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  1. Unconscious Influences on Decision Making: A Critical Review.Ben R. Newell & David R. Shanks - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (2):1-19.
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  • Making Sense of the Self: An Integrative Framework for Moral Agency.Udo Pesch - forthcoming - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour.
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  • Compressed Environments: Unbounded Optimizers Should Sometimes Ignore Information. [REVIEW]Nathan Berg & Ulrich Hoffrage - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (2):259-275.
    Given free information and unlimited processing power, should decision algorithms use as much information as possible? A formal model of the decision-making environment is developed to address this question and provide conditions under which informationally frugal algorithms, without any information or processing costs whatsoever, are optimal. One cause of compression that allows optimal algorithms to rationally ignore information is inverse movement of payoffs and probabilities (e.g., high payoffs occur with low probably and low payoffs occur with high probability). If inversely (...)
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  • Reasoning Under Scarcity.Jennifer M. Morton - 2017 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 95 (3):543-559.
    Practical deliberation consists in thinking about what to do. Such deliberation is deemed rational when it conforms to certain normative requirements. What is often ignored is the role that an agent's context can play in so-called ‘failures’ of rationality. In this paper, I use recent cognitive science research investigating the effects of resource-scarcity on decision-making and cognitive function to argue that context plays an important role in determining which norms should structure an agent's deliberation. This evidence undermines the view that (...)
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  • Models of Cognition and Their Applications in Behavioral Economics: A Conceptual Framework for Nudging Derived From Behavior Analysis and Relational Frame Theory.Marco Tagliabue, Valeria Squatrito & Giovambattista Presti - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • How to Explain Behavior?Gerd Gigerenzer - forthcoming - Topics in Cognitive Science.
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  • Two Problems with the Socio-Relational Critique of Distributive Egalitarianism.Christian Seidel - 2013 - In Miguel Hoeltje, Thomas Spitzley & Wolfgang Spohn (eds.), Was dürfen wir glauben? Was sollen wir tun? Sektionsbeiträge des achten internationalen Kongresses der Gesellschaft für Analytische Philosophie e.V. DuEPublico.
    Distributive egalitarians believe that distributive justice is to be explained by the idea of distributive equality (DE) and that DE is of intrinsic value. The socio-relational critique argues that distributive egalitarianism does not account for the “true” value of equality, which rather lies in the idea of “equality as a substantive social value” (ESV). This paper examines the socio-relational critique and argues that it fails because – contrary to what the critique presupposes –, first, ESV is not conceptually distinct from (...)
     
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  • Intuitive And Reflective Responses In Philosophy.Nick Byrd - 2014 - Dissertation, University of Colorado
    Cognitive scientists have revealed systematic errors in human reasoning. There is disagreement about what these errors indicate about human rationality, but one upshot seems clear: human reasoning does not seem to fit traditional views of human rationality. This concern about rationality has made its way through various fields and has recently caught the attention of philosophers. The concern is that if philosophers are prone to systematic errors in reasoning, then the integrity of philosophy would be threatened. In this paper, I (...)
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  • Pseudo‐Mechanistic Explanations in Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience.Bernhard Hommel - forthcoming - Topics in Cognitive Science.
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  • Philosophical Intuitions , Heuristics , and Metaphors.Eugen Fischer - 2014 - Synthese 191 (3):569-606.
    : Psychological explanations of philosophical intuitions can help us assess their evidentiary value, and our warrant for accepting them. To explain and assess conceptual or classificatory intuitions about specific situations, some philosophers have suggested explanations which invoke heuristic rules proposed by cognitive psychologists. The present paper extends this approach of intuition assessment by heuristics-based explanation, in two ways: It motivates the proposal of a new heuristic, and shows that this metaphor heuristic helps explain important but neglected intuitions: general factual intuitions (...)
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  • Fictional Persuasion and the Nature of Belief.Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen - 2017 - In Ema Sullivan-Bissett, Helen Bradley & Paul Noordhof (eds.), Art and Belief. Oxford University Press. pp. 174-193.
    Psychological studies on fictional persuasion demonstrate that being engaged with fiction systematically affects our beliefs about the real world, in ways that seem insensitive to the truth. This threatens to undermine the widely accepted view that beliefs are essentially regulated in ways that tend to ensure their truth, and may tempt various non-doxastic interpretations of the belief-seeming attitudes we form as a result of engaging with fiction. I evaluate this threat, and argue that it is benign. Even if the relevant (...)
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  • Toward an Ecological Bioethics.Nicolae Morar & Joshua August Skorburg - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (5):35-37.
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  • Moral Heuristics.Cass R. Sunstein - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):531-542.
