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The Future of an Illusion

Broadview Press (1927)

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  1. Social Evolution, Progress and Teleology in Spencer's Synthetic Philosophy and Freudian Psychoanalysis.L. Nascimento - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences.
    This article aims to compare notions of progress and evolution in the social theories of Freud and Spencer. It argues 1) that the two authors had similarly complex theories that contained mixed elements of positivism and teleology; 2) In its positivist elements, both authors made use of unified natural laws and, in its teleological aspect, they made use of notions of final cause in that progress and the evolution of civilization was understood as a linear path of progressive development with (...)
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  • Hope: The Janus-Faced Virtue.Michael Schrader & Michael P. Levine - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (3):11-30.
    In this essay we argue for the Janus-faced nature of hope. We show that attempts to sanitise the concept of hope either by separating it conceptually from other phenomena such as wishful thinking, or, more generally, by seeking to minimise the negative aspects of hope, do not help us to understand the nature of hope and its functions as regards religion. Drawing on functional accounts of religion from Clifford Geertz and Tamas Pataki, who both—in their different ways—see the function of (...)
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  • Theism and Realism: A Match Made in Heaven?Simon Thomas Hewitt - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 10 (4):27-53.
    There is no interesting entailment either way between theism and various forms of realism. Taking its cue from Dummett’s characterisation of realism and his discussion of it with respect to theistic belief, this paper argues both that theism does not follow from realism, and that God cannot be appealed to in order to secure bivalence for an otherwise indeterminate subject matter. In both cases, significant appeal is made to the position that God is not a language user, which in turn (...)
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  • Freud’s Social Theory: Modernist and Postmodernist Revisions.Alfred I. Tauber - 2012 - History of the Human Sciences 25 (4):43-72.
    Acknowledging the power of the id-drives, Freud held on to the authority of reason as the ego’s best tool to control instinctual desire. He thereby placed analytic reason at the foundation of his own ambivalent social theory, which, on the one hand, held utopian promise based upon psychoanalytic insight, and, on the other hand, despaired of reason’s capacity to control the self-destructive elements of the psyche. Moving beyond the recourse of sublimation, post-Freudians attacked reason’s hegemony in quelling disruptive psycho-dynamics and, (...)
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  • The Illusion of Autonomy: Locating Humanism in Existential-Psychoanalytic Social Theory.Sam Han - 2015 - History of the Human Sciences 28 (1):66-83.
    This article assesses a realm of psychoanalytic social theory that is relatively under-discussed – existential psychoanalysis – in order to gain further insight into the relationship of psychoanalytic ideas to humanism. I offer a reading of certain influential thinkers in this tradition, namely Jean-Paul Sartre, Ludwig Binswanger and Medard Boss, presenting conceptual clarifications while highlighting a cluster of important aspects of their respective repertoires relevant to humanism. I do so with the intention of teasing out how contributing voices to existential (...)
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  • The Civilizing Process - According to Mennell, Elias and Freud: A Critique.Harry Redner - 2015 - Thesis Eleven 127 (1):95-111.
    This article critiques theories of the civilizing process as expounded by its leading expositors: Mennell, Elias and Freud. It begins with a criticism of Stephen Mennell’s book The American Civilizing Process. This book relies on an even more famous work, Norbert Elias’s The Civilizing Process. Unfortunately, Mennell’s otherwise commendable attempt to capture American civilization in its historical scope and sociological complexity is misdirected because Eliasian theory is not applicable to America, as we will show, and, furthermore, offers a dubious account (...)
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  • The Secular Problem of Evil: An Essay in Analytic Existentialism.Paul Prescott - 2021 - Religious Studies 57 (1):101-119.
    The existence of evil is often held to pose philosophical problems only for theists. I argue that the existence of evil gives rise to a philosophical problem which confronts theist and atheist alike. The problem is constituted by the following claims: (1) Successful human beings (i.e., those meeting their basic prudential interests) are committed to a good-enough world; (2) the actual world is not a good-enough world (i.e., sufficient evil exists). It follows that human beings must either (3a) maintain a (...)
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  • Freud’s Dreams of Reason: The Kantian Structure of Psychoanalysis.Alfred I. Tauber - 2009 - History of the Human Sciences 22 (4):1-29.
