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  1. Unconscious Priming According to Multiple s-R Rules.Andrea Kiesel, Wilfried Kunde & Joachim Hoffmann - 2007 - Cognition 104 (1):89-105.
  • A PRP-Study to Determine the Locus of Target Priming Effects.Susan Klapötke, Daniel Krüger & Uwe Mattler - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):882-900.
    Visual stimuli that are made invisible by a following mask can nonetheless affect motor responses. To localize the origin of these target priming effects we used the psychological refractory period paradigm. Participants classified tones as high or low, and responded to the position of a visual target that was preceded by a prime. The stimulus onset asynchrony between both tasks varied. In Experiment 1 the tone task was followed by the position task and SOA dependent target priming effects were observed. (...)
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  • Unconscious Semantic Categorization and Mask Interactions: An Elaborate Response to Kunde Et Al. (2005).Filip Van Opstal, Bert Reynvoet & Tom Verguts - 2005 - Cognition 97 (1):107-113.
  • On the Masking and Disclosure of Unconscious Elaborate Processing. A Reply to Van Opstal, Reynvoet, and Verguts (2005).Wilfried Kunde, Andrea Kiesel & Joachim Hoffmann - 2005 - Cognition 97 (1):99-105.
  • Unconscious Semantic Priming From Pictures.Roberto Dell'Acqua & Jonathan Grainger - 1999 - Cognition 73 (1):1-15.
  • Instructed Illiteracy Reveals Expertise-Effects on Unconscious Processing.Heiko Reuss, Andrea Kiesel, Carsten Pohl & Wilfried Kunde - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • A Direct Comparison of Unconscious Face Processing Under Masking and Interocular Suppression.Gregory Izatt, Julien Dubois, Nathan Faivre & Christof Koch - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  • The Effects of Alerting Signals in Masked Priming.Rico Fischer, Franziska Plessow & Andrea Kiesel - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  • Nonconscious Influences From Emotional Faces: A Comparison of Visual Crowding, Masking, and Continuous Flash Suppression.Nathan Faivre, Vincent Berthet & Sid Kouider - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
  • Differential Classical Conditioning of the Nocebo Effect: Increasing Heat-Pain Perception Without Verbal Suggestions.Anne-Kathrin Bräscher, Dieter Kleinböhl, Rupert Hölzl & Susanne Becker - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Adjustments of Response Speed and Accuracy to Unconscious Cues.Heiko Reuss, Andrea Kiesel & Wilfried Kunde - 2015 - Cognition 134:57-62.
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  • The Semantic Origin of Unconscious Priming: Behavioral and Event-Related Potential Evidence During Category Congruency Priming From Strongly and Weakly Related Masked Words.Juan J. Ortells, Markus Kiefer, Alejandro Castillo, Montserrat Megías & Alejandro Morillas - 2016 - Cognition 146:143-157.
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  • The Influence of Intention on Masked Priming: A Study with Semantic Classification of Words.Doris Eckstein & Walter J. Perrig - 2007 - Cognition 104 (2):345-376.
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  • Unconscious Activation of Task Sets.Heiko Reuss, Andrea Kiesel, Wilfried Kunde & Bernhard Hommel - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):556-567.
    Using an explicit task cuing paradigm, we tested whether masked cues can trigger task-set activation, which would suggest that unconsciously presented stimuli can impact cognitive control processes. Based on a critical assessment of previous findings on the priming of task-set activation, we present two experiments with a new method to approach this subject. Instead of using a prime, we varied the visibility of the cue. These cues either directly signaled particular tasks in Experiment 1, or certain task transitions in Experiment (...)
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  • Awareness is Awareness is Awareness? Decomposing Different Aspects of Awareness and Their Role in Operant Learning of Pain Sensitivity.Susanne Becker, Dieter Kleinböhl & Rupert Hölzl - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1073-1084.
    Regarding awareness as a consistent concept has contributed to the controversy about implicit learning. The present study emphasized the importance of distinguishing aspects of awareness in order to determine whether learning is implicit. By decomposing awareness into awareness of contingencies, of the procedure being a learning task, and of the reinforcing stimuli, it was demonstrated that implicit operant learning modulated pain sensitivity. All of these aspects of awareness were demonstrated to not be necessary for learning. Additionally, discrimination of contingencies was (...)
