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  1. Institutional Logics in the Study of Organizations: The Social Construction of the Relationship Between Corporate Social and Financial Performance.Marc Orlitzky - 2011 - Business Ethics Quarterly 21 (3):409-444.
    This study examines whether the empirical evidence on the relationship between corporate social performance and corporate financial performance differs depending on the publication outlet in which that evidence appears. This moderator meta-analysis, based on a total sample size of 33,878 observations, suggests that published CSP-CFP findings have been shaped by differences in institutional logics in different subdisciplines of organization studies. In economics, finance, and accounting journals, the average correlations were only about half the magnitude of the findings published in Social (...)
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  • Epistemology Contextualized: Social-Scientific Knowledge in a Postpositivist Era.Isaac Ariail Reed - 2010 - Sociological Theory 28 (1):20-39.
    In the production of knowledge about social life, two social contexts come together: the context of investigation, consisting of the social world of the investigator, and the context of explanation, consisting of the social world of the actors who are the subject of study. The nature of, and relationship between, these contexts is imagined in philosophy; managed, rewarded, and sanctioned in graduate seminars, journal reviews, and tenure cases; and practiced in research. Positivism proposed to produce objective knowledge by suppressing the (...)
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  • Using the Logical Basis of Phylogenetics as the Framework for Teaching Biology.Charles Morphy D. Santos & Adolfo R. Calor - unknown
    The influence of the evolutionary theory is widespread in modern worldview. Due to its great explanatory power and pervasiveness, the theory of evolution should be used as the organizing theme in biology teaching. For this purpose, the essential concepts of phylogenetic systematics are useful as a didactic instrument. The phylogenetic method was the first objective set of rules to implement in systematics the evolutionary view that the organisms are all connected at some hierarchical level due to common ancestry, as suggested (...)
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  • II—Relativist Stances, Virtues And Vices.Martin Kusch - 2019 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 93 (1):271-291.
    This paper comments on Maria Baghramian’s ‘The Virtues of Relativism’. We agree that some relativist positions are naturally couched as ‘stances’ and that it is fruitful to connect relativism to virtue epistemology. But I find Baghramian’s preferred rendering of relativism uncharitable.
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  • I—The Virtues of Relativism.Maria Baghramian - 2019 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 93 (1):247-269.
    What is it about relativism that justifies, or at least explains, its continued appeal in the face of relentless attacks through the history of philosophy? This paper explores a new answer to this old question, casting the response in metaphilosophical terms. § i introduces the problem. § ii argues that one part of the answer is that some of the well-known defences of relativism take it to be a philosophical stance—that is, a broad perspective or orientation with normative consequences—rather than (...)
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  • A Tale of Three Theories: Feyerabend and Popper on Progress and the Aim of Science.Luca Tambolo - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 51:33-41.
    In this paper, three theories of progress and the aim of science are discussed: the theory of progress as increasing explanatory power, advocated by Popper in The logic of scientific discovery ; the theory of progress as approximation to the truth, introduced by Popper in Conjectures and refutations ; the theory of progress as a steady increase of competing alternatives, which Feyerabend put forward in the essay “Reply to criticism. Comments on Smart, Sellars and Putnam” and defended as late as (...)
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  • Farming Systems Research and Spirituality : An Analysis of the Foundations of Professionalism in Developing Sustainable Farming Systems.A. M. Eijk - unknown
    The practicability of the comprehensive FSR concept is problematic. Contemporary FSR must be positioned at the point of overlap between the positivist and constructivist paradigms, which are both grounded in a continual identification with the rational-empirical consciousness, in thinking -being. Spirituality, defined as the process in which one systematically trains the receptivity to gain regular access to transcendental consciousness, emphasizes the experience of just being, of consciousness-as-such. It is an experiential spirituality, which is not based on dogmas, but on do-it-yourself (...)
