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  1. Interventions for Organizational Climate and Culture in Academia: A Scoping Review.Marin Viđak, Lana Barać, Ružica Tokalić, Ivan Buljan & Ana Marušić - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (2):1-23.
    Organizational climate and culture may influence different work-related outcomes, including responsible conduct of research and research misconduct in academic or research organizations. In this scoping review we collected evidence on outcomes of interventions to change organizational climate or culture in academic or research settings. Out of 32,093 documents retrieved by the search, we analysed 207 documents in full text, out of which 7 met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final analysis. The included studies measured organizational climate, organizational (...)
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  • Making researchers responsible: attributions of responsibility and ambiguous notions of culture in research codes of conduct.Govert Valkenburg, Guus Dix, Joeri Tijdink & Sarah de Rijcke - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-13.
    BackgroundResearch codes of conduct offer guidance to researchers with respect to which values should be realized in research practices, how these values are to be realized, and what the respective responsibilities of the individual and the institution are in this. However, the question ofhowthe responsibilities are to be divided between the individual and the institution has hitherto received little attention. We therefore performed an analysis of research codes of conduct to investigate how responsibilities are positioned as individual or institutional, and (...)
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  • Important Topics for Fostering Research Integrity by Research Performing and Research Funding Organizations: A Delphi Consensus Study.Joeri Tijdink, Lidwine Mokkink, Ana Marušić, Natalie Evans, Guy Widdershoven, Lex Bouter, Rea Roje & Krishma Labib - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4):1-22.
    To foster research integrity (RI), it is necessary to address the institutional and system-of-science factors that influence researchers’ behavior. Consequently, research performing and research funding organizations (RPOs and RFOs) could develop comprehensive RI policies outlining the concrete steps they will take to foster RI. So far, there is no consensus on which topics are important to address in RI policies. Therefore, we conducted a three round Delphi survey study to explore which RI topics to address in institutional RI policies by (...)
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  • The Mentor’s Role in Fostering Research Integrity Standards Among New Generations of Researchers: A Review of Empirical Studies. [REVIEW]Daniel Pizzolato & Kris Dierickx - 2023 - Science and Engineering Ethics 29 (3):1-23.
    Promoting research integrity practices among doctoral candidates and early career researchers is important for creating a stable and healthy research environment. In addition to teaching specific technical skills and knowledge, research supervisors and mentors inevitably convey research practices, both directly and indirectly. We conducted a scoping review to summarise the role of mentors in fostering research integrity practices, mentors’ responsibilities and the role that institutions have in supporting good mentorship. We searched five different databases and included studies that used an (...)
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  • Research Integrity Supervision Practices and Institutional Support: A Qualitative Study.Daniel Pizzolato & Kris Dierickx - 2023 - Journal of Academic Ethics 21 (3):427-448.
    Scientific malpractice is not just due to researchers having bad intentions, but also due to a lack of education concerning research integrity practices. Besides the importance of institutionalised trainings on research integrity, research supervisors play an important role in translating what doctoral students learn during research integrity formal sessions. Supervision practices and role modelling influence directly and indirectly supervisees’ attitudes and behaviour toward responsible research. Research supervisors can not be left alone in this effort. Research institutions are responsible for supporting (...)
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  • A multi-dimensional learning strategy to foster research integrity.Daniel Pizzolato & Kris Dierickx - forthcoming - Research Ethics.
    Responsible research practices are critical to maintaining integrity in research and the provision of institutional trainings is an important means of promoting research integrity. However, studies show contrasting results on the efficacy of institutional training and that these approaches may not be fully effective in promoting research integrity among individuals and improving the overall climate in research integrity. Therefore, a more comprehensive multi-dimensional learning strategy seems to be needed. This includes continuous and tailored training at different institutional levels, the incorporation (...)
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  • “It is Very Difficult for us to Separate Ourselves from this System”: Views of European Researchers, Research Managers, Administrators and Governance Advisors on Structural and Institutional Influences on Research Integrity.Mari-Rose Kennedy, Zuzana Deans, Ilaria Ampollini, Eric Breit, Massimiano Bucchi, Külliki Seppel, Knut Jørgen Vie & Ruud ter Meulen - 2023 - Journal of Academic Ethics 21 (3):471-495.
