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The Foundations of Bioethics

Oxford University Press (1986)

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  1. A Catholic Reflects on Dialogue in the Abortion Debate.Joseph Tham - 2014 - Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics 5 (1):168.
    The recent comments by Pope Francis on abortion have caused a bit of a stir in the media. His nuanced responses are often lost in the media, and also by advocates on both sides of the abortion debate. While the Catholic position against abortion is common knowledge, this does not preclude an openness to dialogue. This article looks at some recent attempts at dialogue on the controversial topic of abortion. The first example comes from a book that surveys the public (...)
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  • Bioethics and Deliberative Democracy: Five Warnings From Hobbes.Griffin Trotter - 2006 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 31 (3):235 – 250.
    Thomas Hobbes is one of the most ardent and thoroughgoing opponents of participatory democracy among Western political philosophers. Though Hobbes 's alternative to participatory democracy - assent by subjects to rule by an absolute sovereign - no longer constitutes a viable political alternative for Westerners, his critique of participatory democracy is a potentially valuable source of insight about its liabilities. This essay elaborates five theses from Hobbes that stand as cogent warnings to those who embrace participatory democracy, especially those advocating (...)
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  • Human Dignity as a Component of a Long-Lasting and Widespread Conceptual Construct.Bernard Baertschi - 2014 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (2):201-211.
    For some decades, the concept of human dignity has been widely discussed in bioethical literature. Some authors think that this concept is central to questions of respect for human beings, whereas others are very critical of it. It should be noted that, in these debates, dignity is one component of a long-lasting and widespread conceptual construct used to support a stance on the ethical question of the moral status of an action or being. This construct has been used from Modernity (...)
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  • Bioethics as a Governance Practice.Jonathan Montgomery - 2016 - Health Care Analysis 24 (1):3-23.
    Bioethics can be considered as a topic, an academic discipline, a field of study, an enterprise in persuasion. The historical specificity of the forms bioethics takes is significant, and raises questions about some of these approaches. Bioethics can also be considered as a governance practice, with distinctive institutions and structures. The forms this practice takes are also to a degree country specific, as the paper illustrates by drawing on the author’s UK experience. However, the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics can (...)
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  • Catholic Healthcare Organizations and the Articulation of Their Identity.Martien A. M. Pijnenburg, Bert Gordijn, Frans J. H. Vosman & Henk A. M. J. ten Have - 2008 - HEC Forum 20 (1):75-97.
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  • Between Morality and Repentance: Recapturing “Sin” for Bioethics.C. Delkeskamp-Hayes - 2005 - Christian Bioethics 11 (2):93-132.
    (2005). Between Morality and Repentance: Recapturing “Sin” for Bioethics. Christian Bioethics: Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 93-132.
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  • Preembryo Personhood: An Assessment of the President’s Council Arguments. [REVIEW]Carson Strong - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (5):433-453.
    The President’s Council on Bioethics has addressed the moral status of human preembryos in its reports on stem cell research and human therapeutic cloning. Although the Council has been criticized for being hand-picked to favor the right-to-life viewpoint concerning human preembryos, it has embraced the idea that the right-to-life position should be defended in secular terms. This is an important feature of the Council’s work, and it demonstrates a recognition of the need for genuine engagement between opposing sides in the (...)
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  • The Case for Reasonable Accommodation of Conscientious Objections to Declarations of Brain Death.L. Syd M. Johnson - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (1):105-115.
    Since its inception in 1968, the concept of whole-brain death has been contentious, and four decades on, controversy concerning the validity and coherence of whole-brain death continues unabated. Although whole-brain death is legally recognized and medically entrenched in the United States and elsewhere, there is reasonable disagreement among physicians, philosophers, and the public concerning whether brain death is really equivalent to death as it has been traditionally understood. A handful of states have acknowledged this plurality of viewpoints and enacted “conscience (...)
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  • Porous or Contextualized Autonomy? Knowledge Can Empower Autonomous Moral Agents.Eric Racine & Veljko Dubljević - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (2):48-50.
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  • The Principle of Equivalence Reconsidered: Assessing the Relevance of the Principle of Equivalence in Prison Medicine.Fabrice Jotterand & Tenzin Wangmo - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (7):4-12.
