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  1. Is Stakeholder Theory Really Ethical?Enyinna Okechukwu - 2013 - African Journal of Business Ethics 7 (2):79-86.
    Stakeholder theory claims to promote moral values in business and this claim is generally accepted. Yet, literature shows that the theory is fundamentally strategic and only incidentally normative. This paper explores the assumptions of philosophical pragmatism that underpin the theory and concludes that the theory does not qualify as normative, since its conception of morality is basically hypothetical.
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  • A Stakeholder Identity Orientation Approach to Corporate Social Performance in Family Firms.B. Bingham John, Jr W. Gibb Dyer, Smith Isaac & L. Adams Gregory - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (4):565 - 585.
    Extending the dialogue on corporate social performance (CSP) as descriptive stakeholder management (Clarkson, Acad Manage Rev 20: 92, 1995), we examine differences in CSP activity between family and nonfamily firms. We argue that CSP activity can be explained by the firm's identity orientation toward stakeholders (Brickson, Admin Sci Quart 50: 576, 2005; Acad Manage Rev 32: 864, 2007). Specifically, individualistic, relational, or collectivistic identity orientations can describe a firm's level of CSP activity toward certain stakeholders. Family firms, we suggest, adopt (...)
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  • Rethinking Epistemic Incentives: How Patient-Centered, Open Source Drug Discovery Generates More Valuable Knowledge Sooner.Alexandra Bradner - 2013 - Episteme 10 (4):417-439.
    Drug discovery traditionally has occurred behind closed doors in for-profit corporations hoping to develop best-selling medicines that recoup initial research investment, sustain marketing infrastructures, and pass on healthy returns to shareholders. Only corporate Pharma has the man- and purchasing-power to synthesize the thousands of molecules needed to find a new drug and to conduct the clinical trials that will make the drug legal. Against this view, individual physician-scientists have suggested that the promise of applied genomics work calls for a new (...)
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  • Contracts and Hierarchies: A Moral Examination of Economic Theories of the Firm.Jooho Lee - 2018 - Business Ethics Quarterly 28 (2):153-173.
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  • Imperfections and Shortcomings of the Stakeholder Model’s Graphical Representation.Yves Fassin - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 80 (4):879 - 888.
    The success of the stakeholder theory in management literature as well as in current business practices is largely due to the inherent simplicity of the stakeholder model––and to the clarity of Freeman’s powerful synthesised visual conceptualisation. However, over the years, critics have attacked the vagueness and ambiguity of stakeholder theory. In this article, rather than building on the discussion from a theoretical point of view, a radically different and innovative approach is chosen: the graphical framework is used as the central (...)
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  • Enhancing Employee Voice: Are Voluntary Employer-Employee Partnerships Enough?Harry J. Van Buren & Michelle Greenwood - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (1):209 - 221.
    One of the essential ethical issues in the employment relationship is the loss of employee voice. Many of the ways employees have previously exercised voice in the employment relationship have been rendered less effective by (1) the changing nature of work, (2) employer preferences for flexibility that often work to the disadvantage of employees, and (3) changes in public policy and institutional systems that have failed to protect workers. We will begin with a discussion of how work has changed in (...)
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  • Integrative Social Contracts Theory.Thomas Donaldson & Thomas W. Dunfee - 1995 - Economics and Philosophy 11 (1):85.
    Difficult moral issues in economic life, such as evaluating the impact of hostile takeovers and plant relocations or determining the obligations of business to the environment, constitute the raison d'etre of business ethics. Yet, while the ultimate resolution of such issues clearly requires detailed, normative analysis, a shortcoming of business ethics is that to date it has failed to develop an adequate normative theory.1 The failing is especially acute when it results in an inability to provide a basis for fine-grained (...)
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  • Perceptions of Business Purpose and Responsibility in the Context of Radical Political and Economic Development: The Case of Estonia.Mari Kooskora - 2006 - Business Ethics: A European Review 15 (2):183-199.
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  • A Framework for Understanding Corporate Social Responsibility Programs as a Continuum: An Exploratory Study.Julie Pirsch, Shruti Gupta & Stacy Landreth Grau - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 70 (2):125-140.