    With respect to questions of fact, people use heuristics – mental short-cuts, or rules of thumb, that generally work well, but that also lead to systematic errors. People use moral heuristics too – moral short-cuts, or rules of thumb, that lead to mistaken and even absurd moral judgments. These judgments are highly relevant not only to morality, but to law and politics as well. Examples are given from a number of domains, including risk regulation, punishment, reproduction and sexuality, and the (...)
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  • Studying Development in the 21st Century.Michael S. C. Thomas, Gert Westermann, Denis Mareschal, Mark H. Johnson, Sylvain Sirois & Michael Spratling - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (3):345-356.
    In this response, we consider four main issues arising from the commentaries to the target article. These include further details of the theory of interactive specialization, the relationship between neuroconstructivism and selectionism, the implications of neuroconstructivism for the notion of representation, and the role of genetics in theories of development. We conclude by stressing the importance of multidisciplinary approaches in the future study of cognitive development and by identifying the directions in which neuroconstructivism can expand in the Twenty-first Century.
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  • Cognitive Processes Underlying Heuristic Decision Making.Sebastian Dummel - unknown
    Our life is full of choices—choices that differ, among others, in the amount of information on which they are based. For instance, when facing a choice between two options that differ on several decision-relevant attributes, one could rely on the most relevant attribute only to make the decision, or one could integrate information from several attributes and base the choice on that combined information. When a decision maker bases her choice on the most relevant attribute only, however, what does this (...)
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  • Cognitive Niches: An Ecological Model of Strategy Selection.Julian N. Marewski & Lael J. Schooler - 2011 - Psychological Review 118 (3):393-437.
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  • Intuitive and Deliberate Judgments Are Based on Common Principles.Arie W. Kruglanski & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2011 - Psychological Review 118 (1):97-109.
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  • Two-Stage Dynamic Signal Detection: A Theory of Choice, Decision Time, and Confidence.Timothy J. Pleskac & Jerome R. Busemeyer - 2010 - Psychological Review 117 (3):864-901.
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  • The Robust Beauty of Ordinary Information.Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos, Lael J. Schooler & Ralph Hertwig - 2010 - Psychological Review 117 (4):1259-1266.
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  • Fast and Frugal Heuristics Are Plausible Models of Cognition: Reply to Dougherty, Franco-Watkins, and Thomas.Gerd Gigerenzer, Ulrich Hoffrage & Daniel G. Goldstein - 2008 - Psychological Review 115 (1):230-239.
  • Familiarity and Recollection in Heuristic Decision Making.Shane R. Schwikert & Tim Curran - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (6):2341-2365.
  • A Neural Network Framework for Cognitive Bias.Johan E. Korteling, Anne-Marie Brouwer & Alexander Toet - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Naturalistic Multiattribute Choice.Sudeep Bhatia & Neil Stewart - 2018 - Cognition 179:71-88.
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  • The Adaptive Use of Recognition in Group Decision Making.Juliane E. Kämmer, Wolfgang Gaissmaier, Torsten Reimer & Carsten C. Schermuly - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (5):911-942.
    Applying the framework of ecological rationality, the authors studied the adaptivity of group decision making. In detail, they investigated whether groups apply decision strategies conditional on their composition in terms of task-relevant features. The authors focused on the recognition heuristic, so the task-relevant features were the validity of the group members' recognition and knowledge, which influenced the potential performance of group strategies. Forty-three three-member groups performed an inference task in which they had to infer which of two German companies had (...)
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  • A Tutorial Introduction to Bayesian Models of Cognitive Development.Amy Perfors, Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Thomas L. Griffiths & Fei Xu - 2011 - Cognition 120 (3):302-321.
  • How (Far) Can Rationality Be Naturalized?Gerd Gigerenzer & Thomas Sturm - 2012 - Synthese 187 (1):243-268.
    The paper shows why and how an empirical study of fast-and-frugal heuristics can provide norms of good reasoning, and thus how (and how far) rationality can be naturalized. We explain the heuristics that humans often rely on in solving problems, for example, choosing investment strategies or apartments, placing bets in sports, or making library searches. We then show that heuristics can lead to judgments that are as accurate as or even more accurate than strategies that use more information and computation, (...)
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  • Does Reflection Lead to Wise Choices?Lisa Bortolotti - 2011 - Philosophical Explorations 14 (3):297-313.
    Does conscious reflection lead to good decision-making? Whereas engaging in reflection is traditionally thought to be the best way to make wise choices, recent psychological evidence undermines the role of reflection in lay and expert judgement. The literature suggests that thinking about reasons does not improve the choices people make, and that experts do not engage in reflection, but base their judgements on intuition, often shaped by extensive previous experience. Can we square the traditional accounts of wisdom with the results (...)
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  • False Beliefs and Naive Beliefs: They Can Be Good for You.Roberto Casati & Marco Bertamini - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):512-513.
    Naive physics beliefs can be systematically mistaken. They provide a useful test-bed because they are common, and also because their existence must rely on some adaptive advantage, within a given context. In the second part of the commentary we also ask questions about when a whole family of misbeliefs should be considered together as a single phenomenon.
