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Thomas Kuhn: A Philosophical History for Our Times

University of Chicago Press (2001)

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  1. Escape From Evidence?: Popper, Social Science, and Psychoanalytic Social Theory.Neil McLaughlin - 2007 - Dialogue 46 (4):761-780.
  • Thinking the Unthinkable as a Radical Scientific Project.Steve Fuller - 2010 - Critical Review 22 (4):397-413.
    Philip Tetlock underestimates the import of his own Expert Political Judgment. It is much more than a critical scientific evaluation of the accuracy and consistency of political pundits. It also offers a blueprint for challenging expertise more generally-in the name of scientific advancement. “Thinking the unthinkable”-a strategy Tetlock employs when he gets experts to consider counterfactual scenarios that are far from their epistemic comfort zones-has had explosive consequences historically for both knowledge and morality by extending our sense of what is (...)
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  • Kuhn’s Legacy: Theoretical and Philosophical Study of History. [REVIEW]Jouni-Matti Kuukkanen - 2013 - Topoi 32 (1):91-99.
    This paper considers the legacy of Kuhn and his Structure with regard to the current history and philosophy of science. Kuhn can be seen as a myth breaker, whose contribution is the way he connected historical and philosophical studies of science, questioning the cumulativist image and demanding historical responsibility of the views of science. I build on Kuhn’s legacy and outline a suggestion for theoretical and philosophical study of history (of science), which can be subdivided into three categories. The first (...)
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  • Art History, the Problem of Style, and Arnold Hauser’s Contribution to the History and Sociology of Knowledge.Axel Gelfert - 2012 - Studies in East European Thought 64 (1-2):121-142.
    Much of Arnold Hauser’s work on the social history of art and the philosophy of art history is informed by a concern for the cognitive dimension of art. The present paper offers a reconstruction of this aspect of Hauser’s project and identifies areas of overlap with the sociology of knowledge—where the latter is to be understood as both a separate discipline and a going intellectual concern. Following a discussion of Hauser’s personal and intellectual background, as well as of the shifting (...)
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  • Calling Science Pseudoscience: Fleck's Archaeologies of Fact and Latour's ‘Biography of an Investigation’ in AIDS Denialism and Homeopathy.Babette Babich - 2015 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 29 (1):1-39.
    Fleck's Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact foregrounds claims traditionally excluded from reception, often regarded as opposed to fact, scientific claims that are increasingly seldom discussed in connection with philosophy of science save as examples of pseudoscience. I am especially concerned with scientists who question the epidemiological link between HIV and AIDS and who are thereby discounted—no matter their credentials, no matter the cogency of their arguments, no matter the sobriety of their statistics—but also with other classic examples of (...)
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  • Assessing the Influence of Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions.K. Brad Wray - 2012 - Metascience 21 (1):1-10.
  • Relativism or Relationism? A Mannheimian Interpretation of Fleck’s Claims About Relativism.Markus Seidel - 2011 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 42 (2):219-240.
    The paper explores the defence by the early sociologist of science Ludwik Fleck against the charge of relativism. It is shown that there are crucial and hitherto unnoticed similarities between Fleck’s strategy and the attempt by his contemporary Karl Mannheim to distinguish between an incoherent relativism and a consistent relationism. Both authors seek to revise epistemology fundamentally by reinterpreting the concept of objectivity in two ways: as inner- and inter-style objectivity. The argument for the latter concept shows the genuine political (...)
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  • Interpreting Thomas Kuhn as a Response-Dependence Theorist.Nathaniel Goldberg - 2011 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 19 (5):729 - 752.
    Abstract Thomas Kuhn is the most famous historian and philosopher of science of the last century. He is also among the most controversial. Since Kuhn's death, his corpus has been interpreted, systematized, and defended. Here I add to this endeavor in a novel way by arguing that Kuhn can be interpreted as a global response-dependence theorist. He can be understood as connecting all concepts and terms in an a priori manner to responses of suitably situated subjects to objects in the (...)
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  • From Fleck's Denkstil to Kuhn's Paradigm: Conceptual Schemes and Incommensurability.Babette E. Babich - 2003 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 17 (1):75 – 92.