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  • Unconscious Conditioning: Demonstration of Existence and Difference From Conscious Conditioning.Anthony G. Greenwald & Jan De Houwer - 2017 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 146 (12):1705-1721.
  • Confidence and Accuracy of Near-Threshold Discrimination Responses.Craig Kunimoto, Jeff Miller & Harold Pashler - 2001 - Consciousness and Cognition 10 (3):294-340.
    This article reports four subliminal perception experiments using the relationship between confidence and accuracy to assess awareness. Subjects discriminated among stimuli and indicated their confidence in each discrimination response. Subjects were classified as being aware of the stimuli if their confidence judgments predicted accuracy and as being unaware if they did not. In the first experiment, confidence predicted accuracy even at stimulus durations so brief that subjects claimed to be performing at chance. This finding indicates that subjects's claims that they (...)
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  • Implicit Association Test: Validity Debates.Anthony Greenwald - manuscript
    Note posted 9 Jun 08 : Modifications made today include a new section on predictive validity, and addition of recently published article and in in-press article, both by Nosek & Hansen, under the "CULTURE VS. PERSON" heading, which replaces a previously listed unpublished ms. of theirs. I continue to encourage all interested to send material that they are willing to be included on this page. Please also to let me know about errors, including faulty links.
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  • Selected Articles & Chapters, by Date.Anthony Greenwald - manuscript
    Lane, K. A., Banaji, M. R., Nosek, B. A., & Greenwald, A. G. (2007). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: IV. What we know (so far) (Pp. 59–102). In B. Wittenbrink & N. S. Schwarz (Eds.). Implicit measures of attitudes: Procedures and controversies . New York: Guilford Press. PDF - 652KB ].
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  • Guess What? Implicit Motivation Boosts the Influence of Subliminal Information on Choice.Maxim Milyavsky, Ran R. Hassin & Yaacov Schul - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1232-1241.
    When is choice affected by subliminal messages? This question has fascinated scientists and lay people alike, but it is only recently that reliable empirical data began to emerge. In the current paper we bridge the literature on implicit motivation and that on subliminal persuasion. We suggest that motivation in general, and implicit motivation more specifically, plays an important role in subliminal persuasion: It sensitizes us to subliminal cues. To examine this hypothesis we developed a new paradigm that allows powerful tests (...)
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  • Levels of Processing During Non-Conscious Perception: A Critical Review of Visual Masking.Sid Kouider & Stanislas Dehaene - 2007 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B 362 (1481):857-875.
  • Perceiving a Story Outside of Conscious Awareness: When We Infer Narrative Attributes From Subliminal Sequential Stimuli.Naoaki Kawakami & Fujio Yoshida - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:53-66.
  • Reporting on the Temporal Properties of Visual Events Masked with Continuous Flash Suppression.Travis Riddle, Hakwan Lau & Betsy Sparrow - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 36:154-168.
  • Time Warp: Authorship Shapes the Perceived Timing of Actions and Events.Jeffrey P. Ebert & Daniel M. Wegner - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):481-489.
    It has been proposed that inferring personal authorship for an event gives rise to intentional binding, a perceptual illusion in which one’s action and inferred effect seem closer in time than they otherwise would . Using a novel, naturalistic paradigm, we conducted two experiments to test this hypothesis and examine the relationship between binding and self-reported authorship. In both experiments, an important authorship indicator – consistency between one’s action and a subsequent event – was manipulated, and its effects on binding (...)
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  • Masked Response Priming in Expert Typists.Alexander Heinemann, Andrea Kiesel, Carsten Pohl & Wilfried Kunde - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):399-407.
    In masked priming tasks responses are usually faster when prime and target require identical rather than different responses. Previous research has extensively manipulated the nature and number of response-affording stimuli. However, little is known about the constraints of masked priming regarding the nature and number of response alternatives. The present study explored the limits of masked priming in a six-choice reaction time task, where responses from different fingers of both hands were required. We studied participants that were either experts for (...)
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  • Limited Transfer of Subliminal Response Priming to Novel Stimulus Orientations and Identities.Katrin Elsner, Wilfried Kunde & Andrea Kiesel - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):657-671.
