančio pagarbos asmens autonomijai principo prielaidos. Remiantis antropologų L. Dumont’o ir C. Geertzo darbais parodoma, kaip pagarbos asmens autonomijai principas yra susijęs su vakarietiška, krikščioniška, individualistine asmens samprata bei iš to plaukiančiu racionalumo reikšmės įtvirtinimu informuoto sutikimo koncepte. Taip pat ginama idėja, kad būtina atsižvelgti į rūpesčio etikos, pabrėžiančios emocijų svarbą moralėje ir paremtos reliacinio asmens prielaida, pasiūlytas įžvalgas. Straipsnyje parodoma, kaip rūpesčio etikoje pasiūlyti normatyviniai rūpesčio idealai gali būti pritaikomi bioetiniame kontekste – konceptualizuojant rūpestį medicinos sferoje (...)
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  • Medicine, Morality, and Mortality: The Challenges of Moral Diversity.Mark J. Cherry - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (5):473-483.
    This issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy assesses the deep and abiding tensions that exist among the competing epistemic perspectives that bear on medicine and morality. Concepts of health and disease, as well as the theoretical framing of medical ethics and health care policy, intersect with an overlapping set of culturally situated communities, striving to understand and manipulate the world in ways that each finds explanatory, appropriate, or otherwise befitting. The articles explore the complexities of framing public health (...)
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  • Israeli Nurses and Genetic Information Disclosure.Sivia Barnoy & Nili Tabak - 2007 - Nursing Ethics 14 (3):280-294.
    The debate continues about whether people have a duty to pass on the positive results of their genetic tests to relatives who are at risk from the same disease, and, should they refuse, whether physicians and genetic counselors then have the duty to do so. To date, the role and views of nurses in this debate have not been investigated. In our study, a sample of Israeli nurses, untrained in genetics, were asked for their theoretical opinions and what practical steps (...)
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  • Human Dignity as a Component of a Long-Lasting and Widespread Conceptual Construct.Bernard Baertschi - 2014 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (2):201-211.
    For some decades, the concept of human dignity has been widely discussed in bioethical literature. Some authors think that this concept is central to questions of respect for human beings, whereas others are very critical of it. It should be noted that, in these debates, dignity is one component of a long-lasting and widespread conceptual construct used to support a stance on the ethical question of the moral status of an action or being. This construct has been used from Modernity (...)
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  • On the Anthropological Foundation of Bioethics: A Critique of the Work of J.-F. Malherbe.Henri Mbulu - 2013 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (5):409-431.
    In this article, I critically analyze the anthropological foundation of the bioethics of philosopher Jean-François Malherbe, particularly as presented in his book, Pour une Éthique de la Médecine. Malherbe argues that such practices as organ donation and transplants, assisted reproduction, resuscitation, and other uses of biotechnologies in contemporary medicine are unethical because they go against essential human nature. Furthermore, he uses this position as a basis to prescribe public policy and institutional practice. In contrast, I argue not only that ‘human (...)
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  • Against Inflationary Views of Ethics Expertise.Lisa M. Rasmussen - 2018 - HEC Forum 30 (2):171-185.
    Abram Brummett and Christopher Ostertag offer critiques of my argument that clinical ethics consultants have expertise but are not “ethics experts”. My argument begins within our less-than-ideal world and asks what a justification of a clinical ethics consultation recommendation might look like under those conditions. It is a challenge to what could be called an “inflationary” position on ethics expertise that requires agreement on or rational proof of metaethical facts about the values at stake in clinical ethics consultation. Brummett and (...)
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  • Ethische Aspekte der Frühintervention Und Akutbehandlung Schizophrener StörungenEthics of Early Intervention and Acute Treatment of Schizophrenic Disorders.B. R. Brüggemann - 2007 - Ethik in der Medizin 19 (2):91-102.
    ZusammenfassungIn der Medizinethik sind der Respekt vor der Patientenselbstbestimmung, das Nichtschadensgebot, das Handeln zum Wohl des Kranken und das Gerechtigkeitsgebot praxisrelevante Prinzipien. Anhand des Beispiels der Frühintervention und Akutbehandlung schizophrener Störungen wird aufgezeigt, dass es in der psychiatrischen Praxis zu einer Kollision dieser Prinzipien kommen kann. Der frühe Krankheitsbeginn und der häufig chronische Verlauf schizophrener Störungen führen zu großem Leid der Betroffenen und ihrer Angehörigen sowie zur ökonomischen Belastung der Solidargemeinschaft. Die negativen Folgen einer verzögerten Intervention stehen den Risiken der (...)