    This article argues that the limited influence of Ludwik Fleck's ideas on philosophy of science is due not only to their indirect dissemination by way of Thomas Kuhn, but also to an incommensurability between the standard conceptual framework of history and philosophy of science and Fleck's own more integratedly historico-social and praxis-oriented approach to understanding the evolution of scientific discovery. What Kuhn named "paradigm" offers a periphrastic rendering or oblique translation of Fleck's Denkstil/Denkkollektiv , a derivation that may also account (...)
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  • Rereading Kuhn.Jouni‐Matti Kuukkanen - 2009 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 23 (2):217 – 224.
  • A Gadamerian Critique of Kuhn’s Linguistic Turn: Incommensurability Revisited.Amani Albedah - 2006 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 20 (3):323 – 345.
    In this article, I discuss Gadamer's hermeneutic account of understanding as an alternative to Kuhn's incommensurability thesis. After a brief account of Kuhn's aesthetic account and arguments against it, I argue that the linguistic account faces a paradox that results from Kuhn's objectivist account of understanding, and his lack of historical reflexivity. The statement 'Languages are incommensurable' is not a unique view of language, and is thus subject to contest by incommensurable readings. Resolving the paradox requires an account of incommensurability (...)
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  • Author’s Response.Steve Fuller - 1998 - Metascience 7 (2):316-319.
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  • The Genealogy of Judgement: Towards a Deep History of Academic Freedom.Steve Fuller - 2009 - British Journal of Educational Studies 57 (2):164-177.
    The classical conception of academic freedom associated with Wilhelm von Humboldt and the rise of the modern university has a quite specific cultural foundation that centres on the controversial mental faculty of 'judgement'. This article traces the roots of 'judgement' back to the Protestant Reformation, through its heyday as the signature feature of German idealism, and to its gradual loss of salience as both a philosophical and a psychological concept. This trajectory has been accompanied by a general shrinking in the (...)
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  • Critical Realism and Post-Structuralist Feminism: The Difficult Path to Mutual Understanding.Seppo Poutanen - 2007 - Journal of Critical Realism 6 (1):28-52.
    Tony Lawson, Sandra Harding, Drucilla K. Barker, Fabienne Peter and Julie A. Nelson have recently debated the merits and demerits of critical realism as the basis of feminist social research. Yet the dialogue is left unfinished, with no clear agreement attained. Some key features of that failure are analysed in this article. It is suggested that, despite shared support for explicitly post-positivistic stances, critical realists and post-structuralist feminists cannot gain much from a dialogue that proceeds like this one. Other modes (...)
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  • Karl Popper’s Philosophical Breakthrough.Stefano Gattei - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (4):448-466.
    Despite his well‐known deductivism, in his early (unpublished) writings, Popper held an inductivist position. Up to 1929 epistemology entered Popper's reflections only as far as the problem was that of the justification of the scientific character of these fields of research. However, in that year, while surveying the history of non‐Euclidean geometries, Popper explicitly discussed the cognitive status of geometry without referring to psycho‐pedagogical aspects, thus turning from cognitive psychology to the logic and methodology of science. As a consequence of (...)
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  • Agonies of the Real: Anti-Realism From Kuhn to Foucault.Peter E. Gordon - 2012 - Modern Intellectual History 9 (1):127-147.
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  • Kuhn's Education: Wittgenstein, Pedagogy, and the Road to Structure.Joel Isaac - 2012 - Modern Intellectual History 9 (1):89-107.
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  • Rise, Grubenhund: On Provincializing Kuhn.Deborah R. Coen - 2012 - Modern Intellectual History 9 (1):109-126.
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  • Forum: Kuhn's Structure at Fifty Introduction.Peter E. Gordon - 2012 - Modern Intellectual History 9 (1):73-76.
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  • Kuhn's Conservatism.Vasso Kindi - 2003 - Social Epistemology 17 (2-3):209-214.
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  • Las Ligaduras de Ulises o la Supuesta Neutralidad Valorativa de la Ciencia y la Tecnología.Eulalia Pérez Sedeño - 2005 - Arbor 181 (716):447-462.
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  • Putting Pragmatism to Work in the Cold War: Science, Technology, and Politics in the Writings of James B. Conant.Justin Biddle - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):552-561.
