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  1. Why Emotion Recognition is Not Simulational.Ali Yousefi Heris - 2017 - Philosophical Psychology 30 (6).
    According to a dominant interpretation of the simulation hypothesis, in recognizing an emotion we use the same neural processes used in experiencing that emotion. This paper argues that the view is fundamentally misguided. I will examine the simulational arguments for the three basic emotions of fear, disgust, and anger and argue that the simulational account relies strongly on a narrow sense of emotion processing which hardly squares with evidence on how, in fact, emotion recognition is processed. I contend that the (...)
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  • Let’s Improv It: The Embodied Investigation of Social Collaboration.Klara Łucznik, Abigail Jackson, Aska Sakuta & Eleonora Siarava - 2017 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 8 (T):301-311.
    How do we share embodied knowledge? How do we understand the world through our bodies? How can we effectively interpret and communicate somatic experiences to a wider audience? These questions emerged during a collaborative research project Let’s Improv It, which set out to explore how kinaesthetic empathy and multisensory perception help us to understand our own actions, intentions and emotions, as well as those of others. We additionally questioned the role and perception of physical and emotional touch within embodied knowledge. (...)
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  • Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Influences Facial Emotion Recognition in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease: A Review.Caroline Wagenbreth, Maria Kuehne, Hans-Jochen Heinze & Tino Zaehle - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • In Defense of Phenomenological Approaches to Social Cognition: Interacting with the Critics.Shaun Gallagher - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (2):187-212.
    I clarify recently developed phenomenological approaches to social cognition. These are approaches that, drawing on developmental science, social neuroscience, and dynamic systems theory, emphasize the involvement of embodied and enactive processes together with communicative and narrative practices in contexts of intersubjective understanding. I review some of the evidence that supports these approaches. I consider a variety of criticisms leveled against them, and defend the role of phenomenology in the explanation of social cognition. Finally, I show how these phenomenological approaches can (...)
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  • The Presence of Others.Heidi Lene Maibom - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 132 (2):161-190.
    Hybrid accounts of folk psychology maintain that we sometimes theorize and sometimes simulate in order to understand others. An important question is why this is the case. In this paper, I present a view according to which simulation, but not theory, plays a central role in empathy. In contrast to others taking a similar approach to simulation, I do not focus on empathy’s cognitive aspect, but stress its affective-motivational one. Simulating others’ emotions usually engages our motivations altruistically. By vicariously feeling (...)
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  • Enactive and Behavioral Abstraction Accounts of Social Understanding in Chimpanzees, Infants, and Adults.Shaun Gallagher & Daniel J. Povinelli - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (1):145-169.
    We argue against theory-of-mind interpretation of recent false-belief experiments with young infants and explore two other interpretations: enactive and behavioral abstraction approaches. We then discuss the differences between these alternatives.
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  • Inference or Interaction: Social Cognition Without Precursors.Shaun Gallagher - 2008 - Philosophical Explorations 11 (3):163 – 174.
    In this paper I defend interaction theory (IT) as an alternative to both theory theory (TT) and simulation theory (ST). IT opposes the basic suppositions that both TT and ST depend upon. I argue that the various capacities for primary and secondary intersubjectivity found in infancy and early childhood should not be thought of as precursors to later developing capacities for using folk psychology or simulation routines. They are not replaced or displaced by such capacities in adulthood, but rather continue (...)
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  • Clinical Sympathy: The Important Role of Affectivity in Clinical Practice.Carter Hardy - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (4):499-513.
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  • A Simulation Theory of Musical Expressivity.Tom Cochrane - 2010 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (2):191-207.
    This paper examines the causal basis of our ability to attribute emotions to music, developing and synthesizing the existing arousal, resemblance and persona theories of musical expressivity to do so. The principal claim is that music hijacks the simulation mechanism of the brain, a mechanism which has evolved to detect one's own and other people's emotions.
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  • Bodily Expressions, Feelings, and the Direct Perception Account of Social Cognition.Francesca Forlè - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-16.
    In this paper, I will argue in favor of a direct perception account of social cognition, focusing on the idea that we can directly grasp at least some mental states of others through their bodily expressions. I will investigate the way we should consider expressions and their relations to mental phenomena in order to defend DP. In order to do so, I will present Krueger and Overgaard’s idea of expressions as constitutive proper parts of the mental phenomena expressed and I (...)
