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  1. Philosophical Intuitions , Heuristics , and Metaphors.Eugen Fischer - 2014 - Synthese 191 (3):569-606.
    : Psychological explanations of philosophical intuitions can help us assess their evidentiary value, and our warrant for accepting them. To explain and assess conceptual or classificatory intuitions about specific situations, some philosophers have suggested explanations which invoke heuristic rules proposed by cognitive psychologists. The present paper extends this approach of intuition assessment by heuristics-based explanation, in two ways: It motivates the proposal of a new heuristic, and shows that this metaphor heuristic helps explain important but neglected intuitions: general factual intuitions (...)
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  • In Defense of Representation.Arthur B. Markman & Eric Dietrich - 2000 - Cognitive Psychology 40 (2):138--171.
    The computational paradigm, which has dominated psychology and artificial intelligence since the cognitive revolution, has been a source of intense debate. Recently, several cognitive scientists have argued against this paradigm, not by objecting to computation, but rather by objecting to the notion of representation. Our analysis of these objections reveals that it is not the notion of representation per se that is causing the problem, but rather specific properties of representations as they are used in various psychological theories. Our analysis (...)
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  • Two Analogy Strategies: The Cases of Mind Metaphors and Introspection.Eugen Fischer - 2018 - Connection Science 30 (2):211-243.
    Analogical reasoning is often employed in problem-solving and metaphor interpretation. This paper submits that, as a default, analogical reasoning addressing these different tasks employs different mapping strategies: In problem-solving, it employs analogy-maximising strategies (like structure mapping, Gentner & Markman 1997); in metaphor interpretation, analogy-minimising strategies (like ATT-Meta, Barnden 2015). The two strategies interact in analogical reasoning with conceptual metaphors. This interaction leads to predictable fallacies. The paper supports these hypotheses through case-studies on ‘mind’-metaphors from ordinary discourse, and abstract problem-solving in (...)
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  • Analogical Insight: Toward Unifying Categorization and Analogy.Eric Dietrich - 2010 - Cognitive Processing 11 (4):331-346.
    The purpose of this paper is to present two kinds of analogical representational change, both occurring early in the analogy-making process, and then, using these two kinds of change, to present a model unifying one sort of analogy-making and categorization. The proposed unification rests on three key claims: (1) a certain type of rapid representational abstraction is crucial to making the relevant analogies (this is the first kind of representational change; a computer model is presented that demonstrates this kind of (...)
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  • The Prepared Mind: The Role of Representational Change in Chance Discovery.Eric Dietrich, Arthur B. Markman & Michael Winkley - 2003 - In Yukio Ohsawa Peter McBurney (ed.), Chance Discovery by Machines. Springer-Verlag, pp. 208-230..
    Analogical reminding in humans and machines is a great source for chance discoveries because analogical reminding can produce representational change and thereby produce insights. Here, we present a new kind of representational change associated with analogical reminding called packing. We derived the algorithm in part from human data we have on packing. Here, we explain packing and its role in analogy making, and then present a computer model of packing in a micro-domain. We conclude that packing is likely used in (...)
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  • Analogical Insight: Toward Unifying Categorization and Analogy.Eric Dietrich - 2010 - Cognitive Processing 11 (4):331-.
    The purpose of this paper is to present two kinds of analogical representational change, both occurring early in the analogy-making process, and then, using these two kinds of change, to present a model unifying one sort of analogy-making and categorization. The proposed unification rests on three key claims: (1) a certain type of rapid representational abstraction is crucial to making the relevant analogies (this is the first kind of representational change; a computer model is presented that demonstrates this kind of (...)
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  • Analogy as Relational Priming: The Challenge of Self-Reflection.Andrea Cheshire, Linden J. Ball & Charlie N. Lewis - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (4):381-382.
    Despite its strengths, Leech et al.'s model fails to address the important benefits that derive from self-explanation and task feedback in analogical reasoning development. These components encourage explicit, self-reflective processes that do not necessarily link to knowledge accretion. We wonder, therefore, what mechanisms can be included within a connectionist framework to model self-reflective involvement and its beneficial consequences.