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  • Homing in on Consciousness in the Nervous System: An Action-Based Synthesis.Ezequiel Morsella, Christine A. Godwin, Tiffany K. Jantz, Stephen C. Krieger & Adam Gazzaley - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39:1-70.
    What is the primary function of consciousness in the nervous system? The answer to this question remains enigmatic, not so much because of a lack of relevant data, but because of the lack of a conceptual framework with which to interpret the data. To this end, we have developed Passive Frame Theory, an internally coherent framework that, from an action-based perspective, synthesizes empirically supported hypotheses from diverse fields of investigation. The theory proposes that the primary function of consciousness is well-circumscribed, (...)
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  • Non solum peritos in ea glorificare. Apretado compendio histórico-cultural del papel jugado por las disciplinas musicales en la educación occidental, y propuesta hermenéutico-filosófica, con tintes gadamerianos, de cierta labor que les cabría ejercer en nuestro porvenir.Miguel Angel Quintana Paz - 2005 - In Teresa Oñate Zubía, Cristina García Santos & Miguel Angel Quintana Paz (eds.), Hans-Georg Gadamer: Ontología estética y hermenéutica. Madrid: Dykinson. pp. 613-677.
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  • The Self and its Brain.Stan Klein - 2012 - Social Cognition 30 (4):474-518.
    In this paper I argue that much of the confusion and mystery surrounding the concept of "self" can be traced to a failure to appreciate the distinction between the self as a collection of diverse neural components that provide us with our beliefs, memories, desires, personality, emotions, etc (the epistemological self) and the self that is best conceived as subjective, unified awareness, a point of view in the first person (ontological self). While the former can, and indeed has, been extensively (...)
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  • Environments of Intelligence. From Natural Information to Artficial Interaction.Hajo Greif - 2017 - London: Routledge.
    What is the role of the environment, and of the information it provides, in cognition? More specifically, may there be a role for certain artefacts to play in this context? These are questions that motivate "4E" theories of cognition (as being embodied, embedded, extended, enactive). In his take on that family of views, Hajo Greif first defends and refines a concept of information as primarily natural, environmentally embedded in character, which had been eclipsed by information-processing views of cognition. He continues (...)
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  • Epistemic Vices in Public Debate: The Case of New Atheism.Ian James Kidd - 2017 - In Christopher Cotter & Philip Quadrio (eds.), New Atheism's Legacy: Critical Perspectives From Philosophy and the Social Sciences. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 51-68..
    Although critics often argue that the new atheists are arrogant, dogmatic, closed-minded and so on, there is currently no philosophical analysis of this complaint - which I will call 'the vice charge' - and no assessment of whether it is merely a rhetorical aside or a substantive objection in its own right. This Chapter therefore uses the resources of virtue epistemology to articulate this ' vice charge' and to argue that critics are right to imply that new atheism is intrinsically (...)
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  • Social Constructivism and Methodology of Science.Gabriel Târziu - 2017 - Synthesis Philosophica 32 (2):449-466.
    Scientific practice is a type of social practice, and every enterprise of knowledge in general exhibits important social dimensions. But should the fact that scientific practice is born out of and tied to the collaborative efforts of the members of a social group be taken to affect the products of these practices as well? In this paper, I will try in to give an affirmative answer to this question. My strategy will be to argue that the aim of science is (...)
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  • “The Scientific Method” as Myth and Ideal.Brian A. Woodcock - 2014 - Science & Education 23 (10):2069-2093.
  • Embodying Social Practice: Dynamically Co-Constituting Social Agency.Brian W. Dunst - unknown
    Theories of cognition and theories of social practices and institutions have often each separately acknowledged the relevance of the other; but seldom have there been consistent and sustained attempts to synthesize these two areas within one explanatory framework. This is precisely what my dissertation aims to remedy. I propose that certain recent developments and themes in philosophy of mind and cognitive science, when understood in the right way, can explain the emergence and dynamics of social practices and institutions. Likewise, the (...)