    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programs are increasingly popular corporate marketing strategies. This paper argues that CSR programs can fall along a continuum between two endpoints: Institutionalized programs and Promotional programs. This classification is based on an exploratory study examining the variance of four responses from the consumer stakeholder group toward these two categories of CSR. Institutionalized CSR programs are argued to be most effective at increasing customer loyalty, enhancing attitude toward the company, and decreasing consumer skepticism. Promotional CSR programs are (...)
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  • Stakeholder Duties: On the Moral Responsibility of Corporate Investors. [REVIEW]Martin E. Sandbu - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):97-107.
    Stakeholder theory usually focuses on the moral responsibility of corporations towards their stakeholders. This article takes the reverse perspective to shed light on the moral responsibility of stakeholders—specifically, investors or 'financiers'. It explicates a distinction between two types of financiers, creditors and shareholders. Many intuitively judge that shareholders have greater or more extensive moral responsibility for the actions of the corporations they invest in than do bondholders and other creditors. Examining the merits of possible arguments for or against treating owners (...)
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  • Acceptability of Operations as an Indicator of Corporate Social Performance.Mirja Mikkila - 2003 - Business Ethics 12 (1):78-87.
    There has been much theoretical debate on issues of business ethics during the last decades, but there has been little research which could concretise the content of these issues in terms of practical business. Although business life must frequently deal with concepts such as corporate social performance, business ethics and the acceptability of operations, the content and meaning of these concepts has remained flexible. In addition, rapid internationalisation and globalisation have introduced a number of new phenomena related to corporate social (...)
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  • New Approaches to Evaluating the Performance of Corporate–Community Partnerships: A Case Study From the Minerals Sector. [REVIEW]Ana Maria Esteves & Mary-Anne Barclay - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 103 (2):189-202.
    A continuing challenge for researchers and practitioners alike is the lack of data on the effectiveness of corporate–community investment programmes. The focus of this article is on the minerals industry, where companies currently face the challenge of matching corporate drivers for strategic partnership with community needs for programmes that contribute to local and regional sustainability. While many global mining companies advocate a strategic approach to partnerships, there is no evidence currently available that suggests companies are monitoring these partnerships to see (...)
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  • Economy of Mutuality: Merging Financial and Social Sustainability.Kevin Jackson - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 133 (3):499-517.
    The article posits the concept of economy of mutuality as an intellectual mediation space for shifts in emphasis between market and social structures within economic theory and practice. Economy of mutuality, it is contended, provides an alternative frame of reference to the dichotomy of market economy and social economy, for inquiry about what business is for and what values it presupposes and creates. The article centers around the objective of gaining a broadened understanding of business so as to include not (...)
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  • Liberal Thought in Reasoning on CSR.Ulf Henning Richter - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (4):625 - 649.
    In this article, I argue that conventional reasoning on corporate social responsibility (CSR) is based on the assumption of a liberal market economy in the context of a nation state. I build on the study of Scherer and Palazzo (Acad Manage Rev 32(4):1096-1120, 2007), developing a number of criteria to identify elements of liberal philosophy in the ongoing CSR debate. I discuss their occurrence in the CSR literature in detail and reflect on the implications, taking into account the emerging political (...)
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  • Expressions of Corporate Social Responsibility in U.K. Firms.Diana C. Robertson & Nigel Nicholson - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (10):1095 - 1106.
    This study examines corporate publications of U.K. firms to investigate the nature of corporate social responsibility disclosure. Using a stakeholder approach to corporate social responsibility, our results suggest a hierarchical model of disclosure: from general rhetoric to specific endeavors to implementation and monitoring. Industry differences in attention to specific stakeholder groups are noted. These differences suggest the need to understand the effects on social responsibility disclosure of factors in a firm's immediate operating environment, such as the extent of government regulation (...)
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  • A Genealogy of Business Ethics: A Nietzschean Perspective.Skip Worden - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (3):427-456.
    This article approaches the field of business ethics from a Nietzschean vantage point, which means explaining the weakness of the field by means of providing an etiological account of the values esteemed by the decadent business ethicists therein. I argue that such business ethicists have wandered from their immanent philosophical ground to act as scientists, business persons, and preaching-moralists as a way of evading their human self-contradictions. In actuality, this fleeing exacerbates them into a sickness of self-idolatry and selfloathing. I (...)
