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  1. The Parts of an Imperfect Agent.Sara Aronowitz - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Mind.
    Formal representations drawn from rational choice theory have been used in a variety of ways to fruitfully model the way in which actual agents are approximately rational. This analysis requires bridging between ideal normative theory, in which the mechanisms, representations, and other such internal parts are in an important sense interchangeable, and descriptive psychological theory, in which understanding the internal workings of the agent is often the main goal of the entire inquiry. In this paper, I raise a problem brought (...)
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  • Spatial Alignment Facilitates Visual Comparison in Children.Yinyuan Zheng, Bryan Matlen & Dedre Gentner - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (8).
    Cognitive Science, Volume 46, Issue 8, August 2022.
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  • Ignorance-Preserving Mental Models Thought Experiments as Abductive Metaphors.Selene Arfini, Claudia Casadio & Lorenzo Magnani - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (2):391-409.
    In this paper, we aim at explaining the relevance of thought experiments in philosophy and the history of science by describing them as particular instances of two categories of creative thinking: metaphorical reasoning and abductive cognition. As a result of this definition, we will claim that TEs hold an ignorance-preserving trait that is evidenced in both TEs inferential structure and in the process of scenario creation they presuppose. Elaborating this thesis will allow us to explain the wonder that philosophers of (...)
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  • Representation and Computation in Cognitive Models.Kenneth D. Forbus, Chen Liang & Irina Rabkina - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):694-718.
    One of the central issues in cognitive science is the nature of human representations. We argue that symbolic representations are essential for capturing human cognitive capabilities. We start by examining some common misconceptions found in discussions of representations and models. Next we examine evidence that symbolic representations are essential for capturing human cognitive capabilities, drawing on the analogy literature. Then we examine fundamental limitations of feature vectors and other distributed representations that, despite their recent successes on various practical problems, suggest (...)
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  • Two Ways of Analogy: Extending the Study of Analogies to Mathematical Domains.Dirk Schlimm - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (2):178-200.
    The structure-mapping theory has become the de-facto standard account of analogies in cognitive science and philosophy of science. In this paper I propose a distinction between two kinds of domains and I show how the account of analogies based on structure-preserving mappings fails in certain (object-rich) domains, which are very common in mathematics, and how the axiomatic approach to analogies, which is based on a common linguistic description of the analogs in terms of laws or axioms, can be used successfully (...)
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  • Why the Empirical Study of Non-philosophical Expertise Does not Undermine the Status of Philosophical Expertise.Theodore Bach - 2021 - Erkenntnis 86 (4):999-1023.
    In some domains experts perform better than novices, and in other domains experts do not generally perform better than novices. According to empirical studies of expert performance, this is because the former but not the latter domains make available to training practitioners a direct form of learning feedback. Several philosophers resource this empirical literature to cast doubt on the quality of philosophical expertise. They claim that philosophy is like the dubious domains in that it does not make available the good, (...)
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  • A Hybrid Theory of Event Memory.David H. Ménager, Dongkyu Choi & Sarah K. Robins - 2022 - Minds and Machines 32 (2):365-394.
    Amongst philosophers, there is ongoing debate about what successful event remembering requires. Causal theorists argue that it requires a causal connection to the past event. Simulation theorists argue, in contrast, that successful remembering requires only production by a reliable memory system. Both views must contend with the fact that people can remember past events they have experienced with varying degrees of accuracy. The debate between them thus concerns not only the account of successful remembering, but how each account explains the (...)
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  • Arguments and Cases: An Inevitable Intertwining. [REVIEW]David B. Skalak & Edwina L. Rissland - 1992 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 1 (1):3-44.
    We discuss several aspects of legal arguments, primarily arguments about the meaning of statutes. First, we discuss how the requirements of argument guide the specification and selection of supporting cases and how an existing case base influences argument formation. Second, we present,our evolving taxonomy of patterns of actual legal argument. This taxonomy builds upon our much earlier work on argument moves and also on our more recent analysis of how cases are used to support arguments for the interpretation of legal (...)
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  • Induction: Representation, Strategy and Argument.David W. Green - 1994 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (1):45 – 50.
    Abstract In order to be a general theory of human cognition, the theory of mental models needs to accommodate a variety of forms of reasoning in addition to deduction. The mental model theory of induction is a crucial step in establishing generality. After suggesting that the theory of mental models can also account for abduction and analogy, the paper points out that inductive performance is likely to be constrained both by the nature of the representation used and by strategic factors. (...)
