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  1. Do Traditional Chinese Cultural Values Nourish a Market for Pirated CDs?Wendy W. N. Wan, Chung-Leung Luk, Oliver H. M. Yau, Alan C. B. Tse, Leo Y. M. Sin & Kenneth K. Kwong - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S1):185-196.
    On one hand, Chinese consumers are well known for conspicuous consumption and the adoption of luxury products and named brands. On the other hand, they also have a bad reputation for buying counterfeit products. Their simultaneous preferences for two contrasting types of product present a paradox that has not been addressed in the literature. This study attempts to present an explanation of this paradox by examining the effects of traditional Chinese cultural values and consumer values on consumers' deontological judgment of (...)
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  • Consumer Reactions to CSR: A Brazilian Perspective.Sergio W. Carvalho, Sankar Sen, Marcio de Oliveira Mota & Renata Carneiro de Lima - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (S1):291 - 310.
    In this research, we evaluate the response of Brazilian consumers to corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives accompanied by a price increase. We demonstrate that the extent to which Brazilian consumers perceive a company to be socially responsible (i.e., their CSR perceptions) is related to both the basic transactional outcome of purchase intentions as well as two relational outcomes: the likelihood to switch to a competitor and to complain about the CSR-based price increase. More interestingly, we find that these relationships are (...)
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  • The Impacts of Ethical Ideology, Materialism, and Selected Demographics on Consumer Ethics: An Empirical Study in China.Chun-Chen Huang, Long-Chuan Lu, Ching-Sing You & Szu-Wei Yen - 2012 - Ethics and Behavior 22 (4):315 - 331.
    This study attempts to investigate the relationships among the ethical beliefs of Chinese consumers and orientations based on attitudinal attributes: materialism and moral philosophies (idealism and relativism). In addition, this study examines Chinese consumers' ethical beliefs in relation to five selected demographic characteristics (gender, age, religion, family income and education). Based on this exploratory study of 284 Chinese consumers, the following statistically significant findings were discovered. First, Chinese consumers regard that a passively benefiting activity is more ethical, but actively benefiting (...)
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  • When Lying Does Not Pay: How Experts Detect Insurance Fraud.Danielle E. Warren & Maurice E. Schweitzer - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (3):711-726.
    A growing literature has focused on understanding how to detect and deter unethical consumer behavior. In this work, we focus on a particularly important type of unethical consumer behavior, consumer insurance fraud, and we analyze a unique dataset to understand how experts investigate suspicious claims. Two separate but related literatures inform the process of investigating suspicious insurance claims. The first literature is grounded in field research and emphasizes the importance of secondary sources. The second literature is grounded in laboratory studies (...)
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  • The Business Ethics Index as a Leading Economic Indicator.John Tsalikis - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (4):519 - 653.
    Theoretical justification for the Business Ethics Index (BEI) from the emerging economics of trust literature is discussed. The BEI results for 2007, 2008, and 2009 are presented. While the Personal/Past BEI component shows no significant difference from the previous years, the Vicarious/Past component shows a dramatic drop to levels previously never recorded.However, when it came to the perception of the future business ethical behavior, respondents were significantly more optimistic than in previous measurements.This finding was more than a little surprising given (...)
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  • Business Unethicality as an Impediment to Consumer Trust: The Moderating Role of Demographic and Cultural Characteristics. [REVIEW]Leonidas C. Leonidou, Olga Kvasova, Constantinos N. Leonidou & Simos Chari - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (3):397-415.
    The article reports the findings of a study conducted among 387 consumers regarding their perceptions of the unethicality of business practices of firms and how these affect their response behavior, in terms of trust, satisfaction, and loyalty. The study confirmed that high levels of perceived corporate unethicality decrease consumer trust. This in turn reduces consumer satisfaction, which ultimately has negative effects on customer loyalty. It was also revealed that, although both consumer gender and urbanity have a moderating effect on the (...)
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  • Ethics and Expertise: A Social Networks Perspective.Seung Hwan Mark Lee - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (3):607-621.
    Results from three field network studies show that depending on individuals’ network positions (central or peripheral), experts and novices have varying ethical predispositions (EP). In particular, central experts (vs. peripheral experts) have higher EP, while novices in the same positions (vs. peripheral novices) have lower EP. Results demonstrate individuals’ relational-interdependent self-construal mediates these relationships. Importantly, this research suggests that the interaction between network and individual difference variables uniquely affect individuals’ ethical predisposition. Given the lack of research focus on the impact (...)
