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  1. Merleau-Ponty Meets Kretchmar: Sweet Tensions of Embodied Learning.Øyvind F. Standal & Vegard F. Moe - 2011 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (3):256 - 269.
    The last decades have seen a rising philosophical interest in the phenomenology of skill acquisition. One central topic in this work is the relation between the athlete's background capacities and foreground attention as an invariant feature of skilful movements. The purpose of this paper is to examine further this gestalt relation from the perspective of Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological account of embodied learning and a classical notion from philosophy of sport, namely ?sweet tension of uncertainty of outcome?. In the first part we (...)
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  • Habits, Skills and Embodied Experiences: A Contribution to Philosophy of Physical Education.Øyvind F. Standal & Kenneth Aggerholm - 2016 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 10 (3):269-282.
    One of the main topics in philosophical work dealing with physical education is if and how the subject can justify its educational value. Acquisition of practical knowledge in the form of skills and the provision of positive and meaningful embodied experiences are central to the justification of physical education. The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between skill and embodied experience in physical education through the notion and concept of habit. The literature on phenomenology of skill acquisition (...)
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  • Gamechangers and the Meaningfulness of Difference in the Sporting World – a Postmodern Outlook.Anders McDonald Sookermany - 2016 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 10 (3):325-342.
    The aim of this paper has been to contribute to the ongoing discourse on skill, know-how, and expertise in the sporting world by posting an alternative view, one that explores the meaningfulness of difference from the outlook of difference. Hence, my ambition was to put focus on how we look at difference in the sporting world and, subsequently, to set the stage for expanding the analytical framework we use in exploring sports today. Essentially, my argument is based on an assumption (...)
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  • Skill Acquisition Without Representation.Albert Piacente - 2018 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 45 (3):241-258.
    ABSTRACTA paper in two parts, the first is a critique of the commonly held view among both cognitivist and non-cognitivist sport philosophers that conscious mental representation of knowledge that is a necessary condition for skill acquisition. The second is a defense of a necessary causal condition for skill acquisition, a necessary causal condition that is mimetic, physically embodied, and socially embedded. To make my case I rely throughout on a common thought experiment in and beyond the philosophy of sport literature, (...)
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  • On Phenomenological and Logical Characteristics of Skilled Behaviour in Sport: Cognitive and Motor Intentionality.Vegard Fusche Moe - 2016 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 10 (3):251-268.
    In this paper, I discuss phenomenological and logical characteristics of skilled behaviour in sport. The paper comprises two parts. The first describes phenomenological characteristics of skilled behaviour through Timothy Gallwey’s two playing modes and Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s distinction between abstract and concrete movement. The second logical part introduces the concept of intentionality and the distinction Sean Kelly makes between cognitive and motor intentionality. I discuss how this distinction fits the phenomenological characteristics established in the first part of the paper. My argument (...)
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  • What Can the Parkour Craftsmen Tell Us About Bodily Expertise and Skilled Movement?Signe Højbjerre Larsen - 2016 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 10 (3):295-309.
    The aim of this paper is to contribute to the discussion of expertise and skilled movement in sport by analysing the bodily practice of learning a new movement at a high level of skill in parkour. Based on Sennett’s theory of craftsmanship and an ethnographic field study with experienced practitioners, the analysis offers insight into the skilful, contextual and unique practice of parkour, and contributes to the renewed discussion of consciousness in sport at a high level of skill. With Sennett’s (...)
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  • High-Level Enactive and Embodied Cognition in Expert Sport Performance.Kevin Krein & Jesús Ilundáin-Agurruza - 2017 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 11 (3):370-384.
    Mental representation has long been central to standard accounts of action and cognition generally, and in the context of sport. We argue for an enactive and embodied account that rejects the idea that representation is necessary for cognition, and posit instead that cognition arises, or is enacted, in certain types of interactions between organisms and their environment. More specifically, we argue that enactive theories explain some kinds of high-level cognition, those that underlie some of the best performances in sport and (...)