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  • The Philosophy of Computer Science.Raymond Turner - 2013 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Demystifying the Influential IS Legends of Positivism.Mikko Siponen & Aggeliki Tsohou - 2018 - Journal of the Association for Information Systems 19 (7):600-617.
    Positivism has been used to establish a standard that Information Systems research must meet to be scientific. According to such positivistic beliefs in IS, scientific research should: 1) be generalizable, 2) focus on stable independent variables, 3) have certain ontological assumptions, and 4) use statistical or quantitative methods rather than qualitative methods. We argue that logical positivist philosophers required none of these. On the contrary, logical positivist philosophers regarded philosophizing in general and ontological considerations in particular as nonsense. Moreover, the (...)
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  • From Cathode Rays to Alpha Particles to Quantum of Action: A Rational Reconstruction of Structure of the Atom and its Implications for Chemistry Textbooks.Mansoor Niaz - 1998 - Science Education 82 (5):527-552.
  • Between Kin Selection and Cultural Relativism: Cultural Evolution and the Origin of Inequality.William T. Lynch - 2019 - Perspectives on Science 27 (2):278-315.
    One way to interpret the significance of the "Kuhnian revolution" in the history and philosophy of science is as implying that successful scientific theories are complex cultural adaptations. Like the complex cultural practices studied by anthropologists in traditional societies, scientific paradigms are the result of cultural evolution and come as a package that functions well for guiding the practice of a scientific community, but that cannot be taken apart into discrete truth claims that are tested directly against nature. A complex (...)
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  • ‘Biologising’ Putnam: Saving the Realism in Internal Realism.Michael Vlerick - 2014 - South African Journal of Philosophy 33 (3):271-283.
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  • Biological Constraints Do Not Entail Cognitive Closure.Michael Vlerick - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 48:21-27.
    From the premise that our biology imposes cognitive constraints on our epistemic activities, a series of prominent authors – most notably Fodor, Chomsky and McGinn – have argued that we are cognitively closed to certain aspects and properties of the world. Cognitive constraints, they argue, entail cognitive closure. I argue that this is not the case. More precisely, I detect two unwarranted conflations at the core of arguments deriving closure from constraints. The first is a conflation of what I will (...)
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  • Reduction, Integration, and the Unity of Science: Natural, Behavioral, and Social Sciences and the Humanities.William P. Bechtel & Andrew Hamilton - 2007 - In T. Kuipers (ed.), Philosophy of Science: Focal Issues (Volume 1 of the Handbook of the Philosophy of Science). Elsevier.
    1. A Historical Look at Unity 2. Field Guide to Modern Concepts of Reduction and Unity 3. Kitcher's Revisionist Account of Unification 4. Critics of Unity 5. Integration Instead of Unity 6. Reduction via Mechanisms 7. Case Studies in Reduction and Unification across the Disciplines.
     
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  • The Ontology of Money: Institutions, Power and Collective Intentionality.Georgios Papadopoulos - 2015 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 8 (1):136.
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  • An Epistemic Interpretation of Quantum Probability Via Contextuality.Claudio Garola - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-16.
    According to a standard view, quantum mechanics is a contextual theory and quantum probability does not satisfy Kolmogorov’s axioms. We show, by considering the macroscopic contexts associated with measurement procedures and the microscopic contexts underlying them, that one can interpret quantum probability as epistemic, despite its non-Kolmogorovian structure. To attain this result we introduce a predicate language L, a classical probability measure on it and a family of classical probability measures on sets of μ-contexts, each element of the family corresponding (...)
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  • Rhetoric and the Incommensurability of Values.Randy Harris - 2003 - OSSA Conference Archive.
    The brunt of my claim in this paper is that the notion expressed in the slogan, “incommensurability of values” is misleading at best, pernicious at worst, and that its implications for practical rhetoric—which is to say, arguments when they go to work— are especially unfortunate. The case is straightforward. There is nothing in the original mathematical metaphor or in the developments in philosophy of science that warrants the use of incommensurability as a technical term in ethics. Values are bigger, lumpier (...)
