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  1. Deep Brain Stimulation as a Probative Biology: Scientific Inquiry and the Mosaic Device.Joseph J. Fins - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (1):4-8.
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  • Libertarianism, Legitimation, and the Problems of Regulating Cognition-Enhancing Drugs.Benjamin Capps - 2011 - Neuroethics 4 (2):119-128.
    Some libertarians tend to advocate the wide availability of cognition-enhancing drugs beyond their current prescription-only status. They suggest that certain kinds of drugs can be a component of a prudential conception of the ‘good life’—they enhance our opportunities and preferences; and therefore, if a person freely chooses to use them, then there is no justification for the kind of prejudicial, authoritative restrictions that are currently deployed in public policy. In particular, this libertarian idea signifies that if enhancements are a prudential (...)
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  • The Neurotechnological Cerebral Subject: Persistence of Implicit and Explicit Gender Norms in a Network of Change. [REVIEW]Sigrid Schmitz - 2012 - Neuroethics 5 (3):261-274.
    Abstract Under the realm of neurocultures the concept of the cerebral subject emerges as the central category to define the self, socio-cultural interaction and behaviour. The brain is the reference for explaining cognitive processes and behaviour but at the same time the plastic brain is situated in current paradigms of (self)optimization on the market of meritocracy by means of neurotechnologies. This paper explores whether neurotechnological apparatuses may—due to their hybridity and malleability—bear potentials for a change in gender based attributions that (...)
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  • Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement: Examining the Ethical Principles Guiding College Students’ Abstention.Niloofar Bavarian, Stephanie Sumstine, Jocelyne Mendez, Kyle Yomogida, Wilma Figueroa & Cammie Lam - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (3):271-278.
    ObjectivesTo understand the ethical principles guiding college students’ abstention from pharmacological cognitive enhancement, and to determine the correlates associated with endorsing different principles.DesignOne-stage cluster sampling was used to implement a paper-based survey among undergraduate students attending one university in the U.S. Thematic analysis was used to explore the ethical principles guiding PCE abstention. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine sociodemographic correlates associated with endorsed ethical principles.ParticipantsOf the 499 eligible students who completed the survey, 259 students had a negative (...)
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  • “At Such a Good School, Everybody Needs It”: Contested Meanings of Prescription Stimulant Use in College Academics.Amy Cooper & Lisa McGee - 2017 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 45 (3):289-313.
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  • Can Neuromodulation Also Enhance Social Inequality? Some Possible Indirect Interventions of the State.Andrea Lavazza - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
  • tDCS for Memory Enhancement: Analysis of the Speculative Aspects of Ethical Issues.Nathalie Voarino, Veljko Dubljević & Eric Racine - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  • Does Kantian Ethics Condone Mood and Cognitive Enhancement?Robert R. Clewis - 2017 - Neuroethics 10 (3):349-361.
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  • Mózg z moralnego punktu widzenia. Postulat neurobiologicznej „rekalibracji etyki”.Barbara Chyrowicz - forthcoming - Diametros:1-33.
    Z propozycją rekalibracji etyki i zastąpienia jej neuroetyką wystąpiła Patricia S. Churchland. Churchland twierdzi, że im bardziej rozumiemy szczegóły funkcjonowania naszego systemu nerwowego, tym bardziej jesteśmy przekonani co do tego, że przyjmowane przez nas standardy moralnego działania są uwarunkowane neurobiologicznie. Od roku 2002 termin „neuroetyka” funkcjonuje jako nazwa nowej subdyscypliny etyki. Wymienia się w niej dwa zasadnicze działy: etykę neuronauki i neuronaukę etyki. Pierwszy dotyczy zasadniczo moralnych problemów związanych z zastosowaniem osiągnięć neuronauk, przedmiotem drugiego: neuronauki etyki, jest wpływ, jaki wiedza (...)
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  • The is and Ought of the Ethics of Neuroenhancement: Mind the Gap.Cynthia Forlini & Wayne Hall - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Neuroenhancing Public Health.David Shaw - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (6):389-391.
    One of the most fascinating issues in the emerging field of neuroethics is pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement. The three main ethical concerns around CE were identified in a Nature commentary in 2008 as safety, coercion and fairness; debate has largely focused on the potential to help those who are cognitively disabled, and on the issue of ‘cosmetic neurology’, where people enhance not because of a medical need, but because they want to. However, the potential for CE to improve public health has (...)
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  • Technological Unemployment and Human Disenhancement.Michele Loi - 2015 - Ethics and Information Technology 17 (3):201-210.
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  • Generating Genius: How an Alzheimer’s Drug Became Considered a ‘Cognitive Enhancer’ for Healthy Individuals.Lucie Wade, Cynthia Forlini & Eric Racine - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):37.
    Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, has been widely cited in media and bioethics literature on cognitive enhancement (CE) as having the potential to improve the cognitive ability of healthy individuals. In both literatures, this claim has been repeatedly supported by the results of a small study published by Yesavage et al. in 2002 on non-demented pilots (30-70 years old). The factors contributing to this specific interpretation of this study's results are unclear.
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  • Neuroethics at 15: Keep the Kant but Add More Bacon.Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz, Peter Zuk, Stacey Pereira, Kristin Kostick, Laura Torgerson, Demetrio Sierra-Mercado, Mary Majumder, J. Blumenthal-Barby, Eric A. Storch, Wayne K. Goodman & Amy L. McGuire - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (3):97-100.
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  • Die Aussagekraft wirklichkeitsferner Gedankenexperimente für Theorien personaler Identität.Marc Andree Weber - 2017 - In Andreas Oberprantacher & Anne Siegetsleitner (eds.), Mensch sein – Fundament, Imperativ oder Floskel Beiträge zum 10. Kongress der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Philosophie. Innsbruck, Austria: pp. 493-503.
  • State Neutrality and Psychopharmacological Enhancement.Elisabeth Hildt - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 1 (2):51-52.
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  • When is Diminishment a Form of Enhancement? : Rethinking the Enhancement Debate in Biomedical Ethics.Brian D. Earp, Anders Sandberg, Guy Kahane & Julian Savulescu - unknown
    The enhancement debate in neuroscience and biomedical ethics tends to focus on the augmentation of certain capacities or functions: memory, learning, attention, and the like. Typically, the point of contention is whether these augmentative enhancements should be considered permissible for individuals with no particular “medical” disadvantage along any of the dimensions of interest. Less frequently addressed in the literature, however, is the fact that sometimes the _diminishment_ of a capacity or function, under the right set of circumstances, could plausibly contribute (...)
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  • Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement : How Neuroscientific Research Could Advance Ethical Debate.Hannah Maslen, Nadira Faulmüller & Julian Savulescu - unknown
    There are numerous ways people can improve their cognitive capacities: good nutrition and regular exercise can produce long-term improvements across many cognitive domains, whilst commonplace stimulants such as coffee temporarily boost levels of alertness and concentration. Effects like these have been well-documented in the medical literature and they raise few ethical issues. More recently, however, clinical research has shown that the off-label use of some pharmaceuticals can, under certain conditions, have modest cognition-improving effects. Substances such as methylphenidate and modafinil can (...)
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  • Neuroethics : What Else is New?Alex Mauron - unknown
    Bioethics has changed considerably over the years, the increasing diversity of topics of bioethical interest having led to specialisation if not fragmentation. In this context the term “neuroethics" emerged, and it soon became clear that it could be understood in two ways. The “ethics of neuroscience” assesses the ethical and philosophical implications of research in neuroscience and of the application of these discoveries, especially as regards enhancement of “normal” human faculties or new challenges to privacy. The “neuroscience of ethics” basically (...)
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  • The Use of Methylphenidate Among Students: The Future of Enhancement?S. M. Outram - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (4):198-202.
    During the past few years considerable debate has arisen within academic journals with respect to the use of smart drugs or cognitive enhancement pharmaceuticals. The following paper seeks to examine the foundations of this cognitive enhancement debate using the example of methylphenidate use among college students. The argument taken is that much of the enhancement debate rests upon inflated assumptions about the ability of such drugs to enhance and over-estimations of either the size of the current market for such drugs (...)
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  • Expectations Regarding Cognitive Enhancement Create Substantial Challenges.E. Racine & C. Forlini - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (8):469-470.
    A recent discussion on cognitive enhancers has caused some controversy in the ethics and neuroscience fields by coming out in favour of making neuropharmaceuticals with enhancing properties available for general consumption. We highlight in this brief commentary why concerns regarding efficacy and safety, demands on resources, and public health are substantive enough to warrant serious reconsideration before pharmaceutical performance enhancement can be widely supported.
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  • Why is Cognitive Enhancement Deemed Unacceptable? The Role of Fairness, Deservingness, and Hollow Achievements.Nadira S. Faber, Julian Savulescu & Thomas Douglas - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    We ask why pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) is generally deemed morally unacceptable by lay people. Our approach to this question has two core elements. First, we employ an interdisciplinary perspective, using philosophical rationales as base for generating psychological models. Second, by testing these models we investigate how different normative judgments on PCE are related to each other. Based on an analysis of the relevant philosophical literature, we derive two psychological models that can potentially explain the judgment that PCE is unacceptable: (...)