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  • Relations, Objects, and the Composition of Analogies.Dedre Gentner & Kenneth J. Kurtz - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (4):609-642.
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  • Analogy and Conceptual Change, or You Can't Step Into the Same Mind Twice.Eric Dietrich - 2000 - In Eric Dietrich Art Markman (ed.), Cognitive Dynamics: Conceptual change in humans and machines. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 265--294.
    Sometimes analogy researchers talk as if the freshness of an experience of analogy resides solely in seeing that something is like something else -- seeing that the atom is like a solar system, that heat is like flowing water, that paint brushes work like pumps, or that electricity is like a teeming crowd. But analogy is more than this. Analogy isn't just seeing that the atom is like a solar system; rather, it is seeing something new about the atom, an (...)
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  • Perceptual Symbol Systems.Lawrence W. Barsalou - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):577-660.
    Prior to the twentieth century, theories of knowledge were inherently perceptual. Since then, developments in logic, statis- tics, and programming languages have inspired amodal theories that rest on principles fundamentally different from those underlying perception. In addition, perceptual approaches have become widely viewed as untenable because they are assumed to implement record- ing systems, not conceptual systems. A perceptual theory of knowledge is developed here in the context of current cognitive science and neuroscience. During perceptual experience, association areas in the (...)
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  • The Nature and Transfer of Cognitive Skills.Niels A. Taatgen - 2013 - Psychological Review 120 (3):439-471.
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  • Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data.Robert Tobias - 2009 - Psychological Review 116 (2):408-438.
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  • A Theory of the Discovery and Predication of Relational Concepts.Leonidas A. A. Doumas, John E. Hummel & Catherine M. Sandhofer - 2008 - Psychological Review 115 (1):1-43.
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  • Are Automatic Conceptual Cores the Gold Standard of Semantic Processing? The Context‐Dependence of Spatial Meaning in Grounded Congruency Effects.Lauren A. M. Lebois, Christine D. Wilson‐Mendenhall & Lawrence W. Barsalou - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (8):1764-1801.
    According to grounded cognition, words whose semantics contain sensory-motor features activate sensory-motor simulations, which, in turn, interact with spatial responses to produce grounded congruency effects. Growing evidence shows these congruency effects do not always occur, suggesting instead that the grounded features in a word's meaning do not become active automatically across contexts. Researchers sometimes use this as evidence that concepts are not grounded, further concluding that grounded information is peripheral to the amodal cores of concepts. We first review broad evidence (...)
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  • The Impact of Analogies on Creative Concept Generation: Lessons From an In Vivo Study in Engineering Design.Joel Chan & Christian Schunn - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (1):126-155.
    Research on innovation often highlights analogies from sources outside the current problem domain as a major source of novel concepts; however, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not well understood. We analyzed the temporal interplay between far analogy use and creative concept generation in a professional design team's brainstorming conversations, investigating the hypothesis that far analogies lead directly to very novel concepts via large steps in conceptual spaces . Surprisingly, we found that concepts were more similar to their preceding concepts (...)
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  • Mind the Metaphor! A Systematic Fallacy in Analogical Reasoning.Eugen Fischer - 2015 - Analysis 75 (1):67-77.
    Conceptual metaphors facilitate both productive and pernicious analogical reasoning. This article addresses the question: When and why does the frequently helpful use of metaphor become pernicious? By applying the most influential theoretical framework from cognitive psychology in analysing the philosophically most prominent example of pernicious metaphorical reasoning, we identify a philosophically relevant but previously undescribed fallacy in analogical reasoning with metaphors. We then outline an explanation of why even competent thinkers commit this fallacy and obtain a psychologically informed ‘debunking’ explanation (...)
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  • The Computational Modeling of Analogy-Making.Robert M. French - 2002 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (5):200-205.