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  • SMEs and the Fallacy of Formalising CSR.Yves Fassin - 2008 - Business Ethics 17 (4):364-378.
    There exists increasing pressure for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices, including social reporting. Curiously in this promotional programme of CSR reporting, the only group whose ideas are not sought in this debate are the SME leaders themselves. The present ethnographic field analysis, based on discussions within entrepreneurs' circles, tends to suggest that the argument for expanding formalisation of CSR to SMEs rests upon several fallacies. It implicitly assumes that an apparent solution for (...)
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  • Creating Sustainable Corporate Value: A Case Study of Stakeholder Relationship Management in China.Zhuang Cai & Peter Wheale - 2004 - Business and Society Review 109 (4):507-547.
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  • An Adversarial Ethic for Business: Or When Sun-Tzu Met the Stakeholder.Joseph Heath - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 72 (4):359-374.
    In the economic literature on the firm, especially in the transaction-cost tradition, a sharp distinction is drawn between so-called “market transactions” and “administered transactions.” This distinction is of enormous importance for business ethics, since market transactions are governed by the competitive logic of the market, whereas administered transactions are subject to the cooperative norms that govern collective action in a bureaucracy. The widespread failure to distinguish between these two types of transactions, and thus to distinguish between adversarial and non-adversarial relations, (...)
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  • Reclaiming Marginalized Stakeholders.Robbin Derry - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 111 (2):253-264.
    Within stakeholder literature, much attention has been given to which stakeholders "really count." This article strives to explain why organizational theorists should abandon the pursuit of "Who and What Really Counts" to challenge the assumption of a managerial perspective that defines stakeholder legitimacy. Reflecting on the paucity of employee rights and protections in marginalized work environments, I argue that as organizational researchers, we must recognize and take responsibility for the impact of our research models and visions. By confronting and rethinking (...)
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  • Does Corporate Governance Enhance Common Interests of Shareholders and Primary Stakeholders?Ninghua Zhong, Shujing Wang & Rudai Yang - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 141 (2):411-431.
    Employing a unique dataset of Chinese non-listed firms, this paper investigates the effects of the presence of 19 governance structures on 20 employees’ interest indicators. In general, we find that firms with the governance structures pay workers higher hourly wages, require less monthly working hours, and have a smaller chance of wage arrears. Meanwhile, the shares of total wage and welfare expenditures in total sales revenue are lower in these firms, which results in higher profitability. Moreover, firms with the governance (...)
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  • Sustainability and Management.Robin Attfield - 2015 - Philosophy of Management 14 (2):85-93.
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  • Stakeholder Theory and Social Identity: Rethinking Stakeholder Identification. [REVIEW]Andrew Crane & Trish Ruebottom - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 102 (S1):77-87.
    In this article, we propose an adaption to stakeholder theory whereby stakeholders are conceptualized on the basis of their social identity. We begin by offering a critical review of both traditional and more recent developments in stakeholder theory, focusing in particular on the way in which stakeholder categories are identified. By identifying critical weaknesses in the existing approach, as well as important points of strength, we outline an alternative approach that refines our understanding of stakeholders in important ways. To do (...)
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  • The Relevance of Nationality and Industry for Stakeholder Salience: An Investigation Through Integrated Reports.Cristina Gianfelici, Andrea Casadei & Federica Cembali - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (2):541-558.
    The aim of this research is to investigate the web of business-stakeholder relationships emerging from first integrated reports. Drawn from the stakeholder salience theory, the analysis focuses on some factors that may cause specific stakeholders to be crucial for some organizations and their ability to create value over time. More precisely, findings highlight the importance of industry membership, while entities’ nationality seems not to be a differentiating element. This study contributes to the corporate disclosure literature by analyzing an emerging reporting (...)
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  • Exploring the Nature of the Relationship Between CSR and Competitiveness.Marc Vilanova, Josep Maria Lozano & Daniel Arenas - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (S1):57-69.
    This paper explores the nature of the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and competitiveness. We start with the commonly held view that firm competitiveness is defined by the market. That is, the question of what are the critical competitiveness factors is answered by looking at how companies and financial analysts describe and evaluate a firm. To analyze this, we review the current state of the art on the relationship between CSR and competitiveness. Second, CSR criteria used by financial analysts (...)