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  • The Irrelevance of Folk Intuitions to the “Hard Problem” of Consciousness.Brian Talbot - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):644-650.
    Recently, a number of philosophers have turned to folk intuitions about mental states for data about qualia and phenomenal consciousness. In this paper I argue that current research along these lines does not tell us about these subjects. I focus on a series of studies, performed by Justin Sytsma and Edouard Machery, to make my argument. Folk judgments studied by these researchers are mostly likely generated by a certain cognitive system – System One – that will generate the same data (...)
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  • Moving Ourselves, Moving Others: Motion and Emotion in Intersubjectivity, Consciousness, and Language.Andrea Schiavio - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (5):735-739.
  • The Interactive Turn in Social Cognition Research: A Critique.Søren Overgaard & John Michael - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (2):160-183.
    Proponents of the so-called “interactive turn in social cognition research” maintain that mainstream research on social cognition has been fundamentally flawed by its neglect of social interaction, and that a new paradigm is needed in order to redress this shortcoming. We argue that proponents of the interactive turn (“interactionists”) have failed to properly substantiate their criticisms of existing research on social cognition. Although it is sometimes unclear precisely what these criticisms of existing theories are supposed to target, we sketch two (...)
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  • Training in Compensatory Strategies Enhances Rapport in Interactions Involving People with Möebius Syndrome.John Michael, Kathleen Bogart, Kristian Tylen, Joel Krueger, Morten Bech, John R. Ostergaard & Riccardo Fusaroli - 2015 - Frontiers in Neurology 6 (213):1-11.
    In the exploratory study reported here, we tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to train teenagers with Möbius syndrome (MS) to increase the use of alternative communication strategies (e.g., gestures) to compensate for their lack of facial expressivity. Specifically, we expected the intervention to increase the level of rapport experienced in social interactions by our participants. In addition, we aimed to identify the mechanisms responsible for any such increase in rapport. In the study, five teenagers with MS interacted with (...)
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  • Simulation is Not Enough: A Hybrid Model of Disgust Attribution on the Basis of Visual Stimuli.Luca Barlassina - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology 26 (3):401-419.
    Mindreading is the ability to attribute mental states to other individuals. According to the Theory-Theory (TT), mindreading is based on one's possession of a Theory of Mind. On the other hand, the Simulation Theory (ST) maintains that one arrives at the attribution of a mental state by simulating it in one's own mind. In this paper, I propose a ST-TT hybrid model of the ability to attribute disgust on the basis of visual stimuli such as facial expressions, body postures, etc. (...)
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  • Beyond Cognition: Philosophical Issues in Autism.Emma Peng Chien - 2017 - Dissertation, University of Alberta
    This dissertation explores philosophical issues in autism and defends a new version of the enactive approach to autism and social cognition. The discussion in this dissertation centres around the question “why do autistics encounter social interaction problems?”, addressing this question in ways that raise broader philosophical issues. Within the philosophy of mind, these include the problem of other minds, the nature of emotions, and narratives and their role in understanding the self. Beyond cognition, such issues are intertwined with questions in (...)
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  • Mirroring Cannot Account for Understanding Action.Jeremy I. M. Carpendale & Charlie Lewis - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (1):23-24.
    Susan Hurley's shared circuits model (SCM) rightly begins in action and progresses through a series of layers; but it fails to reach action understanding because it relies on mirroring as a driving force, draws on heavily criticized theories, and neglects the need for shared experience in our grasp of social understanding.
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  • Embodied and Disembodied Emotion Processing: Learning From and About Typical and Autistic Individuals.Piotr Winkielman, Daniel N. McIntosh & Lindsay Oberman - 2009 - Emotion Review 1 (2):178-190.
    Successful social functioning requires quick and accurate processing of emotion and generation of appropriate reactions. In typical individuals, these skills are supported by embodied processing, recruiting central and peripheral mechanisms. However, emotional processing is atypical in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Individuals with ASD show deficits in recognition of briefly presented emotional expressions. They tend to recognize expressions using rule-based, rather than template, strategies. Individuals with ASD also do not spontaneously and quickly mimic emotional expressions, unless the task encourages (...)
