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  1. Ethics and Eplerenone.S. Gupta, A. J. Fugh-Berman & A. Scialli - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (2):110-114.
    The use of a placebo arm in clinical trials is unethical if there is an active comparator that is acceptably safe and effective. We argue that reasonable evidence of effectiveness and safety of an inexpensive alternative to an expensive therapy is sufficient to require that the inexpensive therapy be included as a comparator when the expensive therapy is tested, and that use of an inactive placebo comparator only is not ethical. For example, studies of the expensive drug eplerenone for congestive (...)
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  • Therapeutic Beneficence and Placebo Controls.Terrence F. Ackerman - 2002 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):21 – 22.
  • Clarifying the Ethics of Clinical Research: A Path Toward Avoiding the Therapeutic Misconception.Paul S. Appelbaum - 2002 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):22 – 23.
    (2002). Clarifying the Ethics of Clinical Research: A Path toward Avoiding the Therapeutic Misconception. The American Journal of Bioethics: Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 22-23.
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  • What Makes Placebo-Controlled Trials Unethical?Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody - 2002 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):3 – 9.
    The leading ethical position on placebo-controlled clinical trials is that whenever proven effective treatment exists for a given condition, it is unethical to test a new treatment for that condition against placebo. Invoking the principle of clinical equipoise, opponents of placebo-controlled trials in the face of proven effective treatment argue that they (1) violate the therapeutic obligation of physicians to offer optimal medical care and (2) lack both scientific and clinical merit. We contend that both of these arguments are mistaken. (...)
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  • When Argument Fails.Charles Weijer - 2002 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):10 – 11.
  • Placebo Groups in Research on the Effectiveness of ABA Therapeutic Techniques.Przemysław Bąbel, Elżbieta Anita Bajcar, Katarzyna Marchewka & Katarzyna Sikora - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • A Renewed, Ethical Defense of Placebo-Controlled Trials of New Treatments for Major Depression and Anxiety Disorders.B. W. Dunlop & J. Banja - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (6):384-389.
    The use of placebo as a control condition in clinical trials of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders continues to be an area of ethical concern. Typically, opponents of placebo controls argue that they violate the beneficent-based, “best proven diagnostic and therapeutic method” that the original Helsinki Declaration of 1964 famously asserted participants are owed. A more consequentialist, oppositional argument is that participants receiving placebo might suffer enormously by being deprived of their usual medication(s). Nevertheless, recent findings of potential for (...)
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  • Using Empirical Data to Inform the Ethical Evaluation of Placebo Controlled Trials.Jeremy Sugarman - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):29-35.
    There has been considerable debate about the ethical acceptability of using placebo-controls in clinical research. Although this debate has been rich in rhetoric, considering that much of this research is predicated upon the assumption that data from this research is vital to clinical decision-making, it is ironic that researchers have introduced little data into these discussions. Using some published research concerning the use of placebo-controls in clinical research in hypertension and psychiatric drug trials, I suggest some ways that such data (...)
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  • Placebo in the Investigation of Psychotropic Drugs, Especially Antidepressants.Stanisław Pużyński - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):135-142.
    The paper presents major ethical, legal and methodological problems related to the use of placebo in mental disorders, especially in depression. It is pointed out that although authoritative groups of experts and numerous publications in the field of psychopharmacology indicate advisability of the double blind design with placebo in clinical trials of antidepressants, in recent years there have been more and more voices questioning legitimacy of this method. Objections of an ethical nature are raised, and reliability of this approach is (...)
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  • Placebo Orthodoxy and the Double Standard of Care in Multinational Clinical Research.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (1):7-23.
    It has been almost 20 years since the field of bioethics was galvanized by a controversial series of multinational AZT trials employing placebo controls on pregnant HIV-positive women in the developing world even though a standard of care existed in the sponsor countries. The trove of ethical investigations that followed was thoughtful and challenging, yet an important and problematic methodological assumption was left unexplored. In this article, I revisit the famous “double standard of care” case study in order to offer (...)
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  • Informed Consent and the Use of Placebo in Poland: Ethical and Legal Aspects.Piotr Zaborowski & Adam Górski - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):167-178.
    The concept of informed consent was one of the most fruitful ideas that deeply changed the relationships between physicians and their patients from paternalism to respect for the personal autonomy of subjects needing professional medical care. The great progress in medicine, also involving the pharmaceutical industry, has created an increasing need to perform different clinical and experimental trials. The evolution of clinical research in the last decades has influenced strongly the design of these studies. One of the most important changes (...)
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  • Placebos in Klinischen VersuchsreihenPlacebos in Clinical Trials. A Comparative Analysis of International Guidelines.Hans-Jörg Ehni & Urban Wiesing - 2006 - Ethik in der Medizin 18 (3):223-237.
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  • I Need a Placebo Like I Need a Hole in the Head.Charles Weijer - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (1):69-72.
  • The Ethical Analysis of Risk.Charles Weijer - 2000 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (4):344-361.
  • Placebo Surgery for Parkinson's Disease: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Risks?Peter A. Clark - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (1):58-68.
  • The Ethical Analysis of Risk.Charles Weijer - 2000 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (4):344-361.
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  • I Need a Placebo Like I Need a Hole in the Head.Charles Weijer - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (1):69-72.
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