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  • How Does Perceived Effectiveness Affect Adults’ Ethical Acceptance of Anti-Obesity Threat Appeals to Children? When the Going Gets Tough, the Audience Gets Going.Karine Charry, Patrick De Pelsmacker & Claude L. Pecheux - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 124 (2):243-257.
    Little is known on the appraisal of ethically questionable not- for-profit actions such as social marketing advertising campaigns. The present study evaluates the ethical acceptance by adults of anti-obesity threat appeals targeting children, depending on the claimed effectiveness of the campaign. An experiment conducted among 176 Belgian participants by means of an online survey shows that individuals’ acceptance of social marketing practices increases along with the claimed effectiveness of the campaign. As such it demonstrates that the audience adopts a pragmatic (...)
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  • The Developmental Process of Unethical Consumer Behavior: An Investigation Grounded in China.Zhiqiang Liu, Zhilin Yang, Fue Zeng & David Waller - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (2):411-432.
    This study seeks to understand how consumers make unethical decisions and how unethical consumer behavior is formed in a relational society. By taking a relational interactive perspective and adopting a grounded theory approach, we have developed a theoretical framework for examining UCB’s developmental process in a relational society. The framework reveals 4 levels and 12 paths of UCB formation. Importantly, this study finds that UCB in a relational society is influenced by guanxi-oriented social culture so deeply that it cannot be (...)
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  • Applying Ethical Concepts to the Study of “Green” Consumer Behavior: An Analysis of Chinese Consumers' Intentions to Bring Their Own Shopping Bags.Ricky Y. K. Chan, Y. H. Wong & T. K. P. Leung - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 79 (4):469-481.
    Drawing on the general ethics and social psychology literature, this study presents a model to delineate the major factors likely to affect consumers' intentions to bring their own shopping bags when visiting a supermarket . The model is empirically validated using a survey of 250 Chinese consumers. Overall, the findings support the hypothesized direct influence of teleological evaluation and habit on BYOB intention, as well as that of deontological evaluation and teleological evaluation on ethical judgment about the BYOB practice. Teleological (...)
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  • Investigating the Effects of Gender on Consumers’ Moral Philosophies and Ethical Intentions.Connie R. Bateman & Sean R. Valentine - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (3):393-414.
    Using information collected from a convenience sample of graduate and undergraduate students affiliated with a Midwestern university in the United States, this study determined the extent to which gender is related to consumers’ moral philosophies and ethical intentions. Multivariate and univariate results indicated that women were more inclined than men to utilize both consequence-based and rule-based moral philosophies in questionable consumption situations. In addition, women placed more importance on an overall moral philosophy than did men, and women had higher intentions (...)
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  • Motivations of the Ethical Consumer.Oliver M. Freestone & Peter J. McGoldrick - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 79 (4):445-467.
    There are strong indications that many consumers are switching towards more socially and environmentally responsible products and services, reflecting a shift in consumer values indicated in several countries. However, little is known about the motives that drive some toward, or deter others from, higher levels of ethical concern and action in their purchasing decisions. Following a qualitative investigation using ZMET and focus group discussions, a questionnaire was developed and administered to a representative sample of consumers; nearly 1,000 usable questionnaires were (...)
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  • Generation Y Attitudes Towards E-Ethics and Internet-Related Misbehaviours.O. Freestone & V. Mitchell - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 54 (2):121 - 128.
    Aberrant consumer behaviour costs firms millions of pounds a year, and the Internet has provided young techno-literate consumers with a new medium to exploit businesses. This paper addresses Internet related ethics and describes the ways in which young consumers misdemean on the Internet and their attitudes towards these. Using a sample of 219 generation Y consumers, the study identified 24 aberrant behaviours which grouped into five factors; illegal, questionable activities, hacking related, human Internet trade and downloading. Those perceived as least (...)
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  • Ethical Decision-Making by Consumers: The Roles of Product Harm and Consumer Vulnerability.Jeri Lynn Jones & Karen L. Middleton - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 70 (3):247-264.
    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of perceptions of product harm and consumer vulnerability on ethical evaluations of target marketing strategies. We first established whether subjects are able to accurately judge the harmfulness of a product through labeling alone, and whether they could differentiate consumers who were more or less vulnerable. The results suggest that without the presence of a prime, subjects who depended on implicit memory or guess were able to detect differences in “sin” (...)
