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  1. Ethics and Eplerenone.S. Gupta, A. J. Fugh-Berman & A. Scialli - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (2):110-114.
    The use of a placebo arm in clinical trials is unethical if there is an active comparator that is acceptably safe and effective. We argue that reasonable evidence of effectiveness and safety of an inexpensive alternative to an expensive therapy is sufficient to require that the inexpensive therapy be included as a comparator when the expensive therapy is tested, and that use of an inactive placebo comparator only is not ethical. For example, studies of the expensive drug eplerenone for congestive (...)
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  • Legal Responses to Placebo-Controlled Trials in Developing Countries.Ilja Richard Pavone - 2016 - Global Bioethics 27 (2-4):76-90.
    The conduct of clinical trials involving placebo in developing countries in the presence of an existing effective treatment triggered an intense debate on the standard of care to be provided to those populations. Charges of exploitation of vulnerable groups and double standards have been raised by several scholars. In response to these concerns, the Declaration of Helsinki was revised in 2000, 2008 and 2013, eventually endorsing the golden standard instead of the local standard of care. The European Union adopted a (...)
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  • Ethical Principles and Placebo-Controlled Trials – Interpretation and Implementation of the Declaration of Helsinki’s Placebo Paragraph in Medical Research.Antonia-Sophie Skierka & Karin B. Michels - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):24.
    In October 2013, the Declaration of Helsinki was revised a seventh time in its 50 year history. While it is the most widely accepted set of ethical principles for the protection of patients participating in medical research, the Declaration of Helsinki has also been subject of constant controversy. In particular, its paragraph on the use of placebo controls in clinical trials divides the research community into active-control and placebo orthodox proponents, both continuously demanding revisions of the Declaration of Helsinki in (...)
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  • A Renewed, Ethical Defense of Placebo-Controlled Trials of New Treatments for Major Depression and Anxiety Disorders.B. W. Dunlop & J. Banja - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (6):384-389.
    The use of placebo as a control condition in clinical trials of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders continues to be an area of ethical concern. Typically, opponents of placebo controls argue that they violate the beneficent-based, “best proven diagnostic and therapeutic method” that the original Helsinki Declaration of 1964 famously asserted participants are owed. A more consequentialist, oppositional argument is that participants receiving placebo might suffer enormously by being deprived of their usual medication(s). Nevertheless, recent findings of potential for (...)
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  • Response to Richard B. Miller's "Children, Ethics, and Modern Medicine". [REVIEW]Paul Lauritzen - 2006 - Journal of Religious Ethics 34 (1):151 - 161.
    In this essay, Paul Lauritzen examines Richard B. Miller's liberal account of pediatric ethics by asking if the duty to promote a child's basic interests is substantial enough to secure the well-being of children. This question is raised in light of two case studies: daytime TV talk shows that broadcast interviews with sexually active children, and a medical study conducted to test the effect of growth hormone treatment on adult height in peripubertal children. In both cases, Lauritzen argues, children are (...)
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  • Using Empirical Data to Inform the Ethical Evaluation of Placebo Controlled Trials.Jeremy Sugarman - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):29-35.
    There has been considerable debate about the ethical acceptability of using placebo-controls in clinical research. Although this debate has been rich in rhetoric, considering that much of this research is predicated upon the assumption that data from this research is vital to clinical decision-making, it is ironic that researchers have introduced little data into these discussions. Using some published research concerning the use of placebo-controls in clinical research in hypertension and psychiatric drug trials, I suggest some ways that such data (...)
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  • Children, Ethics, and Modern Medicine.Richard Miller - 2006 - Journal of Religious Ethics 34 (1):141-150.
    This review both praises Richard Miller's book--a thoughtful, judicious, and comprehensive analysis of bioethics for the pediatric age group, notably the first effort worthy of the name--and points out the work still to be done in this area, work firmly based in and illuminated by Miller's ground-breaking thesis. Specifically, the book rightly compels us to recognize obligations of beneficence as primary and to refocus on the child's basic interests, rather than putative "best" interests. There remains much to be done in (...)
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  • The Clinical Investigator as Fiduciary: Discarding a Misguided Idea.E. Haavi Morreim - 2005 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 33 (3):586-598.
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  • Placebos in Klinischen VersuchsreihenPlacebos in Clinical Trials. A Comparative Analysis of International Guidelines.Hans-Jörg Ehni & Urban Wiesing - 2006 - Ethik in der Medizin 18 (3):223-237.
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  • Placebo Orthodoxy in Clinical Research I: Empirical and Methodological Myths.Benjamin Freedman, Charles Weijer & Kathleen Cranley Glass - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):243-251.
  • Placebo Surgery for Parkinson's Disease: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Risks?Peter A. Clark - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (1):58-68.
  • Research Ethics and Misguided Moral Intuition.Franklin G. Miller - 2004 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (1):111-116.
  • The Clinical Investigator as Fiduciary: Discarding a Misguided Idea.E. Haavi Morreim - 2005 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 33 (3):586-598.
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