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  1. Self-Control Observed.Howard Rachlin - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):148-159.
    Complex cases of self-control involve processes such as guilt-avoidance, inhibition, self-punishment, conscious thought, free will, and imagination. Such processes, conceived as internal mediating mechanisms, serve the function in psychological theory of avoiding teleological causation. Acceptance of the scientific legitimacy of teleological behaviorism would obviate the need for internal mediation, redefine the above processes in terms of temporally extended patterns of overt behavior, and clarify their relation to selfcontrol.
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  • The Cost of an Interrupted Response Pattern.Thomas R. Zentall - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):147-148.
  • Commitment: Beyond Rachlin's Control?N. E. Wetherick - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):146-147.
    Rachlin's view of self-control is rejected on the grounds that his arguments do not establish the possibility of abstract, external, stimulus patterns and that his experiments, although they show that pigeons and human beings do sometimes choose postponed rather than immediate gratification, do not challenge the commonly held view that internal factors are involved in the former choice.
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  • Pattern Proliferation in Teleological Behaviorism.Bruce N. Waller - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):145-146.
  • The Role of Discounting in Global Social Issues.Craig Summers - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):144-144.
    The willingness to trade off large but ill-defined future consequences for immediate work characterizes social problems such as environmental sustainability. This commentary argues that important applications of behavioral models of self-control are being overlooked in the experimental literature. Tying the experimental literature to longterm health, environmental, and other risks makes the experimental work more germane, and raises new research questions for experimental modeling.
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  • Further Choices for Molar Theory.François Tonneau - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):145-145.
    The target article extends molar behaviorism in two positive ways: beyond average aggregates and beyond restricted laws of Although a molar framework based on purely overt events shows promise for advancing behavior theory, Rachlin's specific form of teleological behaviorism is in need of clarification.
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  • Alternatives to Radical Behaviorism.Terry L. Smith - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):143-144.
    Operant psychologists are looking for alternatives to radical behaviorism. Rachlin offers teleological behaviorism, but it may pose as many difficulties as radical behaviorism. There is, however, a less drastic way to defend Rachlin's thesis of It portrays operant principles as relating distal efficient causes to behavioral effects.
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  • Teleological Behaviorism and Internal Control of Behavior.Albert Silverstein - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):142-143.
  • Distinguishing Between Acts and Patterns.Eliot Shimoff - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):142-142.
    The costliness of disrupting a pattern may not be a useful criterion for distinguishing between acts and patterns; there are instances in which omitted components of patterns are hard to detect (e.g., typographical errors), or in which distortions are easily introduced (e.g., slurred words in a trite phrase). Are there behavioral criteria for distinguishing between acts and patterns?
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  • Self-Control: Acts of Free Will.James A. Schirillo - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):141-141.
    Rachlin overlooks that free will determines when and in what direction acts that appear impulsive will occur. Because behavioral patterns continuously evolve, animals are not guaranteed when they will, or how to, maximize larger-later reinforcements. An animal therefore uses self-control to emit free acts to vary behavioral patterns to optimize larger-later rewards.
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  • Why Self-Control is Both Difficult and Difficult to Explicate.David Premack & Ann James Premack - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):140-141.
    The present intractability of and near intractability of make self-control a difficult topic.
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  • Thinking is a Difficult Habit to Break.Geir Overskeid - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):138-139.
    Self-control is in the eye of the beholder. However, we speak of if a person has come to think conscious thoughts that change the motivational value of stimuli in the outside world. It is claimed that conscious thinking, and not habits bordering on compulsion, is behind self-control.
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  • The Behavior of Self-Control.Joseph J. Plaud - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):139-140.
    Rachlin's view of self-control as a sequence or chain of behaviors is contrasted with traditional behavioral analyses of self-control which emphasize a simplistic interpretation of the hyperbolic function relating small-sooner (SS) and larger-later (LL) reinforcers to specific behaviors. The validity of Rachlin's teleological analysis is examined in relation to the acquisition and steady-state performance of self-control behaviors. Central to an analysis of self-control is the functional difference between behavior under the control of SS and LL reinforcers, because SS-reinforced behavior is (...)
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  • Overcoming Addiction Through Abstract Patterns.Jesus Mosterin - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):137-138.
    You cannot overcome addiction or impulsiveness through abstract patterns alone. They show you the way to go, but do not fuel the effort. Some further variable is needed in the equation, some internal force or motivational mechanism, whatever its nature. Overlooking this leads to a neo-Socratic exaggeration of the role of cognition in selfcontrol.
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  • Conceptualizing Self-Control.Alfred Mele - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):136-137.
    A pair of arguments suggests that self-control is not properly conceptualized on the pattern/act/preference model Rachlin proposes. The first concerns the irrational following of personal rules. The second concerns scenarios in which behavioral patterns an agent deems good come into conflict.
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  • Form, Function, and Self-Control.A. W. Logue - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):136-136.
  • Can Teleological Behaviorism Account for the Effects of Instructions on Self-Control Without Invoking Cognition?Kristi Lemm, Yuichi Shoda & Walter Mischel - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):135-135.
  • Teleological Behaviorism and the Intentional Scheme.Hugh Lacey - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):134-135.
    Teleological behaviorism, unlike Skinnerian behaviorism, recognizes that are needed to account adequately for human behavior, but it rejects the essential role in behavioral explanations of the subjective perspective of the agent. I argue that teleological behaviorism fails because of this rejection.