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  • Gender Differences in Double Standards.Iris Vermeir & Patrick Van Kenhove - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (2):281 - 295.
    The purpose of the present study is to investigate gender differences in the use of double standards in ethical judgements of questionable conduct instigated by business or consumers. We investigate if consumers are more critical towards unethical corporate versus consumer actions and if these double standards depend on the gender of the respondent. In the first study, we compared evaluations of four specific unethical actions [cfr. DePaulo, 1987, in: J. Saegert (ed.) Proceedings of the Division of Consumer Psychology (American Psychological (...)
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  • The Impact of Social Darwinism Perception, Status Anxiety, Perceived Trust of People, and Cultural Orientation on Consumer Ethical Beliefs.Jyh-Shen Chiou & Lee-Yun Pan - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 78 (4):487-502.
    This study intends to explore the effects of political, social and cultural values on consumers’ ethical beliefs regarding questionable consumption behaviors. The variables examined include status anxiety, social Darwinism perception, perceived trust of people, and cultural orientation. Based on a field survey in Taiwan, the results showed that consumers with low ethical beliefs have higher perception of social Darwinism and status anxiety than consumers possess neutral and high ethical beliefs. The result also showed that the neutral ethics group had higher (...)
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  • Business Ethics Index: Measuring Consumer Sentiments Toward Business Ethical Practices.John Tsalikis & Bruce Seaton - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (4):317-326.
    The present study describes the development of an ongoing and systematic index to measure consumers’ sentiments towards business ethical practices. The Business Ethics Index (BEI) is based on the well established measurements of consumer sentiments, namely the ICS (Index of Consumer Sentiment) and CBCCI (Conference Board Consumer Confidence Index). The BEI is comprised of 4 measurements representing the dimensions of “personal-vicarious” and “past-future.” Data from 503 telephone interviews were used to calculate a BEI of 107. This indicates an overall positive (...)
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  • Attachment Styles and Ethical Behavior: Their Relationship and Significance in the Marketplace.Lumina S. Albert & Leonard M. Horowitz - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (3):299-316.
    This paper compares the ethical standards reported by consumers and managers with different attachment styles (secure, preoccupied, fearful, or dismissing). We conducted two studies of consumer ethical beliefs and a third managerial survey. In Study 1, we used a questionnaire that we constructed, and in Study 2, we used the Muncy–Vitell Consumer Ethics Scale. The results in both the studies were consistent and showed that men reported a greater indifference to ethical transgressions than women. Based on the two studies, the (...)
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  • The Ethics of Online Retailing: A Scale Development and Validation From the Consumers' Perspective. [REVIEW]Sergio Roman - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 72 (2):131-148.
    While e-commerce has witnessed extensive growth in recent years, so has consumers’ concerns regarding ethical issues surrounding online shopping. The vast majority of earlier research on this area is conceptual in nature, and limited in scope by focusing on consumers’ privacy issues. This study develops a reliable and valid scale to measure consumers’ perceptions regarding the ethics of online retailers. Findings indicate that the four factors of the scale – security, privacy, non-deception and fulfillment/reliability – are strongly predictive of online (...)
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  • Measuring Consumers' Ethical Position in Austria, Britain, Brunei, Hong Kong, and USA.Charles C. Cui, Vince Mitchell, Bodo B. Schlegelmilch & Bettina Cornwell - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (1):57 - 71.
    Previous studies have found Forsyth’s Ethical Position Questionnaire (EPQ) to vary between countries, but none has made a systematic evaluation of its psychometric properties across consumers from many countries. Using confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group LISREL analysis, this paper explores the factor structure of the EPQ and the measurement equivalence in five societies: Austria, Britain, Brunei, Hong Kong and USA. The results suggest that the modified scale, measuring idealism and relativism, was applicable in all five societies. Equivalence was found across (...)
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  • Investigating the Effects of Gender on Consumers' Moral Philosophies and Ethical Intentions.Connie R. Bateman & Sean R. Valentine - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (3):393 - 414.