    Recently, priming effects of unconscious stimuli that were never presented as targets have been taken as evidence for the processing of the stimuli’s semantic categories. The present study explored the necessary conditions for a transfer of priming to novel primes. Stimuli were digits and letters which were presented in various viewer-related orientations . The transfer of priming to novel stimulus orientations and identities was remarkably limited: in Experiment 1, in which all conscious targets stood upright, no transfer to unconscious primes (...)
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  • Invisible is Better: Decrease of Subliminal Priming With Increasing Visibility.Doris Eckstein, Dennis Norris, Matthew Davis & Richard Henson - 2009 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 15 (2).
    Comparisons of indirect measures with direct measures can help elucidate the relationship between nonconscious and conscious perception. We report three experiments on masked word priming in which we observed a negative correlation between prime discriminability and priming , i.e. where priming decreased with increasing prime visibility. While such observations are rare , they may indicate a conflict between conscious and nonconscious processing when primes are shown close to the subjective visibility threshold for the priming-relevant information. For instance, such a conflict (...)
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  • Cognitive Models Go Paddling in the Waters of Consciousness: Review of Scientific Approaches To Consciousness, Jonathan Cohen & Jonathan Schooler. [REVIEW]Mark Price - 1999 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 5.
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  • Replicable Unconscious Semantic Priming.Sean Draine & Anthony G. Greenwald - 1998 - Journal Of Experimental Psychology-General 127 (3):286-303.
  • Long-Term Semantic Memory Versus Contextual Memory in Unconscious Number Processing.S. Dehaene, A. G. Greenwald, R. L. Abrams & L. Naccache - 2003 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (2):235-247.
    Subjects classified visible 2-digit numbers as larger or smaller than 55. Target numbers were preceded by masked 2-digit primes that were either congruent (same relation to 55) or incongruent. Experiments 1 and 2 showed prime congruency effects for stimuli never included in the set of classified visible targets, indicating subliminal priming based on long-term semantic memory. Experiments 2 and 3 went further to demonstrate paradoxical unconscious priming effects resulting from task context. For example, after repeated practice classifying 73 as larger (...)
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  • Automatic Preference for White Americans: Eliminating the Familiarity Explanation.Debbie E. McGhee - unknown
    Using the Implicit Association Test, recent experiments have demonstrated a strong and automatic positive evaluation of White Americans and a relatively negative evaluation of African Americans. Interpretations of this finding as revealing pro-White attitudes rest critically on tests of alternative interpretations, the most obvious one being perceivers’ greater familiarity with stimuli representing White Americans. The reported experiment demonstrated that positive attributes were more strongly associated with White than Black Americans even when pictures of equally unfamiliar Black and White individuals were (...)
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  • Strong Conscious Cues Suppress Preferential Gaze Allocation to Unconscious Cues.Andrea Alamia, Oleg Solopchuk & Alexandre Zénon - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  • Priming of Semantic Classifications by Novel Subliminal Prime Words☆.Karl Christoph Klauer, Andreas B. Eder, Anthony G. Greenwald & Richard L. Abrams - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (1):63-83.
    Four experiments demonstrate category congruency priming by subliminal prime words that were never seen as targets in a valence-classification task and a gender-classification task . In Experiment 1, overlap in terms of word fragments of one or more letters between primes and targets of different valences was larger than between primes and targets of the same valence. In Experiments 2 and 3, the sets of prime words and target words were completely disjoint in terms of used letters. In Experiment 4, (...)
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  • The Dissociation Paradigm and its Discontents: How Can Unconscious Perception or Memory Be Inferred?Michael Snodgrass - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):107-116.
    Erdelyi does us all a great service by his customarily incisive discussion of the various ways in which our field tends to neglect, confuse, and misunderstand numerous critical issues in attempting to differentiate conscious from unconscious perception and memory. Although no single commentary could hope to comprehensively assess these issues, I will address Erdelyi’s three main points: How the dissociation paradigm can be used to validly infer unconscious perception; The implications of below-chance effects; and The role of time. I suggest (...)
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  • Availability, Accessibility, and Subliminal Perception.John F. Kihlstrom - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):92-100.
  • Subliminal Perception and its Cognates: Theory, Indeterminacy, and Time.Matthew Hugh Erdelyi - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):73-91.