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  • Facial Mimicry in its Social Setting.Beate Seibt, Andreas Mühlberger, Katja U. Likowski & Peter Weyers - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Extended Cognition and the Space of Social Interaction.Joel Krueger - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):643-657.
    The extended mind thesis (EM) asserts that some cognitive processes are (partially) composed of actions consisting of the manipulation and exploitation of environmental structures. Might some processes at the root of social cognition have a similarly extended structure? In this paper, I argue that social cognition is fundamentally an interactive form of space management—the negotiation and management of ‘‘we-space”—and that some of the expressive actions involved in the negotiation and management of we-space (gesture, touch, facial and whole-body expressions) drive basic (...)
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  • Do Instagram Profiles Accurately Portray Personality? An Investigation Into Idealized Online Self-Presentation.Elspbeth Harris & Aurore C. Bardey - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • The Tuning-Fork Model of Human Social Cognition: A Critique☆.Pierre Jacob - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):229-243.
    The tuning-fork model of human social cognition, based on the discovery of mirror neurons (MNs) in the ventral premotor cortex of monkeys, involves the four following assumptions: (1) mirroring processes are processes of resonance or simulation. (2) They can be motor or non-motor. (3) Processes of motor mirroring (or action-mirroring), exemplified by the activity of MNs, constitute instances of third-person mindreading, whereby an observer represents the agent's intention. (4) Non-motor mirroring processes enable humans to represent others' emotions. After questioning all (...)
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  • What Do Mirror Neurons Contribute to Human Social Cognition?Pierre Jacob - 2008 - Mind and Language 23 (2):190–223.
    According to an influential view, one function of mirror neurons (MNs), first discovered in the brain of monkeys, is to underlie third-person mindreading. This view relies on two assumptions: the activity of MNs in an observer’s brain matches (simulates or resonates with) that of MNs in an agent’s brain and this resonance process retrodictively generates a representation of the agent’s intention from a perception of her movement. In this paper, I criticize both assumptions and I argue instead that the activity (...)
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  • Facial Reactions in Response to Dynamic Emotional Stimuli in Different Modalities in Patients Suffering From Schizophrenia: A Behavioral and EMG Study.Mariateresa Sestito, Maria Alessandra Umiltà, Giancarlo De Paola, Renata Fortunati, Andrea Raballo, Emanuela Leuci, Simone Maffei, Matteo Tonna, Mario Amore, Carlo Maggini & Vittorio Gallese - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  • Affective Neuronal Selection: The Nature of the Primordial Emotion Systems.Judith A. Toronchuk & George F. R. Ellis - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
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  • The Importance and Limits of Phenomenological Mind.Marc Slors - 2008 - Abstracta 4 (3):34-44.
  • The Embodied Emotional Mind.Piotr Winkielman, Paula M. Niedenthal & Lindsay Oberman - 2008 - In G. R. Semin & Eliot R. Smith (eds.), Embodied Grounding: Social, Cognitive, Affective, and Neuroscientific Approaches. Cambridge University Press. pp. 263--288.
  • Simulation, Projection and Empathy.Dan Zahavi - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (2):514-522.
    Simulationists have recently started to employ the term "empathy" when characterizing our most basic understanding of other minds. I agree that empathy is crucial, but I think it is being misconstrued by the simulationists. Using some ideas to be found in Scheler's classical discussion of empathy, I will argue for a different understanding of the notion. More specifically, I will argue that there are basic levels of interpersonal understanding - in particular the understanding of emotional expressions - that are not (...)
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  • Beyond Smiles: The Impact of Culture and Race in Embodying and Decoding Facial Expressions.Roberto Caldara - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (6):438-439.
    Understanding the very nature of the smile with an integrative approach and a novel model is a fertile ground for a new theoretical vision and insights. However, from this perspective, I challenge the authors to integrate culture and race in their model, because both factors would impact upon the embodying and decoding of facial expressions.
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  • The Proximate Mechanisms and Ultimate Functions of Smiles.Marc Mehu & Karim N'Diaye - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (6):454-455.
    Niedenthal et al's classification of smiles erroneously conflates psychological mechanisms and adaptive functions. This confusion weakens the rationale behind the types of smiles they chose to individuate, and it obfuscates the distinction between the communicative versus denotative nature of smiles and the role of perceived-gaze direction in emotion recognition.