    In this article we critically examine the principle of equivalence of care in prison medicine. First, we provide an overview of how the principle of equivalence is utilized in various national and international guidelines on health care provision to prisoners. Second, we outline some of the problems associated with its applications, and argue that the principle of equivalence should go beyond equivalence to access and include equivalence of outcomes. However, because of the particular context of the prison environment, third, we (...)
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  • Professional Responsibility to and for Patients and the Ethics of Health Policy.Laurence B. McCullough - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (8):16-18.
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  • Irreligious Bioethics, Nonsense on Stilts?Jennifer E. Miller - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (12):15-17.
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  • Deception, Catholicism, and Hope: Understanding Problems in the Communication of Unfavorable Prognoses in Traditionally-Catholic Countries.Franco Toscani & Calliope Farsides - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (1):W6-W18.
    The doctor's use of deception in appropriate circumstances has commonly been considered a necessity of the medical art. Resistance to full and frank communication is typical of many traditionally Catholic countries, and particularly of Italy, a western country where Catholicism remains particularly influential. The Catholic teaching on truth and lies, and the problem of telling the truth to a severely ill patient is discussed. It is suggested that the contemporary Catholic model of gradually telling a terminal patient the truth, which (...)
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  • Personhood and Neuroscience: Naturalizing or Nihilating?Martha J. Farah & Andrea S. Heberlein - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (1):37-48.
    Personhood is a foundational concept in ethics, yet defining criteria have been elusive. In this article we summarize attempts to define personhood in psychological and neurological terms and conclude that none manage to be both specific and non-arbitrary. We propose that this is because the concept does not correspond to any real category of objects in the world. Rather, it is the product of an evolved brain system that develops innately and projects itself automatically and irrepressibly onto the world whenever (...)
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  • Foreword.H. David Banta - 2004 - Poiesis and Praxis 2 (s 2-3):93-95.
  • Colloquy.Gerald P. Koocher, Thomas G. Plante, James M. DuBois, Simon Shimshon Rubin, Armin Paul Thies & Mary Marple Thies - 2004 - Ethics and Behavior 14 (1):65-87.
    This article examines the clergy sexual abuse crisis in the Roman Catholic Church from an ethical point of view. The article uses the RRICC values model of ethical decision making to review the behavior of Catholic bishops and other religious superiors as they have tried to manage clergy sex offenders and their victims. Hopefully, the recent press attention and resulting policy changes on these matters from the U.S. Council of Catholic Bishops will increase the chances that future decisions will be (...)
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  • Human Dignity and Transhumanism: Do Anthro-Technological Devices Have Moral Status?Fabrice Jotterand - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):45-52.
    In this paper, I focus on the concept of human dignity and critically assess whether such a concept, as used in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, is indeed a useful tool for bioethical debates. However, I consider this concept within the context of the development of emerging technologies, that is, with a particular focus on transhumanism. The question I address is not whether attaching artificial limbs or enhancing particular traits or capacities would dehumanize or undignify persons but (...)
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  • But Who Will Take Care of the Janitors?John Banja - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (10):20 – 21.
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  • Naturalism and the Social Model of Disability: Allied or Antithetical?Dominic A. Sisti - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (7):553-556.
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  • Can Infants Have Interests in Continued Life?Chris Kaposy - 2007 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (4):301-330.
    The philosophers Peter Singer and Jeff McMahan hold variations of the view that infant interests in continued life are suspect because infants lack the cognitive complexity to anticipate the future. Since infants cannot see themselves as having a future, Singer argues that the future cannot have value for them, and McMahan argues that the future can only have minimal value for an infant. This paper critically analyzes these arguments and defends the view that infants can have interests in continuing to (...)
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  • Between Technocracy and Democratic Legitimation: A Proposed Compromise Position for Common Morality Public Bioethics.John Evans - 2006 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 31 (3):213 – 234.
    In this article I explore the underlying political philosophy of public bioethics by comparing it to technocratic authority, particularly the technocratic authority claimed by economists in Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s. I find that public bioethics - at least in the dominant forms - is implicitly designed for and tries to use technocratic authority. I examine how this type of bioethics emerged and has continued. I finish by arguing that, as claims to technocratic authority go, bioethics is in an (...)
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  • Which Newborn Infants Are Too Expensive to Treat? Camosy and Rationing in Intensive Care.D. Wilkinson - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (8):502-506.
    Are there some newborn infants whose short- and long-term care costs are so great that treatment should not be provided and they should be allowed to die? Public discourse and academic debate about the ethics of newborn intensive care has often shied away from this question. There has been enough ink spilt over whether or when for the infant's sake it might be better not to provide life-saving treatment. The further question of not saving infants because of inadequate resources has (...)