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  • The Epistemic Status of Processing Fluency as Source for Judgments of Truth.Rolf Reber & Christian Unkelbach - 2010 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (4):563-581.
    This article combines findings from cognitive psychology on the role of processing fluency in truth judgments with epistemological theory on justification of belief. We first review evidence that repeated exposure to a statement increases the subjective ease with which that statement is processed. This increased processing fluency, in turn, increases the probability that the statement is judged to be true. The basic question discussed here is whether the use of processing fluency as a cue to truth is epistemically justified. In (...)
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  • Participation Through Publics: Did Dewey Answer Lippmann?James Bohman - 2010 - Contemporary Pragmatism 7 (1):49-68.
    John Dewey's Public and its Problems provides his fullest account of democracy under the emerging conditions of complex, modern societies. While responding to Lippmann's criticisms of democracy as self-rule, Dewey acknowledges the truth of many of the social scientific criticisms of democracy, while he defends democracy by reconstructing it. Dewey seeks a new public in a “Great Community” based on more face-to-face communication about nonlocal issues. Yet Dewey fails to consistently apply his own reconstructive argument, retreating to a communal basis (...)
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  • Précis of Neuroconstructivism: How the Brain Constructs Cognition.Sylvain Sirois, Michael Spratling, Michael S. C. Thomas, Gert Westermann, Denis Mareschal & Mark H. Johnson - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (3):321-331.
    Neuroconstructivism: How the Brain Constructs Cognition proposes a unifying framework for the study of cognitive development that brings together (1) constructivism (which views development as the progressive elaboration of increasingly complex structures), (2) cognitive neuroscience (which aims to understand the neural mechanisms underlying behavior), and (3) computational modeling (which proposes formal and explicit specifications of information processing). The guiding principle of our approach is context dependence, within and (in contrast to Marr [1982]) between levels of organization. We propose that three (...)
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  • The Representation of Judgment Heuristics and the Generality Problem.Carole J. Lee - 2007 - Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society:1211-6.
    In his debates with Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, Gerd Gigerenzer puts forward a stricter standard for the proper representation of judgment heuristics. I argue that Gigerenzer’s stricter standard contributes to naturalized epistemology in two ways. First, Gigerenzer’s standard can be used to winnow away cognitive processes that are inappropriately characterized and should not be used in the epistemic evaluation of belief. Second, Gigerenzer’s critique helps to recast the generality problem in naturalized epistemology and cognitive psychology as the methodological problem (...)
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  • Précis of Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart.Peter M. Todd & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):727-741.
    How can anyone be rational in a world where knowledge is limited, time is pressing, and deep thought is often an unattainable luxury? Traditional models of unbounded rationality and optimization in cognitive science, economics, and animal behavior have tended to view decision-makers as possessing supernatural powers of reason, limitless knowledge, and endless time. But understanding decisions in the real world requires a more psychologically plausible notion of bounded rationality. In Simple heuristics that make us smart (Gigerenzer et al. 1999), we (...)
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  • Fluency, Satisfaction, Truth: Reassessing James in Light of Some Contemporary Psychology.Daniel J. Brunson - 2016 - Contemporary Pragmatism 13 (1):29-47.
    A notable feature of classical American pragmatism is its close association with the birth of experimental psychology. In particular, William James’ work as a psychologist influenced, and was influenced by, his pragmatism. This paper seeks to support this reading of the relation between Jamesian psychology and pragmatism, particularly through his “Sentiment of Rationality” and the later contention that the true is the satisfactory. In addition, James’ insights are tested and expanded through reference to contemporary research on processing fluency, as well (...)
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  • The Use of Recognition in Group Decision‐Making.Torsten Reimer & Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (6):1009-1029.
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  • Is Knowledge Curse or Blessing in Pure Coordination Problems?Swee-Hoon Chuah, Robert Hoffmann & Jeremy Larner - 2019 - Theory and Decision 87 (1):123-146.
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  • Formal Versus Bounded Norms in the Psychology of Rationality: Toward a Multilevel Analysis of Their Relationship.Thomas Sturm - 2019 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 49 (3):190-209.
    It is often claimed that formal and optimizing norms of the standard conception of rationality and the heuristics of the bounded rationality approach are at odds with one another. This claim, I arg...
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  • Episteme Symposium on Group Agency: Replies to Gaus, Cariani, Sylvan, and Briggs.Christian List & Philip Pettit - 2012 - Episteme 9 (3):293-309.
    Discussion Christian List, Philip Pettit, Episteme, FirstView Article.
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  • Can Evolution Get Us Off the Hook? Evaluating the Ecological Defence of Human Rationality.Maarten Boudry, Michael Vlerick & Ryan McKay - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:524-535.