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  • Helfen um jeden Preis? – Historisch fundierte Gründe für das Konzept des „kontrollierten individuellen Heilversuchs“ für risikoreiche „individuelle Heilversuche“ zur Behandlung einwilligungsunfähiger psychisch kranker MenschenHelping at any cost?—Historically based arguments for the concept of “controlled individual treatment attempts”.Annemarie Heberlein - 2013 - Ethik in der Medizin 25 (1):19-31.
    ZusammenfassungDie Behandlung von einwilligungsunfähigen psychisch kranken Menschen mit neuen Therapiemethoden ist insbesondere im Kontext des „individuellen Heilversuchs“, der als Anwendung wenig erprobter Therapieansätze im Rahmen von „ultima ratio“-Entscheidungen charakterisiert ist, mit ethischen Abwägungsproblemen verbunden. Diese bestehen aufgrund von Einschränkungen in der Handlungs- und Entscheidungsautonomie der betroffenen Patienten und, aufgrund eigen- oder fremdgefährdender Symptome der psychischen Krankheit selbst, insbesondere in der praktischen Umsetzung ethisch akzeptierter Modelle stellvertretender Entscheidung sowie in der Wahl des Bezugspunkts der Nutzen-Risiko-Analyse des intendierten Therapieverfahrens. Der Artikel untersucht (...)
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  • Beyond the Principles of Bioethics: Facing the Consequences of Fundamental Moral Disagreement.H. Tristram Engelhardt - 2012 - Ethic@ - An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 11 (1):13-31.
    Given intractable secular moral pluralism, the force and significance of the four principles of Tom Beauchamp and James Childress must be critically re-considered. This essay examines the history of the articulation of these four principles of bioethics, showing why initially there was an illusion of a common morality that led many to hold that the principles could give guidance across cultures. But there is no one sense of the content or the theoretical justification of these principles. In addition, a wide (...)
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  • Can Enhancement Be Distinguished From Prevention in Genetic Medicine?Eric T. Juengst - 1997 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 22 (2):125-142.
    In discussions of the ethics of human gene therapy, it has become standard to draw a distinction between the use of human gene transfer techniques to treat health problems and their use to enhance or improve normal human traits. Some dispute the normative force of this distinction by arguing that it is undercut by the legitimate medical use of human gene transfer techniques to prevent disease - such as genetic engineering to bolster immune function, improve the efficiency of DNA repair, (...)
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  • Are Gay and Lesbian People Fading Into the History of Bioethics?Timothy F. Murphy - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (5):s6-s11.
  • Paracetamol, Poison, and Polio: Why Boorse's Account of Function Fails to Distinguish Health and Disease.Elselijn Kingma - 2010 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (2):241-264.
    Christopher Boorse's Bio Statistical Theory (BST) defines health as the absence of disease, and disease as the adverse departure from normal species functioning. This paper presents a two-pronged problem for this account. First I demonstrate that, in order to accurately account for dynamic physiological functions, Boorse's account of normal function needs to be modified to index functions against situations. I then demonstrate that if functions are indexed against situations, the BST can no longer account for diseases that result from specific (...)
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  • Responding (Appropriately) to Religious Patients: A Response to Greenblum and Hubbard’s ‘Public Reason’ Argument.Nicholas Colgrove - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (11):716-717.
    Jake Greenblum and Ryan K Hubbard argue that physicians, nurses, clinical ethicists and ethics committee members should not cite religious considerations when helping patients (or their proxies) make medical decisions. They provide two arguments for this position: The Public Reason Argument and the Fiduciary Argument. In this essay, I show that the Public Reason Argument fails. Greenblum and Hubbard may provide good reason to think that physicians should not invoke their own religious commitments as reasons for a particular medical decision. (...)
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  • Towards an Ethics of Immediacy A Defense of a Noncontractual Foundation of the Care Giver—Patient Relationship.Jos V. M. Welie - 1999 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 2 (1):11-19.
    In this article, I argue that the relationship between patients and their health care providers need not be construed as a contract between moral strangers. Contrary to the (American) legal presumption that health care providers are not obligated to assist others in need unless the latter are already contracted patients of record, I submit that the presence of a suffering human being constitutes an immediate moral commandment to try to relieve such suffering. This thesis is developed in reference to the (...)