    Freud (and later commentators) have failed to explain how the origins of psychoanalytical theory began with a positivist investment without recognizing a dual epistemological commitment: simply, Freud engaged positivism because he believed it generally equated with empiricism, which he valued, and he rejected ‘philosophy’, and, more specifically, Kantianism, because of the associated transcendental qualities of its epistemology. But this simple dismissal belies a deep investment in Kant’s formulation of human reason, in which rationality escapes natural cause and thereby bestows humans (...)
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  • Ethical and Social Implications of Approaching Death Prediction in Humans - When the Biology of Ageing Meets Existential Issues.Marie Gaille, Marco Araneda, Clément Dubost, Clémence Guillermain, Sarah Kaakai, Elise Ricadat, Nicolas Todd & Michael Rera - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-13.
    BackgroundThe discovery of biomarkers of ageing has led to the development of predictors of impending natural death and has paved the way for personalised estimation of the risk of death in the general population. This study intends to identify the ethical resources available to approach the idea of a long-lasting dying process and consider the perspective of death prediction. The reflection on human mortality is necessary but not sufficient to face this issue. Knowledge about death anticipation in clinical contexts allows (...)
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  • The Emotional Mind: The Affective Roots of Culture and Cognition.Stephen Asma & Rami Gabriel - 2019 - Harvard University Press.
    Tracing the leading role of emotions in the evolution of the mind, a philosopher and a psychologist pair up to reveal how thought and culture owe less to our faculty for reason than to our capacity to feel. Many accounts of the human mind concentrate on the brain’s computational power. Yet, in evolutionary terms, rational cognition emerged only the day before yesterday. For nearly 200 million years before humans developed a capacity to reason, the emotional centers of the brain were (...)
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  • From Numerical Concepts to Concepts of Number.Lance J. Rips, Amber Bloomfield & Jennifer Asmuth - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):623-642.
    Many experiments with infants suggest that they possess quantitative abilities, and many experimentalists believe that these abilities set the stage for later mathematics: natural numbers and arithmetic. However, the connection between these early and later skills is far from obvious. We evaluate two possible routes to mathematics and argue that neither is sufficient: (1) We first sketch what we think is the most likely model for infant abilities in this domain, and we examine proposals for extrapolating the natural number concept (...)
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  • The Immorality of Morality.James W. Daley - 1969 - Diogenes 17 (66):25-49.
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  • Primal Crime: Visions of the Law and Its Transgression in Nicolas Winding Refn’s Cinema.Mark Featherstone - 2021 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 34 (1):49-67.
    In this paper I consider contemporary expressions of what Freud called the primal crime and collapse of paternal law through an exploration of the cinema of the Danish-American Director Nicolas Winding Refn. Introducing the paper I outline Freud’s theory of the law, crime, and civilization, where social order and its transgression become caught in an endless cycle, before moving on to explore Winding Refn’s cinema. Following this work, where I centrally show how Freud founds the law upon structures of the (...)
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  • Future Technoscientific Education: Atheism and Ethics in a Globalizing World.Colin D. Pearce - 2011 - Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 31 (2):81-102.
    This article attempts to assess the claim that the unum necessarium in our time is the general dissemination of scientific knowledge because liberal civilization or the “good society” cannot be had in the presence of traditional religion and “metaphysics.” The paper attempts to place this claim in the context of continuing globalization and related questions such as 9/11, Fundamentalist Islam, Sino-Western relations, “pop” atheism and the prospect of a “post-human” future. The paper describes the continuance of pre-Enlightenment traditions and beliefs (...)
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  • Freud's (de)Construction of the Conflictual Mind.José Brunner - 2002 - Thesis Eleven 71 (1):24-39.
    Freud uses paradoxical and conflictual rhetoric to create an unstable and conflictual picture of the mind. Thus he diverges from both dominant traditions of thought in the West: the Judeo-Christian way of filling all gaps in meaning by putting a single omnipotent divinity in charge of them, and the Enlightenment quest for a final, causal language to describe reality. By both suggesting and displacing a plurality of perspectives on the unconscious, Freud’s text mirrors what it claims happens in our minds, (...)
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  • European Cases.Janet Sayers - 1994 - European Journal of Women's Studies 1 (2):227-239.