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  • Sources of Stakeholder Salience in the Responsible Investment Movement: Why Do Investors Sign the Principles for Responsible Investment?Arleta A. A. Majoch, Andreas G. F. Hoepner & Tessa Hebb - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 140 (4):723-741.
    Since its inception in 2006, the United Nations-backed Principles for Responsible Investment have grown to over 1300 signatories representing over $45 trillion. This growth is not slowing down. In this paper, we argue that there is a set of attributes which make the PRI salient as a stakeholder and its claim to sign the six PRI important to institutional investors. We use Mitchell et al.’s theoretical framework of stakeholder salience, as extended by Gifford. We use as evidence confidential data from (...)
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  • Exploring Research Potentials and Applications for Multi-Stakeholder Learning Dialogues.Stephen L. Payne & Jerry M. Calton - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 55 (1):71-78.
    Varying conceptions of and purposes for dialogue exist. Recent dialogic theorists and advocates urge exploration of forms of dialogue for learning and applying relational responsibilities within stakeholder networks. A related phenomenon has been the recent emergence of multi-stakeholder dialogues that involve parties significantly affected by major issues or concerns, such as environmental sustainability, that have complex and wide-spread implications. The extent to which these recent multi-stakeholder dialogues assume anything resembling the relationship or caring and the learning potentials of dialogic goals (...)
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  • Retracted Article: Modern Business Ethics Research: Concepts, Theories, and Relationships. [REVIEW]Hsing-Chau Tseng, Chi-Hsiang Duan, Hui-Lien Tung & Hsiang-Jui Kung - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (4):587-597.
    The main purpose of this study is to explore and map the intellectual structure of business ethics studies during 1997–2006 by analyzing 85,000 cited references of 3,059 articles from three business ethics related journals in SSCI and SCI databases. In this article, co-citation analysis and social network analysis techniques are used to research intellectual structure of the business ethics literature. We are able to identify the important publications and the influential scholars as well as the correlations among these publications by (...)
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  • Moral Agency, Profits and the Firm: Economic Revisions to the Friedman Theorem.Sigmund Wagner-Tsukamoto - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 70 (2):209-220.
    The paper reconstructs in economic terms Friedman's theorem that the only social responsibility of firms is to increase their profits while staying within legal and ethical rules. A model of three levels of moral conduct is attributed to the firm: (1) self-interested engagement in the market process itself, which reflects according to classical and neoclassical economics an ethical ideal; (2) the obeying of the "rules of the game," largely legal ones; and (3) the creation of ethical capital, which allows moral (...)
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  • Scandinavian Stakeholder Thinking: Seminal Offerings From the Late Juha Näsi. [REVIEW]Robert Strand - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 127 (1):1-17.
  • On the Ethical Conduct of Business Organisations: A Comparison Between South African and Polish Business Management Students.Geoff Goldman, Maria Bounds, Piotr Bula & Janusz Fudalinski - 2012 - African Journal of Business Ethics 6 (1):75.
    This study explores the opinions of Polish and South African management students regarding the ethical conduct exhibited by organisations specific to their respective home countries. Through the use of a survey, primary data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Non-probability sampling in the form of a quota sample was employed, and a target of 250 respondents was pursued at a South African and a Polish university respectively. The data were subjected to SPSS. The findings showed that students in South Africa (...)
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  • Professionalism, Agency, and Market Failures.Hasko von Kriegstein - 2016 - Business Ethics Quarterly 26 (4):445-464.
    According to the Market Failures Approach to business ethics, beyond-compliance duties can be derived by employing the same rationale and arguments that justify state regulation of economic conduct. Very roughly the idea is that managers have a duty to behave as if they were complying with an ideal regulatory regime ensuring Pareto-optimal market outcomes. Proponents of the approach argue that managers have a professional duty not to undermine the institutional setting that defines their role, namely the competitive market. This answer (...)
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  • Corporate Social Responsiveness: Choosing Between Hierarchical and Contractual Control. [REVIEW]Steven R. Salbu - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (1):27 - 35.
    Metaphors from strategic management can be applied effectively to business ethics programs. While effective strategies help implement ethical decisions that are formulated in good faith, ostensibly value-neutral control mechanisms can indirectly affect the substantive nature of policies and decisions themselves. This article examines the effectiveness of various corporate social responsibility implementation strategies. It also addresses the effects of implementation choices on the substantive formulation of ethical decisions and policies.Implementation and evaluation of corporate social responsibility programs through models of responsiveness are (...)