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  • The Two Selves: Their Metaphysical Commitments and Functional Independence.Stan Klein - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    The Two Selves takes the position that the self is not a "thing" easily reduced to an object of scientific analysis. Rather, the self consists in a multiplicity of aspects, some of which have a neuro-cognitive basis (and thus are amenable to scientific inquiry) while other aspects are best construed as first-person subjectivity, lacking material instantiation. As a consequence of their potential immateriality, the subjective aspect of self cannot be taken as an object and therefore is not easily amenable to (...)
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  • Conciliationism and Fictionalism.Marcus Hunt - 2018 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 4 (25):456-472.
    This paper offers fictionalism as a new approach to the problem of reasonable disagreement discussed in social epistemology. The conciliationist approach to reasonable disagreement is defined, and three problems with it are posed: that it is destructive of inquiry, self-defeating, and unacceptably revisionary. Hans Vaihinger’s account of fictions is explained, and it is shown that if the intellectual commitments that are the subject of reasonable disagreements are treated as fictions rather than as beliefs, the three noted problems are avoided. Whereas (...)
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  • Evaluating the Effects of Artistic Impregnation of Scientific Objects on Qualifiers of Perceptual Assessment Through Self-Report Questionnaires: Implications for an Emerging Experimental Neuroepistemology.Leonardo Toledo Miranda Inácio-Barbosa, Fernanda Teixeira, Vivian Maia Reis, Luis Otávio de Marins Ribeiro, Alfredo Nazareno Pereira Boente & Maira Monteiro Fróes - 2017 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 17 (1-2):129-145.
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  • Lost Wanderers in the Forest of Knowledge: Some Thoughts on the Discovery-Justification Distinction.Don Howard - 2006 - In Jutta Schickore & Friedrich Steinle (eds.), Revisiting Discovery and Justification: Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on the Context Distinction. Springer. pp. 3--22.
    Neo-positivism is dead. Let that imperfect designation stand for the project that dominated and defined the philosophy of science, especially in its Anglophone form, during the fifty or so years following the end of the Second World War. While its critics were many,1 its death was slow, and some think still to find a pulse.2 But die it did in the cul-de-sac into which it was led by its own faulty compass.
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  • Knowledge and Cognitive Integration.Spyridon Orestis Palermos - 2014 - Synthese 191 (8):1931-1951.
    Cognitive integration is a defining yet overlooked feature of our intellect that may nevertheless have substantial effects on the process of knowledge-acquisition. To bring those effects to the fore, I explore the topic of cognitive integration both from the perspective of virtue reliabilism within externalist epistemology and the perspective of extended cognition within externalist philosophy of mind and cognitive science. On the basis of this interdisciplinary focus, I argue that cognitive integration can provide a minimalist yet adequate epistemic norm of (...)
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  • New Philosophies of Science in the USA.Theodore Kisiel & Galen Johnson - 1974 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 5 (1):138-191.
    The following overview of the present situation and recent trends in the philosophy of science in the USA brings together bibliographical and institutional evidence to document the last stages of the supersession of logical positivism, the emergence of the historical school , its widespread influence upon other fields as well as within philosophy of science, and finally some of the reactions to it, many of which envision their endeavors as mediations between the historical school and the older logical approaches As (...)
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  • Hindsight and the Definition of Research Success.W. A. Verloren van Themaat - 1984 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 15 (2):272-277.
    Summary This article compares the discoveries of the planets Neptune and Pluto and the unsuccessful search of intra-Mercurial planets. Its conclusion is, that the search of intra-Mercurial planets was started on the basis of reasonable assumptions and competently pursued, that the success in the search of Neptune and Pluto and the failure in the search of intra-Mercurial planets was not due to greater competence of the successful planet searchers, but to good luck of the successful researchers and bad luck of (...)