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  • Suffering Into Truth: Constructing the Patriarchal Sacred.Mary Condren - 2009 - Feminist Theology 17 (3):356-391.
    Western practices and theories of the sacred have been ritually performed and culturally elaborated mostly by male theorists who ignored the historical exclusion of women from sacral arenas. Shaped by male morphologies, their practices and descriptions quickly became prescriptions for theological rectitude and/or healthy social functioning. Women's exclusion appears to have been essential rather than epiphenomenal to the political and ecclesiastical structures established. Through the lens of Sigmund Freud, in this article I will attempt to analyse why the question as (...)
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  • Narrating the Modern’s Subjection: Freud’s Theory of the Oedipal Complex.Eyal Chowers - 2000 - History of the Human Sciences 13 (3):23-45.
    While Freud’s theory of the Oedipus complex is concerned with psycho-sexual development, it concomitantly presents a novel historical-political imagination. This article compares the post-Oedipal self with the selves envisioned by Nietzsche and Marx, suggesting that while these 19th-century theorists constructed selves that are able to transcend the normalizing and subjugating circumstances of modernity, Freud’s theory defines a healthy self as irredeemably embedded in the prevailing culture and life-orders. In making his case, Freud spurns the quests of Nietzsche and Marx for (...)
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  • Psychoanalysis, Religious Experience, and the Study of Religion: Not “Religious Studies”.Marsha Aileen Hewitt - 2013 - Critical Research on Religion 1 (1):25-32.
    Psychoanalytic critical theory explores the dynamics of individual identity formation within specific cultural contexts. Freud understood that psychoanalysis is a critical social theory as well as a therapeutic practice. His studies on religion illustrate the depths of society and culture within the mind. Freud was thus able to respond to Romain Rolland's experience of an “oceanic” or mystical feeling in thoroughly explanatory psychoanalytic terms that led him to speculate about pre-Oedipal memories of maternal care. Freud made an important contribution to (...)
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  • Religion and Psychology of Values:«Universals» and Changes.Vassilis Saroglou - 2008 - In Evandro Agazzi & Fabio Minazzi (eds.), Science and Ethics: The Axiological Contexts of Science. P.I.E. Peter Lang. pp. 14--247.
  • The Thing to Do: Spontaneous Forms in American Art and Culture.Eduardo Neiva - 2002 - Semiotica 2002 (139):331-375.
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  • On Seeing Human: A Three-Factor Theory of Anthropomorphism.Nicholas Epley, Adam Waytz & John T. Cacioppo - 2007 - Psychological Review 114 (4):864-886.
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  • Review of The Social Psychology of Morality. [REVIEW]Michael Klenk - 2016 - Metapsychology Online 20 (48):1-8.
    If you put chimpanzees from different communities together you can expect mayhem - they are not keen on treating each other nicely. There is closely related species of apes, however, whose members have countless encounters with unrelated specimen on a daily basis and yet almost all get through the day in one piece - that species is us, homo sapiens. But what makes us get along, most of the time? Morality as such is, perhaps surprisingly, not a mainstream research topic (...)
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  • O “Mal-Estar” Na Era de “Ge-Stell”: A Técnica E a Raiz Do Desconforto Existencial No Contexto Social Moderno.Angelo Nunes Milhano - 2020 - Filosofia Unisinos 21 (2).
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  • Issues of Ethics and Identity in Diagnosis of Late Life Depression.Lisa S. Parker & Charles W. Lidz - 2003 - Ethics and Behavior 13 (3):249-262.
    Depression is often diagnosed in patients nearing the end of their lives and medication or psychotherapy is prescribed. In many cases this is appropriate. However, it is widely agreed that a health care professional should treat sick persons so as to improve their condition as they define improvement. This raises questions about the contexts in which treatment of depression in late life is appropriate. This article reviews a problematic case concerning the appropriateness of treatment in light of the literature in (...)
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  • Genealogy and Evidence: Prinz on the History of Morals.John M. Doris - 2009 - Analysis 69 (4):704-713.