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  • Islam and the Four Principles of Medical Ethics.Yassar Mustafa - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (7):479-483.
    The principles underpinning Islam's ethical framework applied to routine clinical scenarios remain insufficiently understood by many clinicians, thereby unfortunately permitting the delivery of culturally insensitive healthcare. This paper summarises the foundations of the Islamic ethical theory, elucidating the principles and methodology employed by the Muslim jurist in deriving rulings in the field of medical ethics. The four-principles approach, as espoused by Beauchamp and Childress, is also interpreted through the prism of Islamic ethical theory. Each of the four principles is investigated (...)
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  • The Concept of Health: Beyond Normativism and Naturalism.Richard P. Hamilton - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):323-329.
    Philosophical discussions of health and disease have traditionally been dominated by a debate between normativists, who hold that health is an inescapably value-laded concept and naturalists, such as Christopher Boorse, who believe that it is possible to derive a purely descriptive or theoretical definition of health based upon biological function. In this paper I defend a distinctive view which traces its origins in Aristotle's naturalistic ethics. An Arisotelian would agree with Boorse that health and disease are ubiquitous features of the (...)
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  • The Necessity for a Theology of Disease: Reflections on Totalities and Fragments.Philip Hefner - 2004 - Zygon 39 (2):487-496.
    . Our ideas of disease try to explain it, and they aim at facilitating cures. In the process, they become entwined in sociocultural networks that have totalizing effects. Disease, however, counters this totalizing effect by revealing to us that our lives are fragments. Unless we engage this fragment character of disease and of our lives, we cannot properly understand disease or deal with it. HIV/AIDS clarifies these issues in an extraordinarily powerful fashion. Medical, legal, commercial, political, and institutional approaches to (...)
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  • “Diseases and Natural Kinds”.Daniel P. Sulmasy - 2005 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (6):487-513.
    David Thomasma called for the development of a medical ethics based squarely on the philosophy of medicine. He recognized, however, that widespread anti-essentialism presented a significant barrier to such an approach. The aim of this article is to introduce a theory that challenges these anti-essentialist objections. The notion of natural kinds presents a modest form of essentialism that can serve as the basis for a foundationalist philosophy of medicine. The notion of a natural kind is neither static nor reductionistic. Disease (...)
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  • In Defense of Paternalism.Erich H. Loewy - 2005 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (6):445-468.
    This paper argues that we have wrongly and not for the patient’s benefit made a form of stark autonomy our highest value which allows physicians to slip out from under their basic duty which has always been to pursue a particular patient’s good. In general – I shall argue – it is the patient’s right to select his or her own goals and the physician’s duty to inform the patient of the feasibility of that goal and of the means needed (...)
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  • Exploring Questions About Common Morality.Carson Strong - 2009 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (1):1-9.
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  • Justifying Group-Specific Common Morality.Carson Strong - 2008 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (1):1-15.
    Some defenders of the view that there is a common morality have conceived such morality as being universal, in the sense of extending across all cultures and times. Those who deny the existence of such a common morality often argue that the universality claim is implausible. Defense of common morality must take account of the distinction between descriptive and normative claims that there is a common morality. This essay considers these claims separately and identifies the nature of the arguments for (...)
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  • Common Morality: Comment on Beauchamp and Childress.Oliver Rauprich - 2008 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (1):43-71.
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  • Moving Life Science Ethics Debates Beyond National Borders: Some Empirical Observations.Louise Bezuidenhout - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2):445-467.
    The life sciences are increasingly being called on to produce “socially robust” knowledge that honors the social contract between science and society. This has resulted in the emergence of a number of “broad social issues” that reflect the ethical tensions in these social contracts. These issues are framed in a variety of ways around the world, evidenced by differences in regulations addressing them. It is important to question whether these variations are simply regulatory variations or in fact reflect a contextual (...)
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  • Health Policies and Bioethics: A Psychosocial Perspective in Managing the Moral Question.Ines Testoni & Adriano Zamperini - 2005 - World Futures 61 (8):611 – 621.
    In Western democratic society, the specificity of the bioethical debate over the life-sciences involves bringing together many different study factors. The dilemmas raised by the new scientific discoveries highlight how contemporary common sense is plagued by a profound feeling of anguish over possible future anthropological developments. One of the central problems is the social construction of consent as a psychological strategy seeking to orient public opinion toward accepting new applications of science and technology. On the one hand, the general features (...)