  • Similarity and the Development of Rules.Dedre Gentner & José Medina - 1998 - Cognition 65 (2-3):263-297.
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  • Similarity and Rules: Distinct? Exhaustive? Empirically Distinguishable?Ulrike Hahn & Nick Chater - 1998 - Cognition 65 (2-3):197-230.
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  • Do Young Children Have Adult Syntactic Competence?Michael Tomasello - 2000 - Cognition 74 (3):209-253.
  • Detecting Anomalous Features in Complex Stimuli: The Role of Structured Comparison.Kenneth J. Kurtz & Dedre Gentner - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 19 (3):219.
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  • Bootstrapping the Mind: Analogical Processes and Symbol Systems.Dedre Gentner - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (5):752-775.
    Human cognition is striking in its brilliance and its adaptability. How do we get that way? How do we move from the nearly helpless state of infants to the cognitive proficiency that characterizes adults? In this paper I argue, first, that analogical ability is the key factor in our prodigious capacity, and, second, that possession of a symbol system is crucial to the full expression of analogical ability.
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  • Developing Structured Representations.Leonidas A. A. Doumas & Lindsey E. Richland - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (4):384-385.
    Leech et al.'s model proposes representing relations as primed transformations rather than as structured representations (explicit representations of relations and their roles dynamically bound to fillers). However, this renders the model unable to explain several developmental trends (including relational integration and all changes not attributable to growth in relational knowledge). We suggest looking to an alternative computational model that learns structured representations from examples.
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  • Curb Your Embodiment.Diane Pecher - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 10 (3):501-517.
    To explain how abstract concepts are grounded in sensory-motor experiences, several theories have been proposed. I will discuss two of these proposals, Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Situated Cognition, and argue why they do not fully explain grounding. A central idea in Conceptual Metaphor Theory is that image schemas ground abstract concepts in concrete experiences. Image schemas might themselves be abstractions, however, and therefore do not solve the grounding problem. Moreover, image schemas are too simple to explain the full richness of (...)
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  • Resources for Research on Analogy: A Multi-Disciplinary Guide.Marcello Guarini, Amy Butchart, Paul Simard Smith & Andrei Moldovan - 2009 - Informal Logic 29 (2):84-197.
    Work on analogy has been done from a number of disciplinary perspectives throughout the history of Western thought. This work is a multidisciplinary guide to theorizing about analogy. It contains 1,406 references, primarily to journal articles and monographs, and primarily to English language material. classical through to contemporary sources are included. The work is classified into eight different sections (with a number of subsections). A brief introduction to each section is provided. Keywords and key expressions of importance to research on (...)
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  • Analogical Retrieval of Folktales: A Cross-Cultural Approach.Saba Torabian, Zhe Chen, Beth A. Ober & Gregory K. Shenaut - 2017 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 17 (3-4):281-305.
    This cross-cultural study addressed how individuals retrieve and transfer naturally learned information from long-term memory by analogy with a previously unencountered story, concept, or problem. American and Iranian participants read target stories constructed to be analogous to folktales either familiar or unfamiliar to their culture, all having high structural familiarity and either high or low surface similarity to the source folktales. Participants reported whether targets reminded them of any specific folktale they had learned in the past; positive responses plus additional (...)
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  • Applying Global Workspace Theory to the Frame Problem.Murray Shanahan & Bernard J. Baars - 2005 - Cognition 98 (2):157-176.
  • Multiply-Constrained Semantic Search in the Remote Associates Test.Kevin A. Smith, David E. Huber & Edward Vul - 2013 - Cognition 128 (1):64-75.
  • A Computational Analysis Model for Open-Ended Cognitions.Junya Morita & Kazuhisa Miwa - 2005 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 20:306-317.
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  • Subvert the Dominant Paradigm!Jerry DeJohn & Eric Dietrich - 2003 - J. Of Experimental and Theoretical AI 15 (4):375-382.
    We again press the case for computationalism by considering the latest in illconceived attacks on this foundational idea. We briefly but clearly define and delimit computationalism and then consider three authors from a new anticomputationalist collection.