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  • The Cognition of Severe Moral Failure: A Novel Approach to the Perception of Evil.Aner Govrin - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Body and Mind: Zajonc's (Re)Introduction of the Motor System to Emotion and Cognition.Paula M. Niedenthal, Maria Augustinova & Magdalena Rychlowska - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (4):340-347.
    Zajonc and Markus published a chapter in 1984 that proposed solutions to the difficult problem of modeling interactions between cognition and emotion. The most radical of their proposals was the importance of the motor system in information processing. These initial preoccupations, when wedded with the vascular theory of emotional efference (VTEE), propelled theory and research about how the face works to control emotion and to control interpersonal interaction. We discuss the development of Bob’s thinking about facial expression—facial efference is the (...)
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  • The Shared Circuits Model. How Control, Mirroring, and Simulation Can Enable Imitation and Mind Reading.Susan L. Hurley - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (1):1-22.
    Imitation, deliberation, and mindreading are characteristically human sociocognitive skills. Research on imitation and its role in social cognition is flourishing across various disciplines; it is here surveyed under headings of behavior, subpersonal mechanisms, and functions of imitation. A model is then advanced within which many of the developments surveyed can be located and explained. The shared circuits model explains how imitation, deliberation, and mindreading can be enabled by subpersonal mechanisms of control, mirroring and simulation. It is cast at a middle, (...)
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  • Embodied Simulation: From Neurons to Phenomenal Experience. [REVIEW]Vittorio Gallese - 2005 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 4 (1):23-48.
    The same neural structures involved in the unconscious modeling of our acting body in space also contribute to our awareness of the lived body and of the objects that the world contains. Neuroscientific research also shows that there are neural mechanisms mediating between the multi-level personal experience we entertain of our lived body, and the implicit certainties we simultaneously hold about others. Such personal and body-related experiential knowledge enables us to understand the actions performed by others, and to directly decode (...)
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  • Is Social Cognition Embodied?Alvin Goldman & Frederique de Vignemont - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (4):154-159.
    Theories of embodied cognition abound in the literature, but it is often unclear how to understand them. We offer several interpretations of embodiment, the most interesting being the thesis that mental representations in bodily formats (B-formats) have an important role in cognition. Potential B-formats include motoric, somatosensory, affective and interoceptive formats. The literature on mirroring and related phenomena provides support for a limited-scope version of embodied social cognition under the B-format interpretation. It is questionable, however, whether such a thesis can (...)
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  • Facial Feedback Affects Valence Judgments of Dynamic and Static Emotional Expressions.Sylwia Hyniewska & Wataru Sato - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • The (in)Visibility of Others: A Reply to Herschbach.Shaun Gallagher & Dan Zahavi - 2008 - Philosophical Explorations 11 (3):237-244.
  • Rethinking Folk-Psychology: Alternatives to Theories of Mind.Marc Slors & Cynthia Macdonald - 2008 - Philosophical Explorations 11 (3):153 – 161.
  • Empathy, Embodiment and Interpersonal Understanding: From Lipps to Schutz.Dan Zahavi - 2010 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 53 (3):285-306.
    When it comes to understanding the nature of social cognition, we have—according to the standard view—a choice between the simulation theory, the theory-theory or some hybrid between the two. The aim of this paper is to argue that there are, in fact, other options available, and that one such option has been articulated by various thinkers belonging to the phenomenological tradition. More specifically, the paper will contrast Lipps' account of empathy—an account that has recently undergone something of a revival in (...)
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  • Empathy, Embodiment And.Dan Zahavi - unknown
    When it comes to understanding the nature of social cognition, we have— according to the standard view—a choice between the simulation theory, the theory-theory or some hybrid between the two. The aim of this paper is to argue that there are, in fact, other options available, and that one such option has been articulated by various think- ers belonging to the phenomenological tradition. More specifically, the paper will con- trast Lipps’ account of empathy—an account that has recently undergone something of (...)
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  • Reply: A Phenomenology with Legs and Brains.Dan Zahavi - 2008 - Abstracta 4 (3):86-107.
