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  1. Digestive Enzyme Secretion, Intuition, and the History of Science: Part II. [REVIEW]Lois Isenman - 2009 - Foundations of Science 14 (4):331-349.
    A companion paper explored the role of intuition in the genesis of an alternative theory for the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes, looking through the lens of three philosophers/historians of science. Gerald Holton, the last scholar, proposed that scientific imagination is shaped by a number of thematic presuppositions, which function largely below awareness. They come in pairs of opposites that alternately gain cultural preeminence. The current paper examines three thematic presuppositions inherent to both the generally accepted model for digestive enzyme (...)
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  • A Dual Simple Recurrent Network Model for Chunking and Abstract Processes in Sequence Learning.Lituan Wang, Yangqin Feng, Qiufang Fu, Jianyong Wang, Xunwei Sun, Xiaolan Fu, Lei Zhang & Zhang Yi - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Although many studies have provided evidence that abstract knowledge can be acquired in artificial grammar learning, it remains unclear how abstract knowledge can be attained in sequence learning. To address this issue, we proposed a dual simple recurrent network model that includes a surface SRN encoding and predicting the surface properties of stimuli and an abstract SRN encoding and predicting the abstract properties of stimuli. The results of Simulations 1 and 2 showed that the DSRN model can account for learning (...)
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  • The Relationship Between Strategic Control and Conscious Structural Knowledge in Artificial Grammar Learning.Elisabeth Norman, Ryan B. Scott, Mark C. Price & Zoltan Dienes - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 42:229-236.
  • Measuring Strategic Control in Implicit Learning: How and Why?Elisabeth Norman - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Impact of Response Stimulus Interval on Transfer of Non-Local Dependent Rules in Implicit Learning: An ERP Investigation.Jianping Huang, Hui Dai, Jing Ye, Chuanlin Zhu, Yingli Li & Dianzhi Liu - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • The Speed of Metacognition: Taking Time to Get to Know One’s Structural Knowledge.Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):123-136.
    The time course of different metacognitive experiences of knowledge was investigated using artificial grammar learning. Experiment 1 revealed that when participants are aware of the basis of their judgments decisions are made most rapidly, followed by decisions made with conscious judgment but without conscious knowledge of underlying structure , and guess responses were made most slowly, even when controlling for differences in confidence and accuracy. In experiment 2, short response deadlines decreased the accuracy of unconscious but not conscious structural knowledge. (...)
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  • Measuring Consciousness: Relating Behavioural and Neurophysiological Approaches.Anil K. Seth, Zoltán Dienes, Axel Cleeremans, Morten Overgaard & Luiz Pessoa - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (8):314-321.
  • Methodological Considerations in Studying Awareness During Learning: Part 1: Implicit Learning.Daisuke Nakamura - 2013 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 44 (1):102-117.
    Methodological problems of how awareness during learning should be measured have been extensively discussed and investigated in cognitive psychology. This review considers; 1)whether amnesics can perform implicit learning tasks at a similar level to normal controls, 2) whether differences in instructional orientations create dissociations in performance in tests of implicit and explicit knowledge, and 3) whether participants can retrospectively verbalise the learning outcomes. The paper concludes that; amnesics’ implicit learning abilities differ from the normal controls, instructions on implicit learning do (...)
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  • Mindfulness Reduces Habitual Responding Based on Implicit Knowledge: Evidence From Artificial Grammar Learning.Stephen Whitmarsh, Julia Uddén, Henk Barendregt & Karl Magnus Petersson - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):833-845.
    Participants were unknowingly exposed to complex regularities in a working memory task. The existence of implicit knowledge was subsequently inferred from a preference for stimuli with similar grammatical regularities. Several affective traits have been shown to influence AGL performance positively, many of which are related to a tendency for automatic responding. We therefore tested whether the mindfulness trait predicted a reduction of grammatically congruent preferences, and used emotional primes to explore the influence of affect. Mindfulness was shown to correlate negatively (...)
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  • An Old Problem: How Can We Distinguish Between Conscious and Unconscious Knowledge Acquired in an Implicit Learning Task?Hilde Haider, Alexandra Eichler & Thorsten Lange - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):658-672.
    A long lasting debate in the field of implicit learning is whether participants can learn without acquiring conscious knowledge. One crucial problem is that no clear criterion exists allowing to identify participants who possess explicit knowledge. Here, we propose a method to diagnose during a serial reaction time task those participants who acquire conscious knowledge. We first validated this method by using Stroop-like material during training. Then we assessed participants’ knowledge with the Inclusion/Exclusion task and the wagering task . Both (...)
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  • Measuring “Intuition” in the SRT Generation Task.Elisabeth Norman & Mark C. Price - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):475-477.
    We address some concerns related to the use of post-trial attribution judgments, originally developed for artificial grammar learning , during the version of the serial reaction time task used by Fu, Dienes, and Fu . In particular, intuition attributions, which are central to Fu et al.’s arguments, seem problematic: This attribution is likely to be made when stimuli contain several competing sources of information to which subjective feelings could be attributed. The interpretation of intuition attributions in Fu et al.’s SRT (...)