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  • Human Reason in Context.Szu-Ting Chen - 2017 - Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 26:13-28.
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  • Technology as ‘Applied Science’.Daniel Gil-Pérez, Amparo Vilches, Isabel Fernández, Antonio Cachapuz, João Praia, Pablo Valdés & Julia Salinas - 2005 - Science & Education 14 (3-5):309-320.
  • Radical Constructivism, and the Sin of Relativism.Andreas Quale - 2007 - Science & Education 16 (3-5):231-266.
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  • Better Red Than Dead—Putting an End to the Social Irrelevance of Postwar Philosophy of Science.Don Howard - 2009 - Science & Education 18 (2):199-220.
  • The Leap of Learning.David Lewin - 2014 - Ethics and Education 9 (1):113-126.
    This article seeks to elaborate the step of epistemological affirmation that exists within every movement of learning. My epistemological method is rooted in philosophical hermeneutics in contrast to empirical or rationalist traditions. I argue that any movement of learning is based upon an entry into a hermeneutical circle: one is thrown into, or leaps into, an interpretation which in some sense has to be temporarily affirmed or adopted in order to be either absorbed and integrated, or overcome and rejected. I (...)
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  • How Cognitive Neuroscience Informs a Subjectivist-Evolutionary Explanation of Business Ethics.Marc Orlitzky - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 144 (4):717-732.
    Most theory in business ethics is still steeped in rationalist and moral-realist assumptions. However, some seminal neuroscientific studies point to the primacy of moral emotions and intuition in shaping moral judgment. In line with previous interpretations, I suggest that a dual-system explanation of emotional-intuitive automaticity and deliberative reasoning is the most appropriate view. However, my interpretation of the evidence also contradicts Greene’s conclusion that nonconsequentialist decision making is primarily sentimentalist or affective at its core, while utilitarianism is largely rational-deliberative. Instead, (...)
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  • Making Quantitative Research Work: From Positivist Dogma to Actual Social Scientific Inquiry.Michael J. Zyphur & Dean C. Pierides - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics.
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  • Will the Popperian Feyerabend Please Step Forward: Pluralistic, Popperian Themes in the Philosophy of Paul Feyerabend.Robert P. Farrell - 2000 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 14 (3):257 – 266.
    John Preston has claimed that we must understand Paul Feyerabend's later, post-1970, philosophy in terms of a disappointed Popperianism: that Feyerabend became a sceptical, relativistic, literal anarchist because of his perception of the failure of Popper's philosophy. I argue that this claim cannot be supported and trace the development of Feyerabend's philosophy in terms of a commitment to the central Popperian themes of criticism and critical explanatory progress. This commitment led Feyerabend to reject Popper's specific methodology in favour of a (...)
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  • Le développement des sciences est-il un procès normé? Faut-il choisir entre Kuhn, Feyerabend et Popper?Normand Lacharité - 1978 - Dialogue 17 (4):616-633.
  • The Epistemic Importance of Technology in Computer Simulation and Machine Learning.Michael Resch & Andreas Kaminski - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (1):9-17.
    Scientificity is essentially methodology. The use of information technology as methodological instruments in science has been increasing for decades, this raises the question: Does this transform science? This question is the subject of the Special Issue in Minds and Machines “The epistemological significance of methods in computer simulation and machine learning”. We show that there is a technological change in this area that has three methodological and epistemic consequences: methodological opacity, reproducibility issues, and altered forms of justification.
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  • On the Conceptual and Linguistic Activity of Psychologists: The Study of Behavior From the 1890s to the 1990s and Beyond. [REVIEW]David E. Leary - 2004 - Behavior and Philosophy 32 (1):13 - 35.
    In the early twentieth century psychology became the study of "behavior." This article reviews developments within animal psychology, functional psychology, and American society and culture that help explain how a term rarely used in the first years of the century became not only an accepted scientific concept but even, for many, an all-encompassing label for the entire subject matter of the discipline. The subsequent conceptual and linguistic activity of John B. Watson, Edward C. Tolman, Clark L. Hull, and B.F. Skinner, (...)