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  • Moral Acquaintances: Loewy, Wildes, and Beyond. [REVIEW]Stephen S. Hanson - 2007 - HEC Forum 19 (3):207-225.
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  • The Ethics of Belief, Cognition, and Climate Change Pseudoskepticism: Implications for Public Discourse.Lawrence Torcello - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (1):19-48.
    The relationship between knowledge, belief, and ethics is an inaugural theme in philosophy; more recently, under the title “ethics of belief” philosophers have worked to develop the appropriate methodology for studying the nexus of epistemology, ethics, and psychology. The title “ethics of belief” comes from a 19th-century paper written by British philosopher and mathematician W.K. Clifford. Clifford argues that we are morally responsible for our beliefs because each belief that we form creates the cognitive circumstances for related beliefs to follow, (...)
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  • Openness with Patients: A Categorical Imperative to Correct an Imbalance.A. Kessel & Michael J. Crawford - 1997 - Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (3):297-304.
    This paper examines the concept of ‘openness with patients’ from the stand-point of the limitations of biomedical ethics. Initially we review contemporary critiques of bioethics and, in particular, of principlism; we relate how other; somewhat neglected, forms of medical ethics can yield useful information and provide moral guidance. The main section of the paper then shows how a bioethical approach to openness misses the social context in our example, the viewpoints of patients; we present some of the increasing wealth of (...)
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  • Medical Individualism or Medical Familism? A Critical Analysis of China’s New Guidelines for Informed Consent: The Basic Norms of the Documentation of the Medical Record.Lin Bian - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (4):371-386.
    Modern Western medical individualism has had a significant impact on health care in China. This essay demonstrates the ways in which such Western-style individualism has been explicitly endorsed in China’s 2010 directive: The Basic Norms of the Documentation of the Medical Record. The Norms require that the patient himself, rather than a member of his family, sign each informed consent form. This change in clinical practice indicates a shift toward medical individualism in Chinese healthcare legislation. Such individualism, however, is incompatible (...)
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  • In Sport and Social Justice, Is Genetic Enhancement a Game Changer?Lisa S. Parker - 2012 - Health Care Analysis 20 (4):328-346.
    The possibility of genetic enhancement to increase the likelihood of success in sport and life’s prospects raises questions for accounts of sport and theories of justice. These questions obviously include the fairness of such enhancement and its relationship to the goals of sport and demands of justice. Of equal interest, however, is the effect on our understanding of individual effort, merit, and desert of either discovering genetic contributions to components of such effort or recognizing the influence of social factors on (...)
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  • Feminist and Medical Ethics: Two Different Approaches to Contextual Ethics.Susan Sherwin - 1989 - Hypatia 4 (2):57-72.
    Feminist ethics and medical ethics are critical of contemporary moral theory in several similar respects. There is a shared sense of frustration with the level of abstraction and generality that characterizes traditional philosophic work in ethics and a common commitment to including contextual details and allowing room for the personal aspects of relationships in ethical analysis. This paper explores the ways in which context is appealed to in feminist and medical ethics, the sort of details that should be included in (...)
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  • The Doping Matters as Those of ^|^Lsquo;Property of the Body by Others^|^Rsquo; From the Historical Facts of Doping Problems Under the DDR Government.Mizuho Takemura - 2009 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport and Physical Education 31 (2):95-107.
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  • „Das Fremde“ besser verstehen.Kurt W. Schmidt - 2015 - Ethik in der Medizin 27 (3):179-182.
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  • Medical Education: The Training of Ethical Physicians.Raphael Sassower - 1990 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 10 (3):251-261.
  • Processes and Pitfalls of Dialogical Bioethics.Abraham Rudnick - 2007 - Health Care Analysis 15 (2):123-135.
    Bioethics uses various theories, methods and institutions for its decision-making. Lately, a dialogical, i.e., dialogue-based, approach has been argued for in bioethics. The aim of this paper is to explore some of the decision-making processes that may be involved in this dialogical approach, as well as related pitfalls that may have to be addressed in order for this approach to be helpful, particularly in clinical ethics. Using informal logic, an analysis is presented of the notion of dialogue and of the (...)
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  • Should Oscar Pistorius Be Excluded From the 2008 Olympic Games?S. D. Edwards - 2008 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 2 (2):112 – 125.