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  • Bioethics and Transhumanism.Porter Allen - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (3):237-260.
    Transhumanism is a “technoprogressive” socio-political and intellectual movement that advocates for the use of technology in order to transform the human organism radically, with the ultimate goal of becoming “posthuman.” To this end, transhumanists focus on and encourage the use of new and emerging technologies, such as genetic engineering and brain-machine interfaces. In support of their vision for humanity, and as a way of reassuring those “bioconservatives” who may balk at the radical nature of that vision, transhumanists claim common ground (...)
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  • Family-Based Consent and Motivation for Cadaveric Organ Donation in China: An Ethical Exploration.Ruiping Fan & Mingxu Wang - 2019 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 44 (5):534-553.
    This essay indicates that Confucian family-based ethics is by no means a stumbling block to organ donation in China. We contend that China should not change to an opt-out consent system in order to enhance donation because a “hard” opt-out system is unethical, and a “soft” opt-out system is unhelpful. We argue that the recently-introduced familist model of motivation for organ donation in mainland China can provide a proper incentive for donation. This model, and the family priority right that this (...)
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  • Moral Strangers and the Health Care Market.Friedrich Heubel - 1996 - Health Care Analysis 4 (3):197-205.
    In order to reflect on the morality of the health care market this paper critiques some of H. T. Engelhardt's presuppositions. Engelhardt has created the vivid term ‘moral stranger’ and suggested that there can be a ‘morality of moral strangers’. However his position relies either on certain necessary presuppositions which he leaves unmentioned or on presuppositions that are—in a strict sense—not moral ones. Engelhardt advocates the market economy as the guiding principle of health care, and claims that the market needs (...)
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  • A Framework for Understanding Medical Epistemologies.George Khushf - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (5):461-486.
    What clinicians, biomedical scientists, and other health care professionals know as individuals or as groups and how they come to know and use knowledge are central concerns of medical epistemology. Activities associated with knowledge production and use are called epistemic practices. Such practices are considered in biomedical and clinical literatures, social sciences of medicine, philosophy of science and philosophy of medicine, and also in other nonmedical literatures. A host of different kinds of knowledge claims have been identified, each with different (...)
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  • The Limits of Social Justice as an Aspect of Medical Professionalism.Thomas S. Huddle - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (4):369-387.
    Contemporary accounts of medical ethics and professionalism emphasize the importance of social justice as an ideal for physicians. This ideal is often specified as a commitment to attaining the universal availability of some level of health care, if not of other elements of a “decent minimum” standard of living. I observe that physicians, in general, have not accepted the importance of social justice for professional ethics, and I further argue that social justice does not belong among professional norms. Social justice (...)
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  • Health Care Decision Making.S. Joseph Tham & Marie Catherine Letendre - 2014 - The New Bioethics 20 (2):174-185.
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  • Neuroethics and the Naturalistic Fallacy.Abram L. Brummett - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (3):124-126.
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  • Bioethics and the Literature of Pluralism.D. Denz - 2001 - Christian Bioethics 7 (3):403-423.
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  • Public Health Care in Europe: Moral Aspirations, Ideological Obsessions, and Structural Pitfalls in a Post-Enlightenment Culture.Guoda Azguridienė & Corinna Delkeskamp-Hayes - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (2):221-262.
    This essay focuses on the challenge European states have imposed on themselves, namely, to provide state-of-the-art health care equally to all and for less than market price. Continued endorsement of that challenge in these states hinges on their character as media democracies: the public is moved by a supposed morally warranted expectation that all should receive adequate health care at no significant personal cost. The structural and economic constraints that hamper such forms of healthcare delivery result in systems that are (...)
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  • Just Healthcare? The Moral Failure of Single-Tier Basic Healthcare.John Meadowcroft - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (2):152-168.
    This article sets out the moral failure of single-tier basic healthcare. Single-tier basic healthcare has been advocated on the grounds that the provision of healthcare should be divorced from ability to pay and unequal access to basic healthcare is morally intolerable. However, single-tier basic healthcare encounters a host of catastrophic moral failings. Given the fact of human pluralism it is impossible to objectively define “basic” healthcare. Attempts to provide single-tier healthcare therefore become political processes in which interest groups compete for (...)
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