    Using information collected from a convenience sample of graduate and undergraduate students affiliated with a Midwestern university in the United States, this study determined the extent to which gender (defined as sex differences) is related to consumers' moral philosophies and ethical intentions. Multivariate and univariate results indicated that women were more inclined than men to utilize both consequence-based and rulebased moral philosophies in questionable consumption situations. In addition, women placed more importance on an overall moral philosophy than did men, and (...)
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  • Moral Philosophy, Materialism, and Consumer Ethics: An Exploratory Study in Indonesia. [REVIEW]Long-Chuan Lu & Chia-Ju Lu - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 94 (2):193 - 210.
    Although the ethical judgment of consumers in the United States and other industrialized countries has received considerable attention, consumer ethics in Asian-market settings have seldom been explored. The purchase and making of counterfeit products are considered common, but disreputable, attributes of Southeast Asian consumers. According to the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), Indonesia ranks third among the leading countries of counterfeit items in Asia. Retail revenue losses attributed to counterfeiting amounted to US $183 million in 2004. Therefore, elucidating the (...)
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  • Consumers' Evaluation of Unethical Marketing Behaviors: The Role of Customer Commitment. [REVIEW]Rhea Ingram, Steven J. Skinner & Valerie A. Taylor - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (3):237 - 252.
    While there is a significant amount of research investigating managerial ethical judgments, a limited amount examines consumer judgments of unethical corporate behavior and its impact on the marketplace. This study examines how consumers’ commitment to a company impacts not only their ethical judgment of corporate behavior but also the outcomes of that judgment. The authors test hypotheses with data from 334 consumers and find that consumers’ level of commitment attenuates the level of perceived fairness. More specifically, highly committed consumers may (...)
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  • Measuring Unethical Consumer Behavior Across Four Countries.Vince W. Mitchell, George Balabanis, Bodo B. Schlegelmilch & T. Bettina Cornwell - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (2):395-412.
    The huge amounts spent on store security and crime prevention worldwide, not only costs international businesses, but also amounts to a hidden tax on those law-binding consumers who bear higher prices. Most previous research has focused on shoplifting and ignored many other ways in which consumers cheat businesses. Using a hybrid of both qualitative research and survey approaches in four countries, an index of 37 activities was developed to examine consumers’ unethical activities across UK, US, France, and Austria. The findings (...)
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  • Does Relationship Quality Matter in Consumer Ethical Decision Making? Evidence From China.Zhiqiang Liu, Fue Zeng & Chenting Su - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (3):483 - 496.
    This study explores the linear logic between consumer ethical beliefs (CEBs) and consumer unethical behavior (CUB) in a Chinese context. A relational view helps fill the belief–behavior gap by exploring the moderating role of relationship quality in reducing CUBs. Specifically, when consumers are more receptive to a set of actions that may be deemed inappropriate by moral principles, they are more likely to engage in unethical behaviors. However, when consumers perceive their misconduct as possibly damaging to the relationship developed with (...)
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  • Unveiling Vulnerability in an Adolescent’s Consumption Subculture: A Framework to Understand Adolescents’ Experienced Vulnerability and Ethical Implications.Wided Batat & John F. Tanner - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-18.
    Consumer vulnerability is studied via a quasi-ethnographic longitudinal study of adolescents aged 11–15. The study focuses on how adolescents define their vulnerabilities within their adolescent consumption subcultures, the factors enhancing this vulnerability, and the social actors involved in their experience of vulnerability. The findings contribute to consumer vulnerability literature in three ways. First, by adopting an adolescent-centric approach based on an emic perspective, we go beyond the monolithic approach of studying one source of vulnerability at a time seen in present (...)
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  • The Effects of Artist Adoration and Perceived Risk of Getting Caught on Attitude and Intention to Pirate Music in the United States and Taiwan.Jyh-Shen Chiou, Hsiao-I. Cheng & Chien-Yi Huang - 2011 - Ethics and Behavior 21 (3):182 - 196.
    Piracy is the greatest threat facing the global music industry today. This study explores the effects of artist adoration and the perceived risk of being caught on the attitude and intention to engage in pirating a digital song among college students. The moderating effect of cultural environment factor is also examined. Experiments using between-group factorial designs were conducted in the United States and Taiwan. The results show that perceived risk of getting caught and cultural environment are important factors that can (...)
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  • Determinants of Unethical Business Behaviour Among Owner–Managers.Sunday Samson Babalola - 2009 - Journal of Human Values 15 (1):61-75.
