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  1. How is a Species Kept Together?Peter J. Beurton - 1995 - Biology and Philosophy 10 (2):181-196.
    Over the decades, there has been substantial empirical evidence showing that the unity of species cannot be maintained by gene flow. The biological species concept is inconclusive on this point. The suggestion is made that the unity of species is maintained rather by selection constantly spreading new alleles throughout the species, or bygene circulation. There is a lack in conceptual distinction between gene flow and gene circulation which lies at the heart of the problem. The concept of gene circulation also (...)
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  • Species as Historical Individuals.Arnold G. Kluge - 1990 - Biology and Philosophy 5 (4):417-431.
    The species category is defined as thesmallest historical individual within which there is a parental pattern of ancestry and descent. The use of historical individual in this definition is consistent with the prevailing notion that speciesper se are not involved in processes — they are effects, not effectors. Reproductive isolation distinguishes biparental historical species from their parts, and it provides a basis for understanding the nature of the evidence used to discover historical individuals.
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  • Abstraktion Und Ideation — Zur Semantik Chemischer Und Biologischer GrundbegriffeAbstraction and Ideation — The Semantics of Chemical and Biological Fundamental Concepts.Mathias Gutmann & Gerd Hanekamp - 1996 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 27 (1):29-53.
    ion and Ideation - The Semantics of chemical and biological fundamental concepts. The methods of abstraction and ideation are indispensable tools to introduce new concepts in a scientific terminology. The latter is paradigmatically introduced within the 'protophysical program' whereas abstraction is commonly applied in logics and mathematics. The application within the reconstruction of chemistry and biology causes several problems. Ideation appears to be inadequate whereas the application of abstraction necessitates a critical and minute examination of the corresponding equivalence relations. These (...)
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