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  • The Bee-Haviour of Scientists: An Analogy of Science From the World of Bees.Ben Trubody - 2011 - Between the Species 14 (1):6.
    I am going to compare the strategies and communication bees use in order to locate and retrieve nectar to the world of science and the scientist. The analogy is intentionally anthropomorphic but I wish to argue that if successful bees made assumptions they would be similar to those of the scientist: flowers can be regarded as facts, nectar as knowledge, honey as technology and their ‘waggle-dance’ as communication of ideas. I would like to say that this is to be used (...)
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  • DSM-5 and Psychiatry's Second Revolution: Descriptive Vs. Theoretical Approaches to Psychiatric Classification.Jonathan Y. Tsou - 2015 - In Steeves Demazeux & Patrick Singy (eds.), The DSM-5 in Perspective: Philosophical Reflections on the Psychiatric Babel. Springer. pp. 43-62.
    A large part of the controversy surrounding the publication of DSM-5 stems from the possibility of replacing the purely descriptive approach to classification favored by the DSM since 1980. This paper examines the question of how mental disorders should be classified, focusing on the issue of whether the DSM should adopt a purely descriptive or theoretical approach. I argue that the DSM should replace its purely descriptive approach with a theoretical approach that integrates causal information into the DSM’s descriptive diagnostic (...)
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  • De-Centring the ‘Big Picture’: The Origins of Modern Science and the Modern Origins of Science.Andrew Cunningham & Perry Williams - 1993 - British Journal for the History of Science 26 (4):407-432.
    Like it or not, a big picture of the history of science is something which we cannot avoid. Big pictures are, of course, thoroughly out of fashion at the moment; those committed to specialist research find them simplistic and insufficiently complex and nuanced, while postmodernists regard them as simply impossible. But however specialist we may be in our research, however scornful of the immaturity of grand narratives, it is not so easy to escape from dependence – acknowledged or not – (...)
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  • S T A T E.Jaroslav Peregrin - unknown
    The contemporary popularity of the prefix post has found its expression also in the realm of analytic philosophy - there arises something which has come to be called postanalytic philosophy. We put forward that this branch of the analytic movement, germinating in the writings of the late Ludwig Wittgenstein, of Willard Van Orman Quine and Willfrid Sellars, and coming to full blossom with Nelson Goodman, Donald Davidson, Hilary Putnam and Richard Rorty, springs first and foremost from the repudiation of the (...)
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  • Interpreting Quantum Gravity.Dean Rickles - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 36 (4):691-715.
    This is an essay review of two textbooks on quantum gravity by Carlo Rovelli and Claus Kiefer.
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  • Pavlov and the Equivalence of Associability in Classical Conditioning.S. R. Coleman - 2007 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 28 (2):115.
    The discovery of selective associability of cues in classical conditioning has often been treated as an embarrassment to Pavlov, because he has been represented as a proponent of the "equivalence of associability of cues." According to that doctrine, except for the influence of differences in stimulus intensity, all environmental stimuli are equally susceptible to becoming conditioned stimuli if they are arranged in a suitable time-relation to any effective unconditioned stimulus . The current paper asks whether Pavlov explicitly made such a (...)
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  • David Hull's Natural Philosophy of Science.Paul E. Griffiths - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (3):301-310.
    Throughout his career David Hull has sought to bring the philosophy of science into closer contact with science and especially with biological science (Hull 1969, 1997b). This effort has taken many forms. Sometimes it has meant ‘either explaining basic biology to philosophers or explaining basic philosophy to biologists’ (Hull 1996, p. 77). The first of these tasks, simple as it sounds, has been responsible for revolutionary changes. It is well known that traditional philosophy of science, modeled as it was on (...)
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