    Several studies have identified entrepreneurship as a key factor in wealth creations in addition to associating certain personality characteristics to its growth. The question is to what extent have these wealth creations performed ethically. The present study is set to explore the cognitive orientation and demographic factors that are associated with unethical business. Two hundred and fifty-six owner–managers in the age range of 24 to 68 years participated in the survey study. Male participants accounted for 63.3 per cent, while female (...)
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  • What We Believe Is Not Always What We Do: An Empirical Investigation Into Ethically Questionable Behavior in Consumption. [REVIEW]Kyoko Fukukawa & Christine Ennew - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (S1):49 - 60.
    This article presents the results of an empirical study which argues that ethical judgment is not sufficient, by itself, to explain ethically questionable behavior in consumption. The study adopts Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior and presents results from a self-completion survey questionnaire covering five scenarios describing ethical consumer dilemmas. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess measurement structures, and the proposed model was estimated using logistic regression. Three antecedents, namely Social Norm (an extension of the construct of Subjective Norm), Perceived (...)
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  • Examining the Roles of Collectivism, Attitude Toward Business, and Religious Beliefs on Consumer Ethics in China.Chun-Chen Huang & Long-Chuan Lu - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 146 (3):505-514.
    Chinese consumers comprise a unique subculture that exerts a considerable influence on the market and are treated as a collective group by researchers. However, few studies have examined the effects of collectivism and consumer attitudinal attributes on consumer ethics. Although the practice of religion was prohibited in China before economic reforms in the late 1970s, religion remains a major factor that affects the ethical judgment of consumers. The present study, based on the Hunt–Vitell model, examines the influence of culture and (...)
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  • One Sail Fits All? A Psychographic Segmentation of Digital Pirates.Charlotte Emily De Corte & Patrick Van Kenhove - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 143 (3):441-465.
    This paper focuses on segmenting digital movie and TV series pirates and on investigating the effectiveness of piracy-combatting measures i.e., legal and educational strategies, in light of these segments. To address these research objectives, two online studies were conducted. First, 1277 valid responses were gathered with an online survey. Four pirate segments were found based on differing combinations of attitude toward piracy, ethical evaluation of piracy and feelings of guilt. The anti-pirate, conflicted pirate, cavalier pirate, and die-hard pirate can be (...)
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  • Consumption Practices: A Virtue Ethics Approach.Pablo Garcia-Ruiz & Carlos Rodriguez-Lluesma - 2014 - Business Ethics Quarterly 24 (4):509-531.
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  • The Ethics of Online Retailing: A Scale Development and Validation From the Consumers’ Perspective.Sergio Roman - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 72 (2):131-148.
    While e-commerce has witnessed extensive growth in recent years, so has consumers' concerns regarding ethical issues surrounding online shopping. The vast majority of earlier research on this area is conceptual in nature, and limited in scope by focusing on consumers' privacy issues. This study develops a reliable and valid scale to measure consumers' perceptions regarding the ethics of online retailers. Findings indicate that the four factors of the scale - security, privacy, non-deception and fulfillment/reliability - are strongly predictive of online (...)
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  • Consumers’ Evaluation of Unethical Marketing Behaviors: The Role of Customer Commitment.Rhea Ingram, Steven J. Skinner & Valerie A. Taylor - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (3):237-252.
    While there is a significant amount of research investigating managerial ethical judgments, a limited amount examines consumer judgments of unethical corporate behavior and its impact on the marketplace. This study examines how consumers' commitment to a company impacts not only their ethical judgment of corporate behavior but also the outcomes of that judgment. The authors test hypotheses with data from 334 consumers and find that consumers' level of commitment attenuates the level of perceived fairness. More specifically, highly committed consumers may (...)
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  • Measuring Consumers' Ethical Position in Austria, Britain, Brunei, Hong Kong and USA.C. C. Cui, V. Mitchell, B. Schlegelmilch & T. B. Cornwell - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (1):57-71.
    Previous studies have found Forsyth’s Ethical Position Questionnaire (EPQ) to vary between countries, but none has made a systematic evaluation of its psychometric properties across consumers from many countries. Using confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group LISREL analysis, this paper explores the factor structure of the EPQ and the measurement equivalence in five societies: Austria, Britain, Brunei, Hong Kong and USA. The results suggest that the modified scale, measuring idealism and relativism, was applicable in all five societies. Equivalence was found across (...)
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