    Unconscious processes, by whatever name they may be known , are invariably operationalized by the dissociation paradigm, any situation involving the dissociation between two indicators , one of availability and the other, of accessibility , such that, ε>α. Subliminal perception has been traditionally defined by a special case of the dissociation paradigm in which availability exceeds accessibility when accessibility is null . Construct validity issues bedevil all dissociation paradigms since it is not clear what might constitute appropriate indicators that, moreover, (...)
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  • Subliminality, Consciousness, and Temporal Shifts in Awareness: Implications Within and Beyond the Laboratory.Robert F. Bornstein - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (3):613-18.
    In his analysis of subliminal perception research, Erdelyi documented two important phenomena: subchance perception and temporal variability in stimulus availability and accessibility. This Commentary addresses three issues raised by Erdelyi's review: the importance of distinguishing “micro” from “macro” temporal shifts; the need to analyze perception without awareness data at the level of the individual as well as the group; and parallels between the dissociations associated with neuroclinical phenomena and those observed in patients with certain forms of personality pathology. Continued integration (...)
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  • Interoceptive Awareness and Unaware Fear Conditioning: Are Subliminal Conditioning Effects Influenced by the Manipulation of Visceral Self-Perception?An K. Raes & Rudi De Raedt - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1393-1402.
    Research has shown repeatedly that attention influences implicit learning effects. In a similar vein, interoceptive awareness might be involved in unaware fear conditioning: The fact that the CS is repeatedly presented in the context of aversive bodily experiences might facilitate the development of conditioned responding. We investigated the role of interoceptive attention in a subliminal conditioning paradigm. Conditioning was embedded in a spatial cueing task with subliminally presented cues that were followed by a masking stimulus. Response times to the targets (...)
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  • Reading a Standing Wave: Figure-Ground-Alternation Masking of Primes in Evaluative Priming.Christina Bermeitinger, Michael Kuhlmann & Dirk Wentura - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1109-1121.
    We propose a new masking technique for masking word stimuli. Drawing on the phenomena of metacontrast and paracontrast, we alternately presented two prime displays of the same word with the background color in one display matching the font color in the other display and vice versa. The sequence of twenty alterations was sandwich-masked by structure masks. Using this masking technique, we conducted evaluative priming experiments with positive and negative target and prime words. Significant priming effects were found – for primes (...)
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  • Marginally Perceptible Outcome Feedback, Motor Learning and Implicit Processes.Rich S. W. Masters, Jon P. Maxwell & Frank F. Eves - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (3):639-645.
    Participants struck 500 golf balls to a concealed target. Outcome feedback was presented at the subjective or objective threshold of awareness of each participant or at a supraliminal threshold. Participants who received fully perceptible feedback learned to strike the ball onto the target, as did participants who received feedback that was only marginally perceptible . Participants who received feedback that was not perceptible showed no learning. Upon transfer to a condition in which the target was unconcealed, performance increased in both (...)
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  • ‘‘Change of Mind’’ Within and Between Nonconscious and Conscious Visual Processing.Bruno G. Breitmeyer & Wahab Hanif - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (1):254-266.
    We examined the updating of decisions made during visuo-motor processing when two sequentially presented stimuli, Prime1 and Prime2, primed discriminative responses to a following probe. In Experiment 1, the visibility of the two primes was suppressed or left intact by varying the stimulus onset asynchrony of the stimuli immediately following them. In Experiment 2, the visibility of Prime2 was suppressed or left intact by varying its spatial separation from the following probe. We found that Prime2 dominated the effects of Prime1; (...)
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  • The Relationship Between the Objective Identification Threshold and Priming Effects Does Not Provide a Definitive Boundary Between Conscious and Unconscious Perceptual Processes.Gary D. Fisk & Steven J. Haase - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1221-1231.
    The Objective Threshold/Strategic Model proposes that strong, qualitative inferences of unconscious perception can be made if the relationship between perceptual sensitivity and stimulus visibility is nonlinear and nonmonotonic. The model proposes a nadir in priming effects at the objective identification threshold . These predictions were tested with masked semantic priming and repetition priming of a lexical decision task. The visibility of the prime stimuli was systematically varied above and below the objective identification threshold. The obtained relationship between prime visibility and (...)