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  • Licensing Novel Role-Governed Categories: An ERP Analysis.Micah B. Goldwater, Arthur B. Markman, Logan T. Trujillo & David M. Schnyer - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  • Uncovering the Course of Analogical Mapping Using Eye Tracking.Bartłomiej Kroczek, Iwona Ciechanowska & Adam Chuderski - 2022 - Cognition 225:105140.
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  • Analogical Comparison Promotes Theory‐of‐Mind Development.Christian Hoyos, William S. Horton, Nina K. Simms & Dedre Gentner - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (9).
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  • Structural Priming as Structure-Mapping: Children Use Analogies From Previous Utterances to Guide Sentence Production.Micah B. Goldwater, Marc T. Tomlinson, Catharine H. Echols & Bradley C. Love - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (1):156-170.
    What mechanisms underlie children’s language production? Structural priming—the repetition of sentence structure across utterances—is an important measure of the developing production system. We propose its mechanism in children is the same as may underlie analogical reasoning: structure-mapping. Under this view, structural priming is the result of making an analogy between utterances, such that children map semantic and syntactic structure from previous to future utterances. Because the ability to map relationally complex structures develops with age, younger children are less successful than (...)
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  • Individual Differences in Reward‐Based Learning Predict Fluid Reasoning Abilities.Andrea Stocco, Chantel S. Prat & Lauren K. Graham - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (2):e12941.
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  • Composition in Distributional Models of Semantics.Jeff Mitchell & Mirella Lapata - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (8):1388-1429.
    Vector-based models of word meaning have become increasingly popular in cognitive science. The appeal of these models lies in their ability to represent meaning simply by using distributional information under the assumption that words occurring within similar contexts are semantically similar. Despite their widespread use, vector-based models are typically directed at representing words in isolation, and methods for constructing representations for phrases or sentences have received little attention in the literature. This is in marked contrast to experimental evidence (e.g., in (...)
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  • Constraints on Analogical Inference.Arthur B. Markman - 1997 - Cognitive Science 21 (4):373-418.
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  • Analogical Mapping by Constraint Satisfaction.Keith J. Holyoak & Paul Thagard - 1989 - Cognitive Science 13 (3):295-355.
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  • Integrating Analogical Mapping and General Problem Solving: The Path‐Mapping Theory.Dario D. Salvucci & John R. Anderson - 2001 - Cognitive Science 25 (1):67-110.
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  • Semantic Grounding in Models of Analogy: An Environmental Approach.Michael Ramscar & Daniel Yarlett - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (1):41-71.
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  • Relations, Objects, and the Composition of Analogies.Dedre Gentner & Kenneth J. Kurtz - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (4):609-642.
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  • Solving Geometric Analogy Problems Through Two‐Stage Analogical Mapping.Andrew Lovett, Emmett Tomai, Kenneth Forbus & Jeffrey Usher - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (7):1192-1231.
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  • Systematicity as a Selection Constraint in Analogical Mapping.Catherine A. Clement & Dedre Gentner - 1991 - Cognitive Science 15 (1):89-132.
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  • Constraints on Analogical Mapping: A Comparison of Three Models.Mark T. Keane, Tim Ledgeway & Stuart Duff - 1994 - Cognitive Science 18 (3):387-438.
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  • CAB: Connectionist Analogy Builder.Levi B. Larkey & Bradley C. Love - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (5):781-794.
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  • MAC/FAC: A Model of Similarity‐Based Retrieval.Kenneth D. Forbus, Dedre Gentner & Keith Law - 1995 - Cognitive Science 19 (2):141-205.
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  • The One‐to‐One Constraint in Analogical Mapping and Inference.Daniel C. Krawczyk, Keith J. Holyoak & John E. Hummel - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (5):797-806.
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  • Integrating Structure and Meaning: A Distributed Model of Analogical Mapping.Chris Eliasmith & Paul Thagard - 2001 - Cognitive Science 25 (2):245-286.
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  • The Cognitive Science of Sketch Worksheets.D. Forbus Kenneth, Chang Maria, McLure Matthew & Usher Madeline - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (4):921-942.
    Computational modeling of sketch understanding is interesting both scientifically and for creating systems that interact with people more naturally. Scientifically, understanding sketches requires modeling aspects of visual processing, spatial representations, and conceptual knowledge in an integrated way. Software that can understand sketches is starting to be used in classrooms, and it could have a potentially revolutionary impact as the models and technologies become more advanced. This paper looks at one such effort, Sketch Worksheets, which have been used in multiple classroom (...)