    This paper examines James Conant’s pragmatic theory of science – a theory that has been neglected by most commentators on the history of 20th-century philosophy of science – and it argues that this theory occupied an important place in Conant’s strategic thinking about the Cold War. Conant drew upon his wartime science policy work, the history of science, and Quine’s epistemological holism to argue that there is no strict distinction between science and technology, that there is no such thing as (...)
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  • Facts, Fetishes, and the Parliament of Things: Is There Any Space for Critique?Srikanth Mallavarapu & Amit Prasad - 2006 - Social Epistemology 20 (2):185 – 199.
    Bruno Latour equates criticism with an iconoclastic urge that is underpinned by the project of modernity. Latour's attack on iconoclastic criticism is therefore closely linked to his rejection of the modern framework. This paper examines Latour's analysis of modernity and the ways in which he connects criticism to the project of modernity. Through our analysis of Latour's reading of an episode from U.R. Anantha Murthy's novel Bharathipura, we argue that critique is actually an integral part of a truly democratic knowledge-making (...)
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  • The Genesis of 'Scientific Community'.Struan Jacobs - 2001 - Social Epistemology 16 (2):157 – 168.
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  • Connections Between Pedagogical and Epistemological Constructivism: Questions for Teaching and Research in Chemistry. [REVIEW]Donald J. Wink - 2006 - Foundations of Chemistry 8 (2):111-151.
    The rich and ongoing debate about constructivism in chemistry education includes questions about the relationship, for better or worse, between applications of the theory in pedagogy and in epistemology. This paper presents an examination of the potential to use connections of epistemological and pedagogical constructivism to one another. It examines connections linked to the content, processes, and premises of science with a goal of prompting further research in these areas.
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  • The Future of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.K. Brad Wray - 2013 - Topoi 32 (1):75-79.
    I examine the value and limitations of Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions. In the interests of developing a social epistemology of science, I argue that we should draw on Kuhn’s later work, published in The Road since Structure. There, Kuhn draws attention to the important role that specialty formation plays in resolving crises in science, a topic he did not discuss in Structure. I argue that we need to develop a better understanding of specialty research communities. Kuhn’s later work provides (...)
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  • Deviant Interdisciplinarity as Philosophical Practice: Prolegomena to Deep Intellectual History.Steve Fuller - 2013 - Synthese 190 (11):1899-1916.
    Philosophy may relate to interdisciplinarity in two distinct ways On the one hand, philosophy may play an auxiliary role in the process of interdisciplinarity, typically through conceptual analysis, in the understanding that the disciplines themselves are the main epistemic players. This version of the relationship I characterise as ‘normal’ because it captures the more common pattern of the relationship, which in turn reflects an acceptance of the division of organized inquiry into disciplines. On the other hand, philosophy may be itself (...)
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  • The Best of Times, the Worst of Times.Barry Barnes & Kenneth L. Caneva - 2001 - Metascience 10 (2):160-171.
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  • The Ideology of Relativity: The Case of the Clock Paradox.Peter Hayes - 2009 - Social Epistemology 23 (1):57-78.
    In the interwar period there was a significant school of thought that repudiated Einstein's theory of relativity on the grounds that it contained elementary inconsistencies. Some of these critics held extreme right-wing and anti-Semitic views, and this has tended to discredit their technical objections to relativity as being scientifically shallow. This paper investigates an alternative possibility: that the critics were right and that the success of Einstein's theory in overcoming them was due to its strengths as an ideology rather than (...)
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  • An Issue of Originality and Priority: The Correspondence and Theories of Oxidative Phosphorylation of Peter Mitchell and Robert J.P. Williams, 1961-1980. [REVIEW]Bruce H. Weber & John N. Prebble - 2006 - Journal of the History of Biology 39 (1):125-163.
    In the same year, 1961, Peter D. Mitchell and Robert R.J.P. Williams both put forward hypotheses for the mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria and photophosphorylation in chloroplasts. Mitchell's proposal was ultimately adopted and became known as the chemiosmotic theory. Both hypotheses were based on protons and differed markedly from the then prevailing chemical theory originally proposed by E.C. Slater in 1953, which by 1961 was failing to account for a number of experimental observations. Immediately following the publication of Williams (...)