    We first want to express our thanks to the commentators for their close and critical readings of The Phenomenological Mind. We would like to treat their comments and challenging questions as a productive opportunity to clarify and to make our positions more precise. Before we address the specific points raised by our colleagues, we do want to say that the intersection between phenomenology and the cognitive sciences is a rich one, and growing richer as collaboration and research continues. Our book (...)
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  • Social Ontology and Social Cognition.Patrizio Lo Presti - 2013 - Abstracta 7 (1).
    The aim of this paper is to show that there is a reciprocal dependency relationship between social cognition and social ontology. It is argued that, on the one hand, the existence conditions of socially meaningful objects and of social groups are about subjects’ social cognitive processes and interactive patterns and, on the other hand, social cognitive processes and interactive patterns are modulated by socially meaningful objects and social groups. I proceed from a historically informed distinction between social ontologies – between (...)
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  • Is Empathy Necessary for the Practice of “Good” Medicine.Hanni K. Bouma - 2008 - Open Ethics Journal 2 (1):1-12.
  • Social Cognition: A Normative Approach.Víctor Fernández Castro & Manuel Heras-Escribano - 2019 - Acta Analytica:1-26.
    The main aim of this paper is to introduce an approach for understanding social cognition that we call the normative approach to social cognition. Such an approach, which results from a systematization of previous arguments and ideas from authors such as Ryle, Dewey, or Wittgenstein, is an alternative to the classic model and the direct social perception model. In section 2, we evaluate the virtues and flaws of these two models. In section 3, we introduce the normative approach, according to (...)
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  • Social Cognition: A Normative Approach.Víctor Fernández Castro & Manuel Heras-Escribano - forthcoming - Acta Analytica:1-26.
    The main aim of this paper is to introduce an approach for understanding social cognition that we call the normative approach to social cognition. Such an approach, which results from a systematization of previous arguments and ideas from authors such as Ryle, Dewey, or Wittgenstein, is an alternative to the classic model and the direct social perception model. In section 2, we evaluate the virtues and flaws of these two models. In section 3, we introduce the normative approach, according to (...)
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  • Explicit Recognition of Emotional Facial Expressions is Shaped by Expertise: Evidence From Professional Actors.Massimiliano Conson, Marta Ponari, Eva Monteforte, Giusy Ricciato, Marco Sarà, Dario Grossi & Luigi Trojano - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  • Eyes, Amygdala, and Other Models of Face Processing: Questions for the SIMS Model.Bhismadev Chakrabarti - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (6):440-441.
    This commentary raises general questions about the parsimony and generalizability of the SIMS model, before interrogating the specific roles that the amygdala and eye contact play in it. Additionally, this situates the SIMS model alongside another model of facial expression processing, with a view to incorporating individual differences in emotion perception.
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  • Does Motor Mimicry Contribute to Emotion Recognition?Cindy Hamon-Hill & John Barresi - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (6):447-448.
    We focus on the role that motor mimicry plays in the SIMS model when interpreting whether a facial emotional expression is appropriate to an eliciting context. Based on our research, we find general support for the SIMS model in these situations, but with some qualifications on how disruption of motor mimicry as a process relates to speed and accuracy in judgments.
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  • Can We Really Leave Gender Out of It? Individual Differences and the Simulation of Smiles Model.Elizabeth Simpson & Dorothy Fragaszy - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (6):459-460.
    Gender differences in face-based emotion recognition, notably differential use of mimicry, may compromise the extent to which the Simulation of Smiles (SIMS) model can be generalized to populations besides the adult females on which it has been tested. Much work indicates sex differences in face-based emotion recognition, including smile recognition.
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  • The Simulation of Smiles (SIMS) Model: Embodied Simulation and the Meaning of Facial Expression.Paula M. Niedenthal, Martial Mermillod, Marcus Maringer & Ursula Hess - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (6):417.
    Recent application of theories of embodied or grounded cognition to the recognition and interpretation of facial expression of emotion has led to an explosion of research in psychology and the neurosciences. However, despite the accelerating number of reported findings, it remains unclear how the many component processes of emotion and their neural mechanisms actually support embodied simulation. Equally unclear is what triggers the use of embodied simulation versus perceptual or conceptual strategies in determining meaning. The present article integrates behavioral research (...)
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