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  • Metaphor and Knowledge Change.Dedre Gentner & Phillip Wolff - 2000 - In Eric Dietrich Art Markman (ed.), Cognitive Dynamics: Conceptual Change in Humans and Machines. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 295--342.
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  • Two Problems with the Socio-Relational Critique of Distributive Egalitarianism.Christian Seidel - 2013 - In Miguel Hoeltje, Thomas Spitzley & Wolfgang Spohn (eds.), Was dürfen wir glauben? Was sollen wir tun? Sektionsbeiträge des achten internationalen Kongresses der Gesellschaft für Analytische Philosophie e.V. DuEPublico.
    Distributive egalitarians believe that distributive justice is to be explained by the idea of distributive equality (DE) and that DE is of intrinsic value. The socio-relational critique argues that distributive egalitarianism does not account for the “true” value of equality, which rather lies in the idea of “equality as a substantive social value” (ESV). This paper examines the socio-relational critique and argues that it fails because – contrary to what the critique presupposes –, first, ESV is not conceptually distinct from (...)
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  • Analogical Transfer From Interaction with a Simulated Physical System.Samuel B. Day & Robert L. Goldstone - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1406--1411.
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  • The in Vivo/in Vitro Approach to Cognition: The Case of Analogy.Kevin Dunbar & Isabelle Blanchette - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (8):334-339.
  • What Difference Reveals About Similarity.Eyal Sagi, Dedre Gentner & Andrew Lovett - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (6):1019-1050.
    Detecting that two images are different is faster for highly dissimilar images than for highly similar images. Paradoxically, we showed that the reverse occurs when people are asked to describe how two images differ—that is, to state a difference between two images. Following structure-mapping theory, we propose that this disassociation arises from the multistage nature of the comparison process. Detecting that two images are different can be done in the initial (local-matching) stage, but only for pairs with low overlap; thus, (...)
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  • Structure-Mapping in Metaphor Comprehension.Phillip Wolff & Dedre Gentner - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (8):1456-1488.
    Metaphor has a double life. It can be described as a directional process in which a stable, familiar base domain provides inferential structure to a less clearly specified target. But metaphor is also described as a process of finding commonalities, an inherently symmetric process. In this second view, both concepts may be altered by the metaphorical comparison. Whereas most theories of metaphor capture one of these aspects, we offer a model based on structure-mapping that captures both sides of metaphor processing. (...)
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  • Analogy and Creativity in the Works of Johannes Kepler.Dedre Gentner, Sarah Brem, Ron Ferguson, Philip Wolff, Arthur B. Markman & Ken Forbus - 1997 - In T. B. Ward, S. M. Smith & J. Viad (eds.), Creative Thought: An Investigation of Conceptual Structures and Processes. American Psychological Association.
  • Nonintentional Similarity Processing.Arthur B. Markman & Dedre Gentner - 2005 - In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford Series in Social Cognition and Social Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. pp. 107--137.
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  • Psychology in Cognitive Science: 1978–2038.Dedre Gentner - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):328-344.
    This paper considers the past and future of Psychology within Cognitive Science. In the history section, I focus on three questions: (a) how has the position of Psychology evolved within Cognitive Science, relative to the other disciplines that make up Cognitive Science; (b) how have particular Cognitive Science areas within Psychology waxed or waned; and (c) what have we gained and lost. After discussing what’s happened since the late 1970s, when the Society and the journal began, I speculate about where (...)
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  • The Structure and Function of Spontaneous Analogising in Domain-Based Problem Solving.Christopher R. Bearman, Linden J. Ball & Thomas C. Ormerod - 2007 - Thinking and Reasoning 13 (3):273 – 294.