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  • Towards a Critical Theory of High Culture: The Work of György Márkus.Stephen Norrie - 2014 - Journal of Critical Realism 13 (5):467-497.
    György Márkus’s post-Marxist writings on high culture are evaluated in terms of their possible contribution to a neo-Marxist theory of high culture. Because of the highly essayistic character of Márkus’s presentation, this necessarily involves investigation of their dependence on his previous work. According to Márkus, Marxism can be critically reconstructed and superseded on the basis of an independent theorization of the consequences of Marx’s most basic theoretical move: the identification of production as paradigmatic for social action in general. In section (...)
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  • Social Epistemology: A Quarter-Century Itinerary.Steve Fuller - 2012 - Social Epistemology 26 (3-4):267-283.
    Examining the origin and development of my views of social epistemology, I contrast my position with the position held by analytic social epistemologists. Analytic social epistemology (ASE) has failed to make significant progress owing, in part, to a minimal understanding of actual knowledge practices, a minimised role for philosophers in ongoing inquiry, and a focus on maintaining the status quo of epistemology as a field. As a way forward, I propose questions and future areas of inquiry for a post-ASE to (...)
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  • Re-Politicising Philosophy of Science: A Continuing Challenge for Social Epistemology.Kei Yoshida - 2012 - Social Epistemology 26 (3-4):365-378.
    The aim of this paper is to investigate how we can reunite social philosophy and philosophy of science to address problems in science and technology. First, referring to Don Howard?s, George Reisch?s, and Philip Mirowski?s works, I shall briefly explain how philosophy of science was depoliticised during the cold war. Second, I shall examine Steve Fuller?s criticism of Thomas Kuhn. Third, I shall scrutinise Philip Kitcher?s view of well-ordered science. Fourth, I shall emphasise the importance of autonomy and argue that (...)
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  • A Parting Shot at Misunderstanding: Fuller Vs. Kuhn. [REVIEW]David Mercer, Jerry Ravetz, Stephen P. Turner & Steve Fuller - 2004 - Metascience 14 (1):3-152.
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  • Kuhnian Paradigms: On Meaning and Communication Breakdown in Medicine. [REVIEW]Stefan Dragulinescu - 2011 - Medicine Studies 2 (4):245-263.
    In this paper, I enquire whether there are Kuhnian paradigms in medicine, by way of analysing a case study from the history of medicine—the discovery of the germ theory of disease in the nineteenth century. I investigate the Kuhnian aspects of this event by comparing the work of the famous school of microbiology founded by Robert Koch with a rival school, powerful in the nineteenth century, but now almost forgotten, founded by Carl Nageli. Through my case study, I show that (...)
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  • The Frankfurt School, Science and Technology Studies, and the Humanities.Finn Collin & David Budtz Pedersen - 2015 - Social Epistemology 29 (1):44-72.
    This paper examines the often overlooked parallels between the critical theory of the German Frankfurt School and Science and Technology Studies in Britain, as an attempt to articulate a critique of science as a social phenomenon. The cultural aspect of the German and British arguments is in focus, especially the role attributed to the humanities in balancing cultural and techno-scientific values in society. Here, we draw parallels between the German argument and the Two Cultures debate in Britain. The third and (...)
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  • On the Re-Materialization of the Virtual.Ismo Kantola - 2013 - AI and Society 28 (2):189-198.
    The so-called new economy based on the global network of digitalized communication was welcomed as a platform of innovations and as a vehicle of advancement of democracy. The concept of virtuality captures the essence of the new economy: efficiency and free access. In practice, the new economy has developed into an heterogenic entity dominated by practices such as propagation of trust and commitment to standards and standard-like technological solutions; entrenchment of locally strategic subsystems; surveillance of unwanted behavior. Five empirical cases (...)
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  • Path Dependence in the Production of Scientific Knowledge.Mark S. Peacock - 2009 - Social Epistemology 23 (2):105 – 124.