    Jesse Prinz’s The Emotional Construction of Morals is among the most significant of illuminations of human morality to appear in recent years. This embarrassment of riches presents the space-starved commentator with a dilemma: survey the book’s extraordinary sweep, and slight the textured argumentation, or engage a fraction of the argumentation, and slight the sweep. I’ll fall on the second horn, and focus mostly on Chapter 7, ‘The Genealogy of Morals’. Like Prinz , 1 I think that genealogical arguments have not, (...)
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  • Rorty, Religion, and Humanism.Serge Grigoriev - 2011 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 70 (3):187-201.
    This article offers a review of Richard Rorty’s attempts to come to terms with the role of religion in our public and intellectual life by tracing the key developments in his position, partially in response to the ubiquitous criticisms of his distinction between private and public projects. Since Rorty rejects the possibility of dismissing religion on purely epistemic grounds, he is determined to treat it, instead, as a matter of politics. My suggestion is that, in this respect, Rorty’s position is (...)
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  • Moral Psychology And Moral Intuition: A Pox On All Your Houses.Kelby Mason - 2011 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 89 (3):441-458.
    Peter Singer has argued for a radical anti-intuitionism on the basis of recent empirical research into the psychological and evolutionary origins of moral intuition. There is, however, a gap between the putative genealogy of moral intuition that Singer offers and his desired methodological claim. I explore three ways to bridge the gap, and argue that the promising way is to construe the genealogy as a debunking genealogy. I sketch an account of how debunking arguments work, and then show that this (...)
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  • Iran as a Symptom: A Psychoanalytic Critique of the Ideological Structure in the Islamic Republic.Simon Rajbar - 2018 - Dissertation, Cardiff University
    This thesis offers a systematic analysis of the ideological structure in the Islamic Republic of Iran through the lens of Lacanian psychoanalytic critique of ideology. The Lacanian emphasis on the libidinal constitution of ideology changes the object of analysis from social reality in its empirical aspects to the unconscious or disavowed conditions sustaining social reality in the Islamic Republic. The overall analysis of this thesis is divided into three interrelated research domains: the first domain of political subjectivity examines how subjectivity (...)
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  • Reflective Insights on Group Clinical Supervision; Understanding Transference in the Nursing Context.Paul Regan - 2012 - Reflective Practice 13 (5):679-691.
    Reflecting on group theory within clinical supervision offers useful vantage points from which to engage nursing and the helping professions in the task of supervisory practice. This paper presents reflective experiences of group clinical supervision training and practice through a critique of Hawkins and Shohet’s process centred model. The underlying premise of transference hypothesis is that experiences and memories from the past inform present behaviours. Little has been written about the hypothesis in relation to clinical supervision in nursing and the (...)
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  • Theories of Consciousness & Death.Gregory Nixon (ed.) - 2016 - New York, USA: QuantumDream.
    What happens to the inner light of consciousness with the death of the individual body and brain? Reductive materialism assumes it simply fades to black. Others think of consciousness as indicating a continuation of self, a transformation, an awakening or even alternatives based on the quality of life experience. In this issue, speculation drawn from theoretic research are presented. -/- Table of Contents Epigraph: From “The Immortal”, Jorge Luis Borges iii Editor’s Introduction: I Killed a Squirrel the Other Day, Gregory (...)
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  • Exaltation in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Neuropsychiatric Symptom or Portal to the Divine?Niall McCrae & Rob Whitley - 2014 - Journal of Medical Humanities 35 (3):241-255.
    Religiosity is a prominent feature of the Geschwind syndrome, a behavioural pattern found in some cases of temporal lobe epilepsy. Since the 1950s, when Wilder Penfield induced spiritual feelings by experimental manipulation of the temporal lobes, development of brain imaging technology has revealed neural correlates of intense emotional states, spurring the growth of neurotheology. In their secular empiricism, psychiatry, neurology and psychology are inclined to pathologise deviant religious expression, thereby reinforcing the dualism of objective and phenomenal worlds. Considering theological perspectives (...)
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  • Psychoanalysis, Colonialism, Racism.Stephen Frosh - 2013 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 33 (3):141.
  • Kant, Freud, and the Ethical Critique of Religion.James DiCenso - 2007 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 61 (3):161 - 179.