    Laboratory-based studies of problem solving suggest that transfer of solution principles from an analogue to a target arises only minimally without the presence of directive hints. Recently, however, real-world studies indicate that experts frequently and spontaneously use analogies in domain-based problem solving. There is also some evidence that in certain circumstances domain novices can draw analogies designed to illustrate arguments. It is less clear, however, whether domain novices can invoke analogies in the sophisticated manner of experts to enable them to (...)
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  • Development of Reflection Support System by Applying a Cognitive Model of Analogical Reasoning.Junya Morita & Yukari Nagai - 2011 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 26 (5):559-570.
  • Semantic Grounding in Models of Analogy: An Environmental Approach.Michael Ramscar & Daniel Yarlett - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (1):41-71.
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  • Explaining the Abundance of Distant Analogies in Naturalistic Observations of Experts.Mã¡Ximo Trench - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Reviving Inert Knowledge: Analogical Abstraction Supports Relational Retrieval of Past Events.Dedre Gentner, Jeffrey Loewenstein, Leigh Thompson & Kenneth D. Forbus - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (8):1343-1382.
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  • Abstract Concepts, Compositionality, and the Contextualism-Invariantism Debate.Löhr Guido - 2017 - Philosophical Psychology 30 (6):689-710.
    Invariantists argue that the notion of concept in psychology should be reserved for knowledge that is retrieved in a context-insensitive manner. Contextualists argue that concepts are to be understood in terms of context-sensitive ad hoc constructions. I review the central empirical evidence for and against both views and show that their conclusions are based on a common mischaracterization of both theories. When the difference between contextualism and invariantism is properly understood, it becomes apparent that the way the question of stability (...)
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  • Anchoring on Self and Others During Social Inferences.F. X. Willard Daniel & B. Markman Arthur - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):819-841.
    When making inferences about similar others, people anchor and adjust away from themselves. However, research on relational self theory suggests the possibility of using knowledge about others as an anchor when they are more similar to a target. We investigated whether social inferences are made on the basis of significant other knowledge through an anchoring and adjustment process, and whether anchoring on a significant other is more effortful than anchoring on the self. Participants answered questions about their likes and habits, (...)
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  • Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.B. Goldwater Micah - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):776-799.
    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the “who did what to whom” part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel (...)
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  • Familiarity, Priming, and Perception in Similarity Judgments.M. Hiatt Laura & J. Gregory Trafton - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (6):1450-1484.
    We present a novel way of accounting for similarity judgments. Our approach posits that similarity stems from three main sources—familiarity, priming, and inherent perceptual likeness. Here, we explore each of these constructs and demonstrate their individual and combined effectiveness in explaining similarity judgments. Using these three measures, our account of similarity explains ratings of simple, color-based perceptual stimuli that display asymmetry effects, as well as more complicated perceptual stimuli with structural properties; more traditional approaches to similarity solve one or the (...)
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  • CogSketch: Sketch Understanding for Cognitive Science Research and for Education.Kenneth Forbus, Jeffrey Usher, Andrew Lovett, Kate Lockwood & Jon Wetzel - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (4):648-666.
    Sketching is a powerful means of working out and communicating ideas. Sketch understanding involves a combination of visual, spatial, and conceptual knowledge and reasoning, which makes it both challenging to model and potentially illuminating for cognitive science. This paper describes CogSketch, an ongoing effort of the NSF-funded Spatial Intelligence and Learning Center, which is being developed both as a research instrument for cognitive science and as a platform for sketch-based educational software. We describe the idea of open-domain sketch understanding, the (...)
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  • Extending SME to Handle Large‐Scale Cognitive Modeling.Kenneth D. Forbus, Ronald W. Ferguson, Andrew Lovett & Dedre Gentner - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (5):1152-1201.
    Analogy and similarity are central phenomena in human cognition, involved in processes ranging from visual perception to conceptual change. To capture this centrality requires that a model of comparison must be able to integrate with other processes and handle the size and complexity of the representations required by the tasks being modeled. This paper describes extensions to Structure-Mapping Engine since its inception in 1986 that have increased its scope of operation. We first review the basic SME algorithm, describe psychological evidence (...)
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