    Research integrity is fundamental to the validity and reliability of scientific findings, and for ethical conduct of research. As part of PRINTEGER (Promoting Integrity as an Integral Dimension of Excellence in Research), this study explores the views of researchers, research managers, administrators, and governance advisors in Estonia, Italy, Norway and UK, focusing specifically on their understanding of institutional and organisational influences on research integrity.A total of 16 focus groups were conducted. Thematic analysis of the data revealed that competition is pervasive (...)
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  • Questionable Research Practices and Misconduct Among Norwegian Researchers.Matthias Kaiser, Laura Drivdal, Johs Hjellbrekke, Helene Ingierd & Ole Bjørn Rekdal - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (1):1-31.
    This article presents results from the national survey conducted in 2018 for the project Research Integrity in Norway. A total of 31,206 questionnaires were sent out to Norwegian researchers by e-mail, and 7291 responses were obtained. In this paper, we analyse the survey data to determine attitudes towards and the prevalence of fabrication, falsification and plagiarism and contrast this with attitudes towards and the prevalence of the more questionable research practices surveyed. Our results show a relatively low percentage of self-reported (...)
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  • The Contribution of Moral Case Deliberation to Teaching RCR to PhD Students.Giulia Inguaggiato, Krishma Labib, Natalie Evans, Fenneke Blom, Lex Bouter & Guy Widdershoven - 2023 - Science and Engineering Ethics 29 (2):1-18.
    Teaching responsible conduct of research (RCR) to PhD students is crucial for fostering responsible research practice. In this paper, we show how the use of Moral Case Deliberation—a case reflection method used in the Amsterdam UMC RCR PhD course—is particularity valuable to address three goals of RCR education: (1) making students aware of, and internalize, RCR principles and values, (2) supporting reflection on good conduct in personal daily practice, and (3) developing students’ dialogical attitude and skills so that they can (...)
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  • On the Willingness to Report and the Consequences of Reporting Research Misconduct: The Role of Power Relations.Serge P. J. M. Horbach, Eric Breit, Willem Halffman & Svenn-Erik Mamelund - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1595-1623.
    While attention to research integrity has been growing over the past decades, the processes of signalling and denouncing cases of research misconduct remain largely unstudied. In this article, we develop a theoretically and empirically informed understanding of the causes and consequences of reporting research misconduct in terms of power relations. We study the reporting process based on a multinational survey at eight European universities. Using qualitative data that witnesses of research misconduct or of questionable research practices provided, we aim to (...)
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  • Research Integrity and Hidden Value Conflicts.Gert Helgesson & William Bülow - 2023 - Journal of Academic Ethics 21 (1):113-123.
    Research integrity is a well-established term used to talk and write about ethical issues in research. Part of its success might be its broad applicability. In this paper, we suggest that this might also be its Achilles heel, since it has the potential to conceal important value conflicts. We identify three broad domains upon which research integrity is applied in the literature: (1) the researcher (or research group), (2) research, and (3) research-related institutions and systems. Integrity in relation to researchers (...)
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  • Towards a Framework for Research Ethics Education for Physicians in Serbia.Tatjana Gazibara, Jelena Dotlic, Dejan Donev, Vida Jeremic Stojkovic & Darija Kisic-Tepavcevic - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1249-1266.
    With growing opportunities for medical doctors to work either in academia and industry, research ethics education for health sciences research, meaning research which includes humans and animals and/or their tissues and cells with the goal to understand underlying mechanisms of disease occurrence and disease treatment, is of paramount importance, especially in regions, such as Serbia, where comprehensive research ethics curricula for physician researchers are lacking. This article addresses the spectrum of research ethics topics that were identified through analysis of the (...)
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  • Stakeholders’ Experiences of Research Integrity Support in Universities: A Qualitative Study in Three European Countries.Natalie Evans, Ivan Buljan, Emanuele Valenti, Lex Bouter, Ana Marušić, Raymond de Vries & Guy Widdershoven - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (5):1-23.