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  • The Future of an Illusion: Self and its Control.Peter R. Killeen - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):133-134.
    Rachlin introduces a new theory before exhausting its predecessor. His earlier model of future-discounting may be developed by integrating over the duration of extended rewards and punishers. The difference in value of an event within a pattern over the event in isolation derives from the deprivation provided by the pattern; yet the pattern attracts because acute rewards are more potent than incremental deprivations.
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  • Conceptual Problems in the Act-Versus-Pattern Analysis of Self-Control.Suresh Kanekar - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):132-133.
    The primary argument against Rachlin's act-versus-pattern analysis of self-control is that it is wrong to think of a temptation as a solitary act while the alternative is conceived of as an element of a pattern. Either both are solitary acts or both are members of patterns, however different the patterns may be in their complexity and abstractness.
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  • Patterns, Acts, and Self-Control: Rachlin's Theory.Robert Kane - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):131-132.
    Regarding Rachlin's behavioral act/pattern theory of self-control, it is argued that some cases of self-control involve pattern/ pattern conflicts rather than merely act/pattern conflicts and that some patterns must be viewed as internal representational states of mind (plans) rather than merely as patterns of actual overt behavior.
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  • My Behavior Made Me Do It: The Uncaused Cause of Teleological Behaviorism.Jordan Hughes & Patricia S. Churchland - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):130-131.
    Toward a neurobiologically grounded approach to explaining self-control we discuss the case of a patient with a bilateral lesion in frontal ventromedial cortex. Patients with such lesions display a marked deficit in social decision making. Compared with an account that examines the causal antecedents of self-control, Rachlin's behaviorist approach seems lacking in explanatory strength.
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  • Self-Control as Habit.Max Hocutt - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):129-130.
  • The Extended Psychological Present.Philip N. Hineline - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):128-129.
    Portraying psychological process as extended over time in multiply overlapping scales is a conceptual advance that can be understood as analogous to our understanding of spatial relationships. There may be a residual contradiction, however, when Rachlin invokes in ways that seem to imply earlier conceptions. The roles of superimposed or conditionally related stimuli also remain to be addressed.
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  • Choice Between Long- and Short-Term Interests: Beyond Self-Control.Leonard Green & Joel Myerson - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):127-128.
    In the real world, there are choices between large, delayed, punctate rewards and small, more immediate rewards as well as choices between patterns and acts. A common element in these situations is the choice between long- and short-term interests. Key issues for future research appear to be how acts are restructured into larger patterns of behavior, and whether, as Rachlin implies, pattern perception is the cause of pattern generation.
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  • Internal Commitment and Efficient Habit Formation.Robert H. Frank - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):127-127.
    Rachlin's attack on the internal commitment model rests on the demonstrably false claim that self-punishment does not exist. He is correct that habits are an effective device for solving self-control problems, but his additional claim that they are the only such device makes it hard to explain how good habits develop in the first place. Someone with a self-control problem would always choose the spuriously attractive reward, which, over time, would create bad habits.
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  • The Future is Uncertain: Eat Dessert First.Edmund Fantino - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):125-126.
    There may be evolutionary as well as economic reasons why organisms generally act impulsively. I discuss this possibility and suggest some follow-up experiments that may clarify the exciting empirical and theoretical contributions made by the experiments discussed in the target article.
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  • Does Behaviorism Explain Self-Control?Robert Eisenberger - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):125-125.
    Rachlin's hyperbolic-discounting model captures basic features of the subtlety of human impulsiveness and self-control and has received convincing experimental support. His distinction between self-control patterns and impulsive acts expands his earlier work to a greater range of self-control behaviors. Possible mechanisms that may weaken or strengthen patterns of self-control are considered.
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  • When is a Pattern a Pattern?Marc N. Branch - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):123-124.
  • Transcendence, Guilt, and Self-Control.Roy F. Baumeister - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):122-123.
    Transcendence, defined as the capacity to perceive the immediate stimulus environment in relation to long-range or abstract concerns, is a key aspect of self-control, and indeed self-regulation often breaks down because attention becomes focused exclusively on the immediate stimuli (i.e., transcendence fails). Factors that restrict attention to the here and now will weaken self-control, whereas factors that promote transcendence will enhance it. Guilt may be one example of the latter.
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  • Patterns Yes, Agency No.William M. Baum - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):122-122.
    Contrary to his own perspective, Rachlin introduces a ghostly inner cost to explain the persistence of behavioral patterns and agency to explain their origins. Both inconsistencies can be set straight by taking account of history and a context larger than the pattern itself. Persistence is explained by stimulus control, if one assumes that defection from a pattern has stimulus properties and is punished. The origins of patterns are understood as an outcome of selection in the larger context of cultural or (...)
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  • Self-Control: Beyond Commitment.Howard Rachlin - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):109-121.
    Self-control, so important in the theory and practice of psychology, has usually been understood introspectively. This target article adopts a behavioral view of the self (as an abstract class of behavioral actions) and of self-control (as an abstract behavioral pattern dominating a particular act) according to which the development of self-control is a molar/molecular conflict in the development of behavioral patterns. This subsumes the more typical view of self-control as a now/later conflict in which an act of self-control is a (...)
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