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  • The Fiduciary Responsibility of Directors to Preserve Intergenerational Equity.B. Majumdar Arjya - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-12.
    The well-being of generations yet to come must necessarily be an important concern for the present. As an extension of Rawls’ ‘just savings’ principle, one of the arguments for sustainable development is that of intergenerational equity—the idea that future generations must have the same access to natural resources as the present generation. In this article, I attempt to reconcile the divergent positions of the shareholder and stakeholder primacy debate by proposing that directors—acting for the corporation—should preserve intergenerational equity. Three arguments (...)
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  • Ethical Reporting in Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited.Beverly Dawn Metcalfe & Jawad Syed - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 129 (4):769-784.
    The main aim of this study is to undertake a critical examination of the ethical and developmental performance of an Islamic bank as communicated in its annual reports over a period of 28 years. Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited’s ethical performance and disclosures are further analyzed through interviews conducted with the bank’s senior management. The key findings include an overall increase in ethical disclosures during the study period. However, the focus on various stakeholders’ needs has varied over time reflecting the evolving (...)
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  • Stakeholder Theory: A Deliberative Perspective.Ulf Henning Richter & Kevin E. Dow - 2017 - Business Ethics: A European Review 26 (4):428-442.
    Organizations routinely make choices when addressing conflicting stakes of their stakeholders. As stakeholder theory continues to mature, scholars continue to seek ways to make it more usable, yet proponents continue to debate its legitimacy. Various scholarly attempts to ground stakeholder theory have not narrowed down this debate. We draw from the work of Juergen Habermas to theoretically advance stakeholder theory, and to provide practical examples to illustrate our approach. Specifically, we apply Habermas’ language-pragmatic approach to extend stakeholder theory by advancing (...)
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  • Business Ethics and the 'End of History' in Corporate Law.Joseph Heath - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 102 (S1):5-20.
    Henry Hansmann has claimed we have reached the “end of history” in corporate law, organized around the “widespread normative consensus that corporate managers should act exclusively in the economic interests of shareholders.” In this paper, I examine Hansmann’s own argument in support of this view, in order to draw out its implications for some of the traditional concerns of business ethicists about corporate social responsibility. The centerpiece of Hansmann’s argument is the claim that ownership of the firm is most naturally (...)
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  • The Salience of Stakeholders and Their Attributes in Public Relations and Business News.Soo Jung Moon & Ki Hyun - 2009 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 24 (1):59-75.
    Stakeholder theory contends that organizations owe an obligation to other stakeholder groups that extends beyond shareholders. This study uses stakeholder theory to examine which groups public relations practitioners and journalists attend to as well as which attributes—legitimacy, power, and urgency—they highlight. Content analysis of press releases and news stories found that the stakeholder most frequently mentioned in both press releases and newspapers was the shareholder group. Both press releases and news stories focused more on legitimacy than power or urgency for (...)
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  • Strategic Leadership of Corporate Sustainability.Robert Strand - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 123 (4):687-706.
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  • The Relevance and Value of Confucianism in Contemporary Business Ethics.Gary Kok Yew Chan - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 77 (3):347 - 360.
    This article examines the relevance and value of Confucian Ethics to contemporary Business Ethics by comparing their respective perspectives and approaches towards business activities within the modern capitalist framework, the principle of reciprocity and the concept of human virtues. Confucian Ethics provides interesting parallels with contemporary Western-oriented Business Ethics. At the same, it diverges from contemporary Business Ethics in some significant ways. Upon an examination of philosophical texts as well as empirical studies, it is argued that Confucian Ethics is able (...)
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  • Stakeholder Theory and Managerial Decision-Making: Constraints and Implications of Balancing Stakeholder Interests.Scott J. Reynolds, Frank C. Schultz & David R. Hekman - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (3):285-301.
    Stakeholder theory is widely recognized as a management theory, yet very little research has considered its implications for individual managerial decision-making. In the two studies reported here, we used stakeholder theory to examine managerial decisions about balancing stakeholder interests. Results of Study 1 suggest that indivisible resources and unequal levels of stakeholder saliency constrain managers’ efforts to balance stakeholder interests. Resource divisibility also influenced whether managers used a within-decision or an across-decision approach to balance stakeholder interests. In Study 2 we (...)