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  • Context-Specific Prime-Congruency Effects: On the Role of Conscious Stimulus Representations for Cognitive Control.Alexander Heinemann, Wilfried Kunde & Andrea Kiesel - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):966-976.
    Recent research suggests that processing of irrelevant information can be modulated in a rapid online fashion by contextual information in the task environment depending on the usefulness of that information in different contexts. Congruency effects evoked by irrelevant stimulus attributes are smaller in contexts with high proportions of incongruent trials and larger in contexts with high proportions of congruent trials . The present study investigates these context-adaptation effects in a masked-priming paradigm. Context-specific adaptation effects transfer to stimulus identities that are (...)
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  • How to Trigger Elaborate Processing? A Comment on Kunde, Kiesel, and Hoffmann.Filip Van Opstal, Bert Reynvoet & Tom Verguts - 2005 - Cognition 97 (1):89-97.
  • Do Conscious Perception and Unconscious Processing Rely on Independent Mechanisms? A Meta-Contrast Study.Ziv Peremen & Dominique Lamy - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 24:22-32.
    There is currently no consensus regarding what measures are most valid to demonstrate perceptual processing without awareness. Likewise, whether conscious perception and unconscious processing rely on independent mechanisms or lie on a continuum remains a matter of debate. Here, we addressed these issues by comparing the time courses of subjective reports, objective discrimination performance and response priming during meta-contrast masking, under similar attentional demands. We found these to be strikingly similar, suggesting that conscious perception and unconscious processing cannot be dissociated (...)
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  • Formation of Semantic Associations Between Subliminally Presented Face-Word Pairs.Simone B. Duss, Sereina Oggier, Thomas P. Reber & Katharina Henke - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):928-935.
    Recent evidence suggests that consciousness of encoding is not necessary for the rapid formation of new semantic associations. We investigated whether unconsciously formed associations are as semantically precise as would be expected for associations formed with consciousness of encoding during episodic memory formation. Pairs of faces and written occupations were presented subliminally for unconscious associative encoding. Five minutes later, the same faces were presented suprathreshold for the cued unconscious retrieval of face-occupation associations. Retrieval instructions required participants to classify the presented (...)
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  • Unconscious Semantic Activation Depends on Feature-Specific Attention Allocation.Adriaan Spruyt, Jan De Houwer, Tom Everaert & Dirk Hermans - 2012 - Cognition 122 (1):91-95.
  • Integrating Unseen Events Over Time.Thomas P. Reber & Katharina Henke - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):953-960.
    Events often share elements that guide us to integrate knowledge from these events. Integration allows us to make inferences that affect reactions to new events. Integrating events and making inferences are thought to depend on consciousness. We show that even unconsciously experienced events, that share elements, are integrated and influence reactions to new events. An unconscious event consisted of the subliminal presentation of two unrelated words. Half of subliminal word pairs shared one word . Overlapping word pairs were presented between (...)
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  • Evaluative Priming From Subliminal Emotional Words: Insights From Event-Related Potentials and Individual Differences Related to Anxiety.Henning Gibbons - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):383-400.
    The present ERP study investigated effects of subliminal emotional words on preference judgments about subsequent visual target stimuli . Each target was preceded by a masked 17-ms emotional adjective. Four classes of prime words were distinguished according to the combinations of positive/negative valence and high/low arousal. Targets were liked significantly more after positive-arousing primes , relative to negative-arousing , positive-nonarousing , and negative-nonarousing primes . In the target ERP, amplitude of right-hemisphere positive slow wave was increased after positive-arousing compared to (...)
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  • Unconscious Word-Stem Completion Priming in a Mirror-Masking Paradigm☆.Walter J. Perrig & Doris Eckstein - 2005 - Consciousness and Cognition 14 (2):257-277.
    The aim of this study was to investigate unconscious priming by the use of a spatial mirror-masking paradigm. Words and nonwords with no under-length letters are mirrored at their horizontal axis. The results are figures of geometric-like forms that contain letters in their upper part. In the three experiments reported in this study, a priming procedure used such mirrored words and nonwords as primes. Participants were ignorant of the nature of the construction of the stimuli. Perceptual reports of the participants (...)
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