    Despite its proliferation in technology studies, the concept of “path dependence” has scarcely been applied to epistemology. In this essay, I investigate path dependence in the production of scientific knowledge, first, by considering Kuhn's scattered remarks that lend support to a path-dependence thesis (Section I) and second by developing and criticising Kuhn's embryonic account (Sections II and III). I examine a case from high-energy physics that brings the path-dependent nature of scientific knowledge to the fore and I pay attention to (...)
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  • The Art of Being Human: A Project for General Philosophy of Science. [REVIEW]Steve Fuller - 2012 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 43 (1):113-123.
    Throughout the medieval and modern periods, in various sacred and secular guises, the unification of all forms of knowledge under the rubric of ‘science’ has been taken as the prerogative of humanity as a species. However, as our sense of species privilege has been called increasingly into question, so too has the very salience of ‘humanity’ and ‘science’ as general categories, let alone ones that might bear some essential relationship to each other. After showing how the ascendant Stanford School in (...)
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  • The Cold War Context of the Golden Jubilee, Or, Why We Think of Mendel as the Father of Genetics.Audra J. Wolfe - 2012 - Journal of the History of Biology 45 (3):389 - 414.
    In September 1950, the Genetics Society of America (GSA) dedicated its annual meeting to a "Golden Jubilee of Genetics" that celebrated the 50th anniversary of the rediscovery of Mendel's work. This program, originally intended as a small ceremony attached to the coattails of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) meeting, turned into a publicity juggernaut that generated coverage on Mendel and the accomplishments of Western genetics in countless newspapers and radio broadcasts. The Golden Jubilee merits historical attention as both (...)
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  • Demarcation and the Scientistic Fallacy.Gregory R. Peterson - 2003 - Zygon 38 (4):751-761.
  • An Issue of Originality and Priority: The Correspondence and Theories of Oxidative Phosphorylation of Peter Mitchell and Robert J.P. Williams, 1961–1980.Bruce H. Weber & John N. Prebble - 2006 - Journal of the History of Biology 39 (1):125-163.
    In the same year, 1961, Peter D. Mitchell and Robert R.J.P. Williams both put forward hypotheses for the mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria and photophosphorylation in chloroplasts. Mitchell's proposal was ultimately adopted and became known as the chemiosmotic theory. Both hypotheses were based on protons and differed markedly from the then prevailing chemical theory originally proposed by E.C. Slater in 1953, which by 1961 was failing to account for a number of experimental observations. Immediately following the publication of Williams's (...)
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  • The Future of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.K. Brad Wray - 2013 - Topoi 32 (1):75-79.
    I examine the value and limitations of Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions. In the interests of developing a social epistemology of science, I argue that we should draw on Kuhn’s later work, published in The Road since Structure. There, Kuhn draws attention to the important role that specialty formation plays in resolving crises in science, a topic he did not discuss in Structure. I argue that we need to develop a better understanding of specialty research communities. Kuhn’s later work provides (...)
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  • Neoliberalism and the History of STS Theory: Toward a Reflexive Sociology.David J. Hess - 2013 - Social Epistemology 27 (2):177 - 193.
    In the sociology of science and sociology of scientific knowledge, the decline of functionalism during the 1970s opened the field to a wide range of theoretical possibilities. However, a Marxist-influenced alternative to functionalism, interests analysis, quickly disappeared, and feminist-multicultural frameworks failed to achieved a dominant position in the field. Instead, functionalism was replaced by a variety of agency-based frameworks that focused on constructive or performative processes. The shift in the sociology of science from Mertonian functionalism to the poststrong program, agency-based (...)
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  • Author’s Response.Steve Fuller - 2001 - Metascience 10 (2):171-179.
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  • The Politics and Contexts of Soviet Science Studies (Naukovedenie): Soviet Philosophy of Science at the Crossroads.Elena Aronova - 2011 - Studies in East European Thought 63 (3):175-202.
    Naukovedenie (literarily meaning ‘science studies’), was first institutionalized in the Soviet Union in the twenties, then resurfaced and was widely publicized in the sixties, as a new mode of reflection on science, its history, its intellectual foundations, and its management, after which it dominated Soviet historiography of science until perestroika . Tracing the history of meta-studies of science in the USSR from its early institutionalization in the twenties when various political, theoretical and institutional struggles set the stage for the development (...)
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