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  • Merleau-Ponty’s Discovery of the Pre-Objective Body and Its Consequences for Body-Oriented Disciplines.Petr Kříž - 2021 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 15 (1):122-138.
    This paper addresses the ontological status of the body in the context of bodily practices in body-oriented disciplines, such as sport training, dance, and physiotherapy. Following Descartes’, Huss...
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  • Merleau-Ponty’s Discovery of the Pre-Objective Body and Its Consequences for Body-Oriented Disciplines.Petr Kříž - 2019 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 15 (1):122-138.
    This paper addresses the ontological status of the body in the context of bodily practices in body-oriented disciplines, such as sport training, dance, and physiotherapy. Following Descartes’, Huss...
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  • William James—Pragmatic Pioneer.Jesús Ilundáin-Agurruza - 2014 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 8 (3):258-270.
  • 8—Fractured Action—Choking in Sport and its Lessons for Excellence.Jesús Ilundáin-Agurruza - 2014 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 8 (4):420-453.
  • ‘The Value of the Inexact’: An Apology for Inaccurate Motor Performance.Peter M. Hopsicker - 2013 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 40 (1):65-83.
    Philosophic inquiry into the mental states of elite athletes during skilled motor performance continues to grow. In contrast to the bulk of these works that focus almost exclusively on skillful performance, this paper examines athletic motor behavior from a point of inexactness ? or even failure ? in athletic performance. Utilizing the works of Michael Polanyi, who believed that both ideas of achievement and failure were equally necessary to understand the behavior of living things and their physical actions, I examine (...)
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  • Skilled Coping And Sport: Promises Of Phenomenology.Bryan Hogeveen - 2011 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (3):245 - 255.
    Phenomenology holds much potential to make meaningful contributions to research on sport. In this paper, I argue that concepts such as equipment, habit and readiness-at-hand will help to uncover heretofore unexamined strands of athletic embodiment. Through an examination of the work of Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Hubert Dreyfus I take some initial steps towards outlining not only the promises of phenomenology for the study of sport, but also what such an undertaking might entail. In conclusion I highlight (...)
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  • ‘Being in Your Body’ and ‘Being in the Moment’: The Dancing Body-Subject and Inhabited Transcendence.Aimie C. E. Purser - 2018 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 45 (1):37-52.
    Sports studies is currently dominated by the intellectualist approach to understanding skill and expertise, meaning that questions about the phenomenological nature of skilled performance in sport have generally been overshadowed by the emphasis on the cognitive. By contrast, this article responds to calls for a phenomenology of sporting embodiment by opening up a philosophical exploration of the nature of athletic being-in-the-world. In particular, the paper explores the conceptualisation of immanence and transcendence in relation to the embodied practice of dance, engaging (...)
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  • Putting Pressure on Theories of Choking: Towards an Expanded Perspective on Breakdown in Skilled Performance.Doris McIlwain, John Sutton & Wayne Christensen - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (2):253-293.
    There is a widespread view that well-learned skills are automated, and that attention to the performance of these skills is damaging because it disrupts the automatic processes involved in their execution. This idea serves as the basis for an account of choking in high pressure situations. On this view, choking is the result of self-focused attention induced by anxiety. Recent research in sports psychology has produced a significant body of experimental evidence widely interpreted as supporting this account of choking in (...)
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  • Bergson and Athleticism.Geoffrey Callaghan - 2013 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 7 (2):231-244.
    The work of Henri Bergson has gone almost completely unnoticed in philosophy of sport literature. This in no way indicates the level of relevance his programme may carry for the subject. Many of the entrenched debates that have historically helped to shape the field are mirrored by Bergson's own concerns regarding perception and skill acquisition. As such, a thorough study of how the Bergsonian programme might approach the topic of athletic action is in no wise an idle pursuit? in fact, (...)
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  • Zombie-Like or Superconscious? A Phenomenological and Conceptual Analysis of Consciousness in Elite Sport.Gunnar Breivik - 2013 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 40 (1):85-106.