    This paper engages Freud’s relation to Kant, with specific reference to each theorist’s articulation of the interconnections between ethics and religion. I argue that there is in fact a constructive approach to ethics and religion in Freud’s thought, and that this approach can be better understood by examining it in relation to Kant’s formulations on these topics. Freud’s thinking about religion and ethics participates in the Enlightenment heritage, with its emphasis on autonomy and rationality, of which Kant’s model of practical (...)
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  • Relating Faith Development and Religious Styles: Reflections in Light of Apostasy From Religious Fundamentalism.Raoul J. Adam - 2008 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 30 (1):201-231.
    This paper provides a relational analysis of James Fowler's Faith Development Theory and Heinz Streib's Religious Styles Perspective in light of a recent study of apostasy from religious fundamentalisms. Empirical support is provided for both theories. RSP is endorsed as a more encompassing theory of religious development which accounts for more contingencies than FDT. However, FDT is subsumed rather than superseded by RSP as a powerful lens through which to observe cognitive dimensions of religious development. The paper introduces an integrative (...)
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  • The God of Abraham, Isaac, and (William) James.David W. Paulsen - 1999 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 13 (2):114-146.
  • A Critique of Recent Criticisms of Freud on Religious Belief.Thomas W. Smythe - 2011 - Open Journal of Philosophy 1 (1):11.
    The paper is a critique of recent criticisms of Sigmund Freud’s theory that religion is based on wishful thinking. The criticisms made by authors such as Alvin Plantinga, John Hick, William P. Alston, William Rowe, and Merol Westphal are critically examined. I defend Freud’s critique of religion as a satisfaction of our deepest desires for a heavenly father showing inductively that those desires render religious belief as unlikely to be true.
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  • Religion as an Illusion: Prospects for and Problems with a Psychoanalytical Model.Mario Aletti - 2005 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 27 (1):1-18.
    The hermeneutical model of illusion, just as that of projection, has always been part of the psychoanalytic views of religion. The author presents a brief critical summary on this subject, and underlines that in relational psychoanalysis, the concept of illusion refers not to religion as such, but to the subjective experiences of desire and relatedness, that is, the source of the desire for God in man. Because of personal conflicts and their outcome, besides illusions one encounters also in such experiences, (...)
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  • A Psycho-Ontological Analysis of Genesis 2-6.Jordan B. Peterson - 2007 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 29 (1):87-125.
    Individuals operating within the scientific paradigm presume that the world is made of matter. Although the perspective engendered by this presupposition is very powerful, it excludes value and subjective experience from its fundamental ontology. In addition, it provides very little guidance with regards to the fundamentals of ethical action. Individuals within the religious paradigm, by contrast, presume that the world is made out of what matters. From such a perspective, the phenomenon of meaning is the primary reality. This meaning is (...)
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  • Precis: Attachment, Evolution, and the Psychology of Religion.Lee A. Kirkpatrick - 2006 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie 28 (1):3-47.
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  • A beleza está nos olhos de que a vê? A percepção de realidades abstratas.Luiz Henrique de Araújo Dutra - 2017 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 21 (2):251-289.
    This paper argues for a version of perspectival realism as to abstract objects. Differently from bodies and mental states, abstract realities are supposed to be always unobservable objects, things never given in perception. Contrary to this received view, this paper tries to show that abstract objects can be perceived, even though people aren’t currently aware of perceiving them. Moreover, in order to perceive abstract objects we must be accordingly equipped. Our equipment to perceive abstract objects involves not only retino-cortical elements, (...)
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  • Personality and Socio-Cultural Variables Associated with Religious Behavior1.Aron Wolfe Siegman - 1962 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 7 (1):96-104.
    1. Although a number of personality variables have been identified by various authors as the determinants of religious behavior, independent of specific religious denomination, the results of the studies under consideration certainly appear to be inconsistent with such claims. It is suggested instead that the personality correlates of religious behavior vary with the specific religious denomination. 2. For most people religious belief and religious observance are acquired or learned in the socialization process. In a culture in which there is no (...)
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  • Will to Individuality: Nietzsche's Self-Interpreting Perspective on Life and Humanity.Kuo-Ping Claudia Tai - unknown
    This thesis aims to explore Nietzsche's concept of individuality. Nietzsche, a radical and innovative thinker who attacks Christian morality and proclaims the death of God, provides us with a self-interpreting way to understand humanity and affirm life through self-overcoming and self-experimentation. Nietzsche's concept of individuality is his main philosophical concern. I first compare his perspective on human nature in Human, All Too Human, Daybreak and Beyond Good and Evil with Charles Darwin's, Sigmund Freud's and St Augustine's in order to examine (...)