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  • Intentional Control Based on Familiarity in Artificial Grammar Learning.Lulu Wan, Zoltán Dienes & Xiaolan Fu - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1209-1218.
    It is commonly held that implicit learning is based largely on familiarity. It is also commonly held that familiarity is not affected by intentions. It follows that people should not be able to use familiarity to distinguish strings from two different implicitly learned grammars. In two experiments, subjects were trained on two grammars and then asked to endorse strings from only one of the grammars. Subjects also rated how familiar each string felt and reported whether or not they used familiarity (...)
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  • Can Unconscious Knowledge Allow Control in Sequence Learning?Qiufang Fu, Zoltán Dienes & Xiaolan Fu - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):462-474.
    This paper investigates the conscious status of both the knowledge that an item is legal and the knowledge of why it is legal in sequence learning. We compared ability to control use of knowledge with stated awareness of the knowledge as measures of the conscious status of knowledge. Experiment 1 showed that when people could control use of judgment knowledge they were indeed conscious of having that knowledge according to their own statements. Yet Experiment 2 showed that people could exert (...)
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  • No-Loss Gambling Shows the Speed of the Unconscious.Andy Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):228-237.
    This paper investigates the time it takes unconscious vs. conscious knowledge to form by using an improved “no-loss gambling” method to measure awareness of knowing. Subjects could either bet on a transparently random process or on their grammaticality judgment in an artificial grammar learning task. A conflict in the literature is resolved concerning whether unconscious rather than conscious knowledge is especially fast or slow to form. When guessing , accuracy was above chance and RTs were longer than when feeling confident (...)
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  • Implicit Knowledge and Motor Skill: What People Who Know How to Catch Don’T Know.Nick Reed, Peter McLeod & Zoltan Dienes - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):63-76.
    People are unable to report how they decide whether to move backwards or forwards to catch a ball. When asked to imagine how their angle of elevation of gaze would change when they caught a ball, most people are unable to describe what happens although their interception strategy is based on controlling changes in this angle. Just after catching a ball, many people are unable to recognise a description of how their angle of gaze changed during the catch. Some people (...)
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  • The Distinction Between Intuition and Guessing in the SRT Task Generation: A Reply to Norman and Price.Qiufang Fu, Zoltán Dienes & Xiaolan Fu - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):478-480.
    We investigated the extent to which people could generate sequences of responses based on knowledge acquired from the Serial Reaction Time task, depending on whether it felt subjectively like the response was based on pure guessing, intuition, conscious rules or memories. Norman and Price argued that in the context of our task, intuition responses were the same as guessing responses. In reply, we argue that not only do subjects apparently claim to be experiencing different phenomenologies when saying intuition versus guess, (...)
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  • Knowledge Applied to New Domains: The Unconscious Succeeds Where the Conscious Fails.Ryan B. Scott & Zoltan Dienes - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):391-398.
    A common view holds that consciousness is needed for knowledge acquired in one domain to be applied in a novel domain. We present evidence for the opposite; where the transfer of knowledge is achieved only in the absence of conscious awareness. Knowledge of artificial grammars was examined where training and testing occurred in different vocabularies or modalities. In all conditions grammaticality judgments attributed to random selection showed above-chance accuracy , while those attributed to conscious decisions did not. Participants also rated (...)
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  • Measuring Strategic Control in Artificial Grammar Learning.Elisabeth Norman, Mark C. Price & Emma Jones - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1920-1929.
    In response to concerns with existing procedures for measuring strategic control over implicit knowledge in artificial grammar learning , we introduce a more stringent measurement procedure. After two separate training blocks which each consisted of letter strings derived from a different grammar, participants either judged the grammaticality of novel letter strings with respect to only one of these two grammars , or had the target grammar varying randomly from trial to trial which required a higher degree of conscious flexible control. (...)
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  • Conscious and Unconscious Thought in Artificial Grammar Learning.Andy David Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):865-874.
    Unconscious Thought Theory posits that a period of distraction after information acquisition leads to unconscious processing which enhances decision making relative to conscious deliberation or immediate choice . Support thus far has been mixed. In the present study, artificial grammar learning was used in order to produce measurable amounts of conscious and unconscious knowledge. Intermediate phases were introduced between training and testing. Participants engaged in conscious deliberation of grammar rules, were distracted for the same period of time, or progressed immediately (...)
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  • Explicit Feedback Maintains Implicit Knowledge.Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):822-832.
    The role of feedback was investigated with respect to conscious and unconscious knowledge acquired during artificial grammar learning . After incidental learning of training sequences, participants classified further sequences in terms of grammaticality and reported their decision strategy with or without explicit veridical feedback. Sequences that disobeyed the learning structure conformed to an alternative structure. Feedback led to an increase in the amount of reported conscious knowledge of structure but did not increase its accuracy. Conversely, feedback maintained the accuracy of (...)
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  • Measuring Consciousness: Relating Behavioural and Neurophysiological Approaches.Luiz Pessoa Anil K. Seth, Zoltán Dienes, Axel Cleeremans, Morten Overgaard - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (8):314.