    This paper discusses the predicament of Oscar Pistorius. He is a Paralympic gold medallist who wishes to participate in the Olympics in Beijing in 2008. Following a brief introductory section, the paper discusses the arguments that could be, and have been, deployed against his participation in the Olympics, should he make the qualifying time for his chosen event (400m). The next section discusses a more hypothetical argument based upon a specific understanding of the fair opportunity rule. According to this, there (...)
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  • Der Wunsch des Patienten – ein eigenständiger normativer Faktor in der klinischen Therapieentscheidung?Bernd Alt-Epping & Friedemann Nauck - 2012 - Ethik in der Medizin 24 (1):19-28.
    Klinische Therapieentscheidungen werden zumeist auf dem Boden einer medizinischen (bzw. ärztlichen) Indikationsstellung und der entsprechenden informierten Zustimmung des Patienten zu der vorgeschlagenen Behandlungsmaßnahme gefällt. Das Recht des Patienten, eine Behandlungsmaßnahme abzulehnen, ist in der juristischen und ethischen Bewertung breit abgesichert. Hingegen ist unklar, welche Rolle ein (positiv geäußerter) Wunsch des Patienten oder gar seiner Angehörigen nach einer bestimmten Behandlung im normativen Entscheidungsprozess spielen sollte, wenn überhaupt. Dieser Beitrag erörtert den Stellenwert des eigenständigen Patientenwunsches aus studienbezogener, klinischer und normativer Sicht. Ein (...)
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  • Credentialing Strategically Ambiguous and Heterogeneous Social Skills: The Emperor Without Clothes. [REVIEW]H. Tristram Engelhardt - 2009 - HEC Forum 21 (3):293-306.
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  • Helfen um jeden Preis? – Historisch fundierte Gründe für das Konzept des „kontrollierten individuellen Heilversuchs“ für risikoreiche „individuelle Heilversuche“ zur Behandlung einwilligungsunfähiger psychisch kranker Menschen.Dr med Annemarie Heberlein - 2013 - Ethik in der Medizin 25 (1):19-31.
    Die Behandlung von einwilligungsunfähigen psychisch kranken Menschen mit neuen Therapiemethoden ist insbesondere im Kontext des „individuellen Heilversuchs“, der als Anwendung wenig erprobter Therapieansätze im Rahmen von „ultima ratio“-Entscheidungen charakterisiert ist, mit ethischen Abwägungsproblemen verbunden. Diese bestehen aufgrund von Einschränkungen in der Handlungs- und Entscheidungsautonomie der betroffenen Patienten und, aufgrund eigen- oder fremdgefährdender Symptome der psychischen Krankheit selbst, insbesondere in der praktischen Umsetzung ethisch akzeptierter Modelle stellvertretender Entscheidung sowie in der Wahl des Bezugspunkts der Nutzen-Risiko-Analyse des intendierten Therapieverfahrens. Der Artikel untersucht (...)
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  • Abortion: At the Still Point of the Turning Conscientious Objection Debate. [REVIEW]Elliott Louis Bedford - 2012 - HEC Forum 24 (2):63-82.
    Abortion is the central issue in the conscientious objection debate. In this article I demonstrate why this is so for two philosophical viewpoints prominent in American culture. One, represented by Patrick Lee and Robert P. George, holds that the fundamental moral value of being human can be found in bare life and the other, represented by Tom Beauchamp and James Childress, holds that this fundamental value is found in the life that can choose and determine itself. First, I articulate Lee (...)
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  • Moral Strangers and the Health Care Market.Friedrich Heubel - 1996 - Health Care Analysis 4 (3):197-205.
    In order to reflect on the morality of the health care market this paper critiques some of H. T. Engelhardt's presuppositions. Engelhardt has created the vivid term ‘moral stranger’ and suggested that there can be a ‘morality of moral strangers’. However his position relies either on certain necessary presuppositions which he leaves unmentioned or on presuppositions that are—in a strict sense—not moral ones. Engelhardt advocates the market economy as the guiding principle of health care, and claims that the market needs (...)
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  • Informed Consent Law, Ethics, and Practice: From Infancy to Reflective Adolescence. [REVIEW]Roberta M. Berry - 2005 - HEC Forum 17 (1):64-81.
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  • Gadow's Relational Narrative: An Elaboration.Joanne D. Hess - 2003 - Nursing Philosophy 4 (2):137-148.
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