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  1. Prolegomena to a Cognitive Investigation of Euclidean Diagrammatic Reasoning.Yacin Hamami & John Mumma - 2013 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 22 (4):421-448.
    Euclidean diagrammatic reasoning refers to the diagrammatic inferential practice that originated in the geometrical proofs of Euclid’s Elements. A seminal philosophical analysis of this practice by Manders (‘The Euclidean diagram’, 2008) has revealed that a systematic method of reasoning underlies the use of diagrams in Euclid’s proofs, leading in turn to a logical analysis aiming to capture this method formally via proof systems. The central premise of this paper is that our understanding of Euclidean diagrammatic reasoning can be fruitfully advanced (...)
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  • Tracking the Mind's Eye : Eye Movements During Mental Imagery and Memory Retrieval.Roger Johansson - 2013 - Lund University Cognitive Studies 155.
    This thesis investigates the relationship between eye movements, mental imagery and memory retrieval in four studies based on eye-tracking experiments. The first study is an investigation of eye movements during mental imagery elicited both visually and verbally. The use of complex stimuli and the development of a novel method where eye movements are recorded concurrently with verbal data enabled the above-mentioned relationship to be studied to an extent going beyond what previous research had been able to do. Eye movements were (...)
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  • How Our Brains Reason Logically.Markus Knauff - 2007 - Topoi 26 (1):19-36.
    The aim of this article is to strengthen links between cognitive brain research and formal logic. The work covers three fundamental sorts of logical inferences: reasoning in the propositional calculus, i.e. inferences with the conditional “if...then”, reasoning in the predicate calculus, i.e. inferences based on quantifiers such as “all”, “some”, “none”, and reasoning with n-place relations. Studies with brain-damaged patients and neuroimaging experiments indicate that such logical inferences are implemented in overlapping but different bilateral cortical networks, including parts of the (...)
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  • Facts and Possibilities: A Model‐Based Theory of Sentential Reasoning.Sangeet S. Khemlani, Ruth M. J. Byrne & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (6):1887-1924.
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  • A Priori True and False Conditionals.Ana Cristina Quelhas, Célia Rasga & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S5):1003-1030.
    The theory of mental models postulates that meaning and knowledge can modulate the interpretation of conditionals. The theory's computer implementation implied that certain conditionals should be true or false without the need for evidence. Three experiments corroborated this prediction. In Experiment 1, nearly 500 participants evaluated 24 conditionals as true or false, and they justified their judgments by completing sentences of the form, It is impossible that A and ___ appropriately. In Experiment 2, participants evaluated 16 conditionals and provided their (...)
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  • Intuitive And Reflective Responses In Philosophy.Nick Byrd - 2014 - Dissertation, University of Colorado
    Cognitive scientists have revealed systematic errors in human reasoning. There is disagreement about what these errors indicate about human rationality, but one upshot seems clear: human reasoning does not seem to fit traditional views of human rationality. This concern about rationality has made its way through various fields and has recently caught the attention of philosophers. The concern is that if philosophers are prone to systematic errors in reasoning, then the integrity of philosophy would be threatened. In this paper, I (...)
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  • Episodes, Events, and Models.Sangeet S. Khemlani, Anthony M. Harrison & J. Gregory Trafton - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  • Fundamental Differences Between Perception and Cognition Aside From Cognitive Penetrability.Graeme S. Halford & Trevor J. Hine - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  • Human Logic in Spatial Reasoning.Marco Ragni - 2008 - In B. C. Love, K. McRae & V. M. Sloutsky (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 933--939.
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  • Darwin's Mistake: Explaining the Discontinuity Between Human and Nonhuman Minds.Derek C. Penn, Keith J. Holyoak & Daniel J. Povinelli - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):109-130.
    Over the last quarter century, the dominant tendency in comparative cognitive psychology has been to emphasize the similarities between human and nonhuman minds and to downplay the differences as (Darwin 1871). In the present target article, we argue that Darwin was mistaken: the profound biological continuity between human and nonhuman animals masks an equally profound discontinuity between human and nonhuman minds. To wit, there is a significant discontinuity in the degree to which human and nonhuman animals are able to approximate (...)
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  • Developmental Grey Matter Changes in Superior Parietal Cortex Accompany Improved Transitive Reasoning.Cristián Modroño, Gorka Navarrete, Antoinette Nicolle, José Luis González-Mora, Kathleen W. Smith, Miriam Marling & Vinod Goel - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 25 (2):151-170.
    The neural basis of developmental changes in transitive reasoning in parietal regions was examined, using voxel-based morphometry. Young adolescents and adults performed a transitive reasoning task, subsequent to undergoing anatomical magnetic resonance imaging brain scans. Behaviorally, adults reasoned more accurately than did the young adolescents. Neural results showed less grey matter density in superior parietal cortex in the adults than in the young adolescents, possibly due to a developmental period of synaptic pruning; improved performance in the reasoning task was negatively (...)
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  • The Processes of Inference.Sangeet Khemlani & P. N. Johnson-Laird - 2013 - Argument and Computation 4 (1):4 - 20.
    (2013). The processes of inference. Argument & Computation: Vol. 4, Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology, pp. 4-20. doi: 10.1080/19462166.2012.674060.
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  • Relational Knowledge: The Foundation of Higher Cognition.Graeme S. Halford, William H. Wilson & Steven Phillips - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (11):497-505.
  • An Eye-Tracking Study of Exploitations of Spatial Constraints in Diagrammatic Reasoning.Atsushi Shimojima & Yasuhiro Katagiri - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (2):211-254.
    Semantic studies on diagrammatic notations (Barwise & Etchemendy, ; Shimojima, ; Stenning & Lemon, ) have revealed that the “non-deductive,” “emergent,” or “perceptual” effects of diagrams (Chandrasekaran, Kurup, Banerjee, Josephson, & Winkler, ; Kulpa, ; Larkin & Simon, ; Lindsay, ) are all rooted in the exploitation of spatial constraints on graphical structures. Thus, theoretically, this process is a key factor in inference with diagrams, explaining the frequently observed reduction of inferential load. The purpose of this study was to examine (...)
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  • A Model for Reflection for Good Clinical Practice.John I. Balla, Carl Heneghan, Paul Glasziou, Matthew Thompson & Margaret E. Balla - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):964-969.
  • The Influence of Activation Level on Belief Bias in Relational Reasoning.Adrian P. Banks - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (3):544-577.
    A novel explanation of belief bias in relational reasoning is presented based on the role of working memory and retrieval in deductive reasoning, and the influence of prior knowledge on this process. It is proposed that belief bias is caused by the believability of a conclusion in working memory which influences its activation level, determining its likelihood of retrieval and therefore its effect on the reasoning process. This theory explores two main influences of belief on the activation levels of these (...)
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  • Transitive and Pseudo-Transitive Inferences.Geoffrey P. Goodwin & P. N. Johnson-Laird - 2008 - Cognition 108 (2):320-352.
  • The Link Between Deductive Reasoning and Mathematics.Kinga Morsanyi, Teresa McCormack & Eileen O'Mahony - 2018 - Thinking and Reasoning 24 (2):234-257.
    Recent studies have shown that deductive reasoning skills are related to mathematical abilities. Nevertheless, so far the links between mathematical abilities and these two forms of deductive inference have not been investigated in a single study. It is also unclear whether these inference forms are related to both basic maths skills and mathematical reasoning, and whether these relationships still hold if the effects of fluid intelligence are controlled. We conducted a study with 87 adult participants. The results showed that transitive (...)
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