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  • Teaching Ethics Cases: A Pragmatic Approach.Alan E. Singer - 2013 - Business Ethics 22 (1):16-31.
    A new framework-based approach to teaching and analyzing business ethics cases is set out. Using the framework, students are encouraged to adopt two different perspectives: business as usual and a more obviously moral point of view. Subsequently, they are prompted to craft a synthesis or compromise. Several pedagogical benefits flow from adopting the approach, including the cultivation of moral tolerance and improvements in the structure and scope of written action justifications. In addition, the framework enables students to relate ethical theories (...)
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  • Past Trends and Future Directions in Business Ethics and Corporate Responsibility Scholarship.Denis G. Arnold, Kenneth E. Goodpaster & Gary R. Weaver - 2015 - Business Ethics Quarterly 25 (4):v-xv.
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  • Is Stakeholder Theory Really Ethical?Okechukwu Enyinna - 2013 - African Journal of Business Ethics 7 (2):79.
    Stakeholder theory claims to promote moral values in business and this claim is generally accepted. Yet, literature shows that the theory is fundamentally strategic and only incidentally normative. This paper explores the assumptions of philosophical pragmatism that underpin the theory and concludes that the theory does not qualify as normative, since its conception of morality is basically hypothetical.
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  • Balancing Ethical Responsibility Among Multiple Organizational Stakeholders: The Islamic Perspective.Rafik I. Beekun & Jamal A. Badawi - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 60 (2):131-145.
    In spite of a renewed interest in the relationship between spirituality and managerial thinking, the literature covering the link between Islam and management has been sparse – especially in the area of ethics. One potential reason may be the cultural diversity of nearly 1.3 billion Muslims globally. Yet, one common element binding Muslim individuals and countries is normative Islam. Using all four sources of this religion’s teachings, we outline the parameters of an Islamic model of normative business ethics. We explain (...)
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  • Business Ethics: An Overview.Jeffrey Moriarty - 2008 - Philosophy Compass 3 (5):956-972.
    This essay provides an overview of business ethics. I describe important issues, identify some of the normative considerations animating them, and offer a roadmap of references for those wishing to learn more. I focus on issues in normative business ethics, but discuss briefly the growing body of work in descriptive business ethics. I conclude with a comment on the changing nature of the field.
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  • A Critique of Positive Responsibility in Computing.James A. Stieb - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (2):219-233.
    It has been claimed that (1) computer professionals should be held responsible for an undisclosed list of “undesirable events” associated with their work and (2) most if not all computer disasters can be avoided by truly understanding responsibility. Programmers, software developers, and other computer professionals should be defended against such vague, counterproductive, and impossible ideals because these imply the mandatory satisfaction of social needs and the equation of ethics with a kind of altruism. The concept of social needs is debatable (...)
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  • The Influence of Nationality and Gender on Ethical Sensitivity: An Application of the Issue-Contingent Model.Can Simga-Mugan, Bonita A. Daly, Dilek Onkal & Lerzan Kavut - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 57 (2):139-159.
    When a member of an organization has to make a decision or act in a way that may benefit some stakeholders at the expense of others, ethical dilemmas may arise. This paper examines ethical sensitivity regarding the duties to clients and owners (principals), employees (agents), and responsibilities to society (third parties). Within this framework, ethical perceptions of male and female managers are compared between the U.S. and Turkey – two countries that differ on power distance as well as the individualism/collectivism (...)
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  • Stakeholder Theory and Media Management: Ethical Framework for News Company Executives.Reuben J. Stern - 2008 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 23 (1):51 – 65.
    Contrary to stockholder theories that place the interests of profit-seeking owners above all else, stakeholder theorists argue that corporate executives have moral and ethical obligations to consider equally the interests of a wide range of stakeholders affected by the actions of a corporation. This paper argues that the stakeholder approach is particularly appropriate for the governance of news media companies and outlines an ethical framework to guide news company executives.
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  • Vignettes to Identify the Ethical Domain of an Emerging Country's Banking Sector: The Experience of Turkey.Ayfer Hortacsu & E. Nur Ozkan Gunay - 2008 - Business Ethics 17 (2):121–137.
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