    According to a view defended by Hubert Dreyfus and others, elite athletes are totally absorbed while they are performing, and they act non-deliberately without any representational or conceptual thinking. By using both conceptual clarification and phenomenological description the article criticizes this view and maintains that various forms of conscious thinking and acting plays an important role before, during and after competitive events. The article describes in phenomenological detail how elite athletes use consciousness in their actions in sport; as planning, attention, (...)
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  • Skills, Knowledge and Expertise in Sport.Gunnar Breivik - 2016 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 10 (3):217-221.
  • Searle, Merleau-Ponty, Rizzolatti – Three Perspectives on Intentionality and Action in Sport.Gunnar Breivik - 2017 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 44 (2):199-212.
    Actions in sport are intentional in character. They are directed at and are about something. This understanding of intentional action is common in continental as well as analytic philosophy. In sport philosophy, intentionality has received relatively little attention, but has more recently come on the agenda. In addition to what we can call ‘action intentionality,’ studied by philosophers like Searle, the phenomenological approach forwarded by Merleau-Ponty has opened up for a concept of ‘motor intentionality,’ which means a basic bodily attention (...)
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  • Sporting Knowledge and the Problem of Knowing How.Gunnar Breivik - 2014 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 41 (2):143-162.
    In the Concept of Mind from 1949 Gilbert Ryle distinguished between knowing how and knowing that. What was Ryle’s basic idea and how is the discussion going on in philosophy today? How can sport philosophy use the idea of knowing how? My goal in this paper is first to bring Ryle and the post-Rylean discussion to light and then show how phenomenology can give some input to the discussion. The article focuses especially on the two main interpretations of knowing how, (...)
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  • Philosophy of Sport in the Nordic Countries.Gunnar Breivik - 2010 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 37 (2):194-214.
    In 1972 I attended the Pre-Olympic Scientific Congress in Munich. For the first time science and sport were brought together in connection with the Olympic Games. The organizers presented a book Sport in Blickpunkt der Wissenschaften (Sport from a Scientific Point of View) that summarized history and state of the art of the main sport scientific approaches (41). The German philosopher Hans Lenk gave a presentation of a broad array of past and present interpretations of sport from a philosophic viewpoint (...)
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  • Dangerous Play With the Elements: Towards a Phenomenology of Risk Sports.Gunnar Breivik - 2011 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (3):314 - 330.
    The purpose of this article is to present a phenomenological description of how athletes in specific risk sports explore human interaction with natural elements. Skydivers play with, and surf on, the encountering air while falling towards the ground. Kayakers play on the waves and with the stoppers and currents in the rivers. Climbers are ballerinas of the vertical, using cracks and holds in the cliffs to pull upwards against gravity forces. The theoretical background for the description is found in the (...)
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  • Skills and Knowledge - Nothing but Memory?Jens Erling Birch - 2011 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (4):362 - 378.
    The aim of this article is to enquire into neuroscientific research on memory and relate it to topics of skill, knowledge and consciousness. The article outlines some contemporary theories on procedural and working memory, and discusses what contributions they give to sport science and philosophy of sport. It is argued that memory research gives important insights to the neuronal structures and events involved in knowledge and consciousness contributing to sport skills, but that these explanations are not exhaustive. The article argues (...)
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  • Considering the Role of Cognitive Control in Expert Performance.John Toner, Barbara Gail Montero & Aidan Moran - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (4):1127-1144.
    Dreyfus and Dreyfus’ influential phenomenological analysis of skill acquisition proposes that expert performance is guided by non-cognitive responses which are fast, effortless and apparently intuitive in nature. Although this model has been criticised for over-emphasising the role that intuition plays in facilitating skilled performance, it does recognise that on occasions a form of ‘detached deliberative rationality’ may be used by experts to improve their performance. However, Dreyfus and Dreyfus see no role for calculative problem solving or deliberation when performance is (...)
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