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  • Reviving Inert Knowledge: Analogical Abstraction Supports Relational Retrieval of Past Events.Dedre Gentner, Jeffrey Loewenstein, Leigh Thompson & Kenneth D. Forbus - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (8):1343-1382.
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  • A Memory‐Based Theory of Verbal Cognition.Simon Dennis - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (2):145-193.
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  • Structure-Mapping in Metaphor Comprehension.Phillip Wolff & Dedre Gentner - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (8):1456-1488.
    Metaphor has a double life. It can be described as a directional process in which a stable, familiar base domain provides inferential structure to a less clearly specified target. But metaphor is also described as a process of finding commonalities, an inherently symmetric process. In this second view, both concepts may be altered by the metaphorical comparison. Whereas most theories of metaphor capture one of these aspects, we offer a model based on structure-mapping that captures both sides of metaphor processing. (...)
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  • Varieties of Sameness: The Impact of Relational Complexity on Perceptual Comparisons.James K. Kroger, Keith J. Holyoak & John E. Hummel - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (3):335-358.
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  • Processes of Similarity Judgment.Levi B. Larkey & Arthur B. Markman - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (6):1061-1076.
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  • Bootstrapping the Mind: Analogical Processes and Symbol Systems.Dedre Gentner - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (5):752-775.
    Human cognition is striking in its brilliance and its adaptability. How do we get that way? How do we move from the nearly helpless state of infants to the cognitive proficiency that characterizes adults? In this paper I argue, first, that analogical ability is the key factor in our prodigious capacity, and, second, that possession of a symbol system is crucial to the full expression of analogical ability.
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  • An Analogical Model of Pretense.Irina Rabkina & Kenneth D. Forbus - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (3):e13112.
    Cognitive Science, Volume 46, Issue 3, March 2022.
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  • The Neural Correlates of Analogy Component Processes.John-Dennis Parsons & Jim Davies - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (3):e13116.
    Cognitive Science, Volume 46, Issue 3, March 2022.
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  • Perceptual Alignment Contributes to Referential Transparency in Indirect Learning.Ruxue Shao & Dedre Gentner - 2022 - Cognition 224:105061.
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  • Possibility, relevant similarity, and structural knowledge.Tom Schoonen - 2022 - Synthese 200 (1):1-22.
    Recently, interest has surged in similarity-based epistemologies of possibility. However, it has been pointed out that the notion of ‘relevant similarity’ is not properly developed in this literature. In this paper, I look at the research done in the field of analogical reasoning, where we find that one of the most promising ways of capturing relevance in similarity reasoning is by relying on the predictive analogy similarity relation. This takes relevant similarity to be based on shared properties that have structural (...)
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  • CogSketch: Sketch Understanding for Cognitive Science Research and for Education.Kenneth Forbus, Jeffrey Usher, Andrew Lovett, Kate Lockwood & Jon Wetzel - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (4):648-666.
    Sketching is a powerful means of working out and communicating ideas. Sketch understanding involves a combination of visual, spatial, and conceptual knowledge and reasoning, which makes it both challenging to model and potentially illuminating for cognitive science. This paper describes CogSketch, an ongoing effort of the NSF-funded Spatial Intelligence and Learning Center, which is being developed both as a research instrument for cognitive science and as a platform for sketch-based educational software. We describe the idea of open-domain sketch understanding, the (...)
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  • What Difference Reveals About Similarity.Eyal Sagi, Dedre Gentner & Andrew Lovett - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (6):1019-1050.
    Detecting that two images are different is faster for highly dissimilar images than for highly similar images. Paradoxically, we showed that the reverse occurs when people are asked to describe how two images differ—that is, to state a difference between two images. Following structure-mapping theory, we propose that this disassociation arises from the multistage nature of the comparison process. Detecting that two images are different can be done in the initial (local-matching) stage, but only for pairs with low overlap; thus, (...)
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  • Rapid Learning in a Children's Museum Via Analogical Comparison.Dedre Gentner, Susan C. Levine, Raedy Ping, Ashley Isaia, Sonica Dhillon, Claire Bradley & Garrett Honke - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (1):224-240.
    We tested whether analogical training could help children learn a key principle of elementary engineering—namely, the use of a diagonal brace to stabilize a structure. The context for this learning was a construction activity at the Chicago Children's Museum, in which children and their families build a model skyscraper together. The results indicate that even a single brief analogical comparison can confer insight. The results also reveal conditions that support analogical learning.
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  • Mind, Society, and the Growth of Knowledge.Paul Thagard - 1994 - Philosophy of Science 61 (4):629-645.