    Fostering research integrity (RI) increasingly focuses on normative guidance and supportive measures within institutions. To be successful, the implementation of support should be informed by stakeholders’ experiences of RI support. This study aims to explore experiences of RI support in Dutch, Spanish and Croatian universities. In total, 59 stakeholders (Netherlands n = 25, Spain n = 17, Croatia n = 17) participated in 16 focus groups in three European countries. Global themes on RI support experiences were identified by thematic analysis. (...)
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  • Practices for Research Integrity Promotion in Research Performing Organisations and Research Funding Organisations: A Scoping Review.Rea Ščepanović, Krishma Labib, Ivan Buljan, Joeri Tijdink & Ana Marušić - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-20.
    Research integrity is a continuously developing concept, and increasing emphasis is put on creating RI promotion practices. This study aimed to map the existing RI guidance documents at research performing organisations and research funding organisations. A search of bibliographic databases and grey literature sources was performed, and retrieved documents were screened for eligibility. The search of bibliographical databases and reference lists of selected articles identified a total of 92 documents while the search of grey literature sources identified 118 documents for (...)
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  • Stakeholders' perspectives on research integrity training practices: a qualitative study.Kris Dierickx & Daniel Pizzolato - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-13.
    BackgroundEven though research integrity (RI) training programs have been developed in the last decades, it is argued that current training practices are not always able to increase RI-related awareness within the scientific community. Defining and understanding the capacities and lacunas of existing RI training are becoming extremely important for developing up-to-date educational practices to tackle present-day challenges. Recommendations on how to implement RI education have been primarily made by selected people with specific RI-related expertise. Those recommendations were developed mainly without (...)
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  • Educating PhD Students in Research Integrity in Europe.Kris Dierickx, Benoit Nemery, Daniel Pizzolato & Shila Abdi - 2021 - Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (1):1-19.
    No university or research institution is immune to research misconduct or the more widespread problem of questionable research practices. To strengthen integrity in research, universities worldwide have developed education in research integrity. However, little is known about education in research integrity for PhD students in European research-intensive universities. We conducted a content analysis of didactic materials of 11 of the 23 members of the League of European Research Universities (LERU) to map out the content, format, frequency, duration, timing, and compulsory (...)
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  • Professionalism in Science: Competence, Autonomy, and Service.Hugh Desmond - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1287-1313.
    Some of the most significant policy responses to cases of fraudulent and questionable conduct by scientists have been to strengthen professionalism among scientists, whether by codes of conduct, integrity boards, or mandatory research integrity training programs. Yet there has been little systematic discussion about what professionalism in scientific research should mean. In this paper I draw on the sociology of the professions and on data comparing codes of conduct in science to those in the professions, in order to examine what (...)
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  • Incentivizing Replication Is Insufficient to Safeguard Default Trust.Hugh Desmond - 2021 - Philosophy of Science 88 (5):906-917.
    Philosophers of science and metascientists alike typically model scientists’ behavior as driven by credit maximization. In this article I argue that this modeling assumption cannot account for how scientists have a default level of trust in each other’s assertions. The normative implication of this is that science policy should not focus solely on incentive reform.
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  • What Research Institutions Can Do to Foster Research Integrity.Lex Bouter - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2363-2369.
    In many countries attention for fostering research integrity started with a misconduct case that got a lot of media exposure. But there is an emerging consensus that questionable research practices are more harmful due to their high prevalence. QRPs have in common that they can help to make study results more exciting, more positive and more statistically significant. That makes them tempting to engage in. Research institutions have the duty to empower their research staff to steer away from QRPs and (...)
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  • Perceptions of Research Integrity Climate in Hungarian Universities: Results from A Survey among Academic Researchers.Anna Catharina Vieira Armond & Péter Kakuk - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (4):1-12.
    Research integrity climate is an important factor that influences an individual’s behavior. A strong research integrity culture can lead to better research practices and responsible conduct of research. Therefore, investigations on organizational climate can be a valuable tool to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each group and develop targeted initiatives. This study aims to assess the perceptions on integrity climate in three universities in Hungary. A cross-sectional study was conducted with PhD students, postdocs, and professors from three Hungarian universities. (...)
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