    This paper discusses the ecological case for epistemic innocence: does biased cognition have evolutionary benefits, and if so, does that exculpate human reasoners from irrationality? Proponents of ‘ecological rationality’ have challenged the bleak view of human reasoning emerging from research on biases and fallacies. If we approach the human mind as an adaptive toolbox, tailored to the structure of the environment, many alleged biases and fallacies turn out to be artefacts of narrow norms and artificial set-ups. However, we argue that (...)
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  • It Just Felt Right: The Neural Correlates of the Fluency Heuristic ☆.Kirsten G. Volz, Lael J. Schooler & D. Yves von Cramon - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (3):829-837.
    Simple heuristics exploit basic human abilities, such as recognition memory, to make decisions based on sparse information. Based on the relative speed of recognizing two objects, the fluency heuristic infers that the one recognized more quickly has the higher value with respect to the criterion of interest. Behavioral data show that reliance on retrieval fluency enables quick inferences. Our goal with the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study was to isolate fluency-heuristic-based judgments to map the use of fluency onto specific (...)
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  • Memory‐Based Simple Heuristics as Attribute Substitution: Competitive Tests of Binary Choice Inference Models.Honda Hidehito, Matsuka Toshihiko & Ueda Kazuhiro - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S5):1093-1118.
    Some researchers on binary choice inference have argued that people make inferences based on simple heuristics, such as recognition, fluency, or familiarity. Others have argued that people make inferences based on available knowledge. To examine the boundary between heuristic and knowledge usage, we examine binary choice inference processes in terms of attribute substitution in heuristic use. In this framework, it is predicted that people will rely on heuristic or knowledge-based inference depending on the subjective difficulty of the inference task. We (...)
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  • The Evolution of Misbelief.Ryan T. McKay & Daniel C. Dennett - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):493.
    From an evolutionary standpoint, a default presumption is that true beliefs are adaptive and misbeliefs maladaptive. But if humans are biologically engineered to appraise the world accurately and to form true beliefs, how are we to explain the routine exceptions to this rule? How can we account for mistaken beliefs, bizarre delusions, and instances of self-deception? We explore this question in some detail. We begin by articulating a distinction between two general types of misbelief: those resulting from a breakdown in (...)
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  • Homo Heuristicus: Why Biased Minds Make Better Inferences.Gerd Gigerenzer & Henry Brighton - 2009 - Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (1):107-143.
    Heuristics are efficient cognitive processes that ignore information. In contrast to the widely held view that less processing reduces accuracy, the study of heuristics shows that less information, computation, and time can in fact improve accuracy. We review the major progress made so far: the discovery of less-is-more effects; the study of the ecological rationality of heuristics, which examines in which environments a given strategy succeeds or fails, and why; an advancement from vague labels to computational models of heuristics; the (...)
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  • How Forgetting Aids Heuristic Inference.Lael J. Schooler & Ralph Hertwig - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (3):610-628.
    Some theorists, ranging from W. James to contemporary psychologists, have argued that forgetting is the key to proper functioning of memory. The authors elaborate on the notion of beneficial forgetting by proposing that loss of information aids inference heuristics that exploit mnemonic information. To this end, the authors bring together 2 research programs that take an ecological approach to studying cognition. Specifically, they implement fast and frugal heuristics within the ACT-R cognitive architecture. Simulations of the recognition heuristic, which relies on (...)
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  • What's in a Heuristic? Commentary on Sunstein, C.Ulrike Hahn, John M. Frost & Gregory Richard Maio - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):551-552.
    the term as used by sunstein seeks to bring together various traditions. however, there are significant differences between uses of the term in the cognitive and the social psychological research, and these differences are accompanied by very distinct evidential criteria. we suggest the term should refer to processes, which means that further evidence is required.
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  • Implications of Cognitive Load for Hypothesis Generation and Probability Judgment.Amber M. Sprenger, Michael R. Dougherty, Sharona M. Atkins, Ana M. Franco-Watkins, Rick P. Thomas, Nicholas Lange & Brandon Abbs - 2011 - Frontiers in Psychology 2.
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  • Sound Mind, Irrational Behavior?R. Kim Guenther & Matthew H. Olson - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Deciding for Future Selves Reduces Loss Aversion.Qiqi Cheng & Guibing He - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • The Power of Simplicity: A Fast-and-Frugal Heuristics Approach to Performance Science.Markus Raab & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Implicit Association Test: Validity Debates.Anthony Greenwald - manuscript
    Note posted 9 Jun 08 : Modifications made today include a new section on predictive validity, and addition of recently published article and in in-press article, both by Nosek & Hansen, under the "CULTURE VS. PERSON" heading, which replaces a previously listed unpublished ms. of theirs. I continue to encourage all interested to send material that they are willing to be included on this page. Please also to let me know about errors, including faulty links.
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