    Explanations of the growth of scientific knowledge can be characterized in terms of logical, cognitive, and social schemas. But cognitive and social schemas are complementary rather than competitive, and purely social explanations of scientific change are as inadequate as purely cognitive explanations. For example, cognitive explanations of the chemical revolution must be supplemented by and combined with social explanations, and social explanations of the rise of the mechanical world view must be supplemented by and combined with cognitive explanations. Rational appraisal (...)
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  • Psychology in Cognitive Science: 1978–2038.Dedre Gentner - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):328-344.
    This paper considers the past and future of Psychology within Cognitive Science. In the history section, I focus on three questions: (a) how has the position of Psychology evolved within Cognitive Science, relative to the other disciplines that make up Cognitive Science; (b) how have particular Cognitive Science areas within Psychology waxed or waned; and (c) what have we gained and lost. After discussing what’s happened since the late 1970s, when the Society and the journal began, I speculate about where (...)
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  • Promoting Sketching in Introductory Geoscience Courses: CogSketch Geoscience Worksheets.Bridget Garnier, Maria Chang, Carol Ormand, Bryan Matlen, Basil Tikoff & Thomas F. Shipley - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (4):943-969.
    Research from cognitive science and geoscience education has shown that sketching can improve spatial thinking skills and facilitate solving spatially complex problems. Yet sketching is rarely implemented in introductory geosciences courses, due to time needed to grade sketches and lack of materials that incorporate cognitive science research. Here, we report a design-centered, collaborative effort, between geoscientists, cognitive scientists, and artificial intelligence researchers, to characterize spatial learning challenges in geoscience and to design sketch activities that use a sketch-understanding program, CogSketch. We (...)
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  • On Fodor's First Law of the Nonexistence of Cognitive Science.Gregory L. Murphy - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (5):e12735.
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  • Understanding Blended Multi-Source Arguments as Arguments From Partial Analogies.Marcello Guarini - 2010 - Ratio Juris 23 (1):65-100.
    This paper identifies a type of multi-source (case-based) reasoning and differentiates it from other types of analogical reasoning. Work in cognitive science on mental space mapping or conceptual blending is used to better understand this type of reasoning. The type of argument featured herein will be shown to be a kind of source-blended argument. While it possesses some similarities to traditionally conceived analogical arguments, there are important differences as well. The triple contract (a key development in the usury debates of (...)
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  • A Unified Account of General Learning Mechanisms and Theory‐of‐Mind Development.Theodore Bach - 2014 - Mind and Language 29 (3):351-381.
    Modularity theorists have challenged that there are, or could be, general learning mechanisms that explain theory-of-mind development. In response, supporters of the ‘scientific theory-theory’ account of theory-of-mind development have appealed to children's use of auxiliary hypotheses and probabilistic causal modeling. This article argues that these general learning mechanisms are not sufficient to meet the modularist's challenge. The article then explores an alternative domain-general learning mechanism by proposing that children grasp the concept belief through the progressive alignment of relational structure that (...)
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  • Generative Inferences Based on Learned Relations.Dawn Chen, Hongjing Lu & Keith J. Holyoak - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S5):1062-1092.
    A key property of relational representations is their generativity: From partial descriptions of relations between entities, additional inferences can be drawn about other entities. A major theoretical challenge is to demonstrate how the capacity to make generative inferences could arise as a result of learning relations from non-relational inputs. In the present paper, we show that a bottom-up model of relation learning, initially developed to discriminate between positive and negative examples of comparative relations, can be extended to make generative inferences. (...)
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  • Extending SME to Handle Large‐Scale Cognitive Modeling.Kenneth D. Forbus, Ronald W. Ferguson, Andrew Lovett & Dedre Gentner - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (5):1152-1201.
    Analogy and similarity are central phenomena in human cognition, involved in processes ranging from visual perception to conceptual change. To capture this centrality requires that a model of comparison must be able to integrate with other processes and handle the size and complexity of the representations required by the tasks being modeled. This paper describes extensions to Structure-Mapping Engine since its inception in 1986 that have increased its scope of operation. We first review the basic SME algorithm, describe psychological evidence (...)
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  • Structure Mapping and Vocabularies for Thinking.Jeffrey Loewenstein - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):842-858.
    While extremes tend to capture attention, the ordinary is often most of the story. So it may be with the structure-mapping process. The structure-mapping process can account for such pinnacles of thinking as analogy and metaphor, which can lead to overlooking the mundane, incremental use of structure mapping. Consequently, the current discussion shifts focus to the value of close comparisons between literally similar items for the development of knowledge. The intent is to foster greater integration between process and content as (...)
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