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  • Who Wants to Live Forever?Claire White - 2017 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 17 (5):419-436.
    Around 30% of world cultures endorse reincarnation and 20% of contemporary Americans think that reincarnation is plausible. This paper addresses the question of why belief in reincarnation is so pervasive across geographically disparate contexts. While social scientists have provided compelling explanations of the particularistic aspects of reincarnation, less is known about the psychological foundations of such beliefs. In this paper, I review research in the cognitive science of religion to propose that selected panhuman cognitive tendencies contribute to the cross-cultural success (...)
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  • Religious Ecstasy and Personality Transformation in John Wesley's Methodism: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations.Keith Haartman - 2007 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 29 (1):3-35.
    This paper examines the contemplative techniques that comprised wesley's method of spiritual transformation. By employing a psychoanalytic perspective that explains the pastoral effectiveness of the method, I claim that Wesley's view of spiritual growth was therapeutic and transformative as measured by contemporary clinical standards. Wesley's developmental model involved a series of spiritual phases each characterized by techniques and meditations that culminated in sanctification, a cognitive-emotional transformation marked by the eradication of sinful temptations and the perfection of altruism. Couched in a (...)
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  • Precis: Attachment, Evolution, and the Psychology of Religion.Lee A. Kirkpatrick - 2006 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 28 (1):3-47.
    In this summary of my recent book , I outline a general theoretical approach for the psychology of religion and develop one component of it in detail. First I review arguments and research demonstrating the utility of attachment theory for understanding many aspects of religious belief and behavior, particularly within modern Christianity. I then introduce evolutionary psychology as a general paradigm for psychology and the social sciences, arguing that religion is not an adaptation in the evolutionary sense but rather a (...)
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  • Don't Throw the Baby Out with the Math Water: Why Discounting the Developmental Foundations of Early Numeracy is Premature and Unnecessary.Kevin Muldoon, Charlie Lewis & Norman Freeman - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):663-664.
    We see no grounds for insisting that, because the concept natural number is abstract, its foundations must be innate. It is possible to specify domain general learning processes that feed into more abstract concepts of numerical infinity. By neglecting the messiness of children's slow acquisition of arithmetical concepts, Rips et al. present an idealized, unnecessarily insular, view of number development.
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  • On Alain Badiou’s ‘Critique of Religion’.Mads Peter Karlsen - 2018 - International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 79 (1-2):36-59.
    This paper examines Alain Badiou’s critical engagement with religion. It is argued that there are two central points at which religion enters the scene of Badiou’s philosophy. First, in his critique, the ‘motif of finitude’ Badiou repeatedly refers to religion, claiming that ‘the obsession with finitude is a remnant of the tyranny of the sacred’. Second, Badiou stages his attempt to regenerate philosophy against the proclamation of its end as a confrontation with the religion, through philosophy’s detachment from the poetization (...)
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  • Work as Transcendental Experience: Implications of Dejours' Psycho-Dynamics for Contemporary Social Theory and Philosophy.Jean-Philippe Deranty - 2010 - Critical Horizons 11 (2):181-220.
    This essay discusses four books recently published by Christophe Dejours with the aim of extracting their most significant social-theoretical and philosophical implications. The first two books are two contributions by Dejours in current debates and public policy initiatives in France through the application of his psychodynamic approach to work related issues (work and violence; work and suicide). Even though these texts are shaped by the specific contexts in which they were written, they also contain broader social-theoretical insights that are quite (...)
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  • The Strange Belief of Alexis de Tocqueville: Christianity as Philosophy.Luk Sanders - 2013 - International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 74 (1):33-53.
    Alexis de Tocqueville is known for his strange liberalism. One of the reasons therefore has to be found in his lesser known strange religious belief. The three main elements that determined his belief were his aristocratic and profoundly religious education, the dramatic loss of his faith after reading eighteenth century French philosophers and his conviction that the stability of the American democracy was mainly due to religious mores. These elements explain why Tocqueville appeared in his publications as an obvious believer, (...)
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