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  • Dual-Use Decision Making: Relational and Positional Issues.Nicholas G. Evans - 2014 - Monash Bioethics Review 32 (3-4):268-283.
    Debates about dual-use research often turn on the potential for scientific research to be used to benefit or harm humanity. This dual-use potential is conventionally understood as the product of the magnitude of the harms and benefits of dual-use research, multiplied by their likelihood. This account, however, neglects important social aspects of the use of science and technology. In this paper, I supplement existing conceptions of dual-use potential to account for the social context of dual-use research. This account incorporates relational (...)
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  • Psychopharmacological Enhancement: A Conceptual Framework.Dan J. Stein - 2012 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 7:5.
    The availability of a range of new psychotropic agents raises the possibility that these will be used for enhancement purposes (smart pills, happy pills, and pep pills). The enhancement debate soon raises questions in philosophy of medicine and psychiatry (eg, what is a disorder?), and this debate in turn raises fundament questions in philosophy of language, science, and ethics. In this paper, a naturalistic conceptual framework is proposed for addressing these issues. This framework begins by contrasting classical and critical concepts (...)
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  • Neuroenhancers, Addiction and Research Ethics.D. M. Shaw - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (10):605-608.
    In their recent paper in this journal, Heinz and colleagues accuse proponents of cognitive enhancement of making two unjustified assumptions. The first of these is the assumption that neuroenhancing drugs will be safe; the second is that research into cognitive enhancement does not pose particular ethical problems. Heinz and colleagues argue that both these assumptions are false. Here, I argue that these assumptions are in fact correct, and that Heinz and colleagues themselves make several assumptions that undermine their argument. Neuroenhancement (...)
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  • Moral Enhancement and Freedom.John Harris - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (2):102-111.
    This paper identifies human enhancement as one of the most significant areas of bioethical interest in the last twenty years. It discusses in more detail one area, namely moral enhancement, which is generating significant contemporary interest. The author argues that so far from being susceptible to new forms of high tech manipulation, either genetic, chemical, surgical or neurological, the only reliable methods of moral enhancement, either now or for the foreseeable future, are either those that have been in human and (...)
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  • ‘Cosmetic Neurology’ and the Moral Complicity Argument.A. Ravelingien, J. Braeckman, L. Crevits, D. De Ridder & E. Mortier - 2009 - Neuroethics 2 (3):151-162.
    Over the past decades, mood enhancement effects of various drugs and neuromodulation technologies have been proclaimed. If one day highly effective methods for significantly altering and elevating one’s mood are available, it is conceivable that the demand for them will be considerable. One urgent concern will then be what role physicians should play in providing such services. The concern can be extended from literature on controversial demands for aesthetic surgery. According to Margaret Little, physicians should be aware that certain aesthetic (...)
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  • Varsity Medical Ethics Debate 2015: Should Nootropic Drugs Be Available Under Prescription on the NHS?Emma Thorley, Isaac Kang, Stephanie D’Costa, Myrto Vlazaki, Olaoluwa Ayeko, Edward H. Arbe-Barnes & Casey B. Swerner - 2016 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 11:6.
    The 2015 Varsity Medical Ethics debate convened upon the motion: “This house believes nootropic drugs should be available under prescription”. This annual debate between students from the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, now in its seventh year, provided the starting point for arguments on the subject. The present article brings together and extends many of the arguments put forward during the debate. We explore the current usage of nootropic drugs, their safety and whether it would be beneficial to individuals and (...)
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  • What It’s Like to Be Good.John Harris - 2012 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (3):293-305.
    In this issue of CQ we introduce a new feature, in which noted bioethicists are invited to reflect on vital current issues. Our first invitee, John Harris, will subsequently assume editorship of this section.
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  • Fooled by ‘Smart Drugs’ – Why Shouldn’T Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement Be Liberally Used in Education?Magen Inon - 2018 - Ethics and Education 14 (1):54-69.
    ABSTRACTResearch shows that various pharmaceuticals can offer modest cognition enhancing effects for healthy individuals. These finding have caused some academics to support liberal use of pharmacological cognitive enhancement in schools and universities. This approach partially arises from arguments implying there is little moral justification for regulating such drugs. In this paper, I argue against the liberal use of PCE on epistemic grounds. According to Charles Taylor, emotions and behaviour are epistemically valuable because they tell us meaningful things about reality. Hence, (...)
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  • The Need for Interdisciplinary Dialogue in Developing Ethical Approaches to Neuroeducational Research.Paul A. Howard-Jones & Kate D. Fenton - 2012 - Neuroethics 5 (2):119-134.
    This paper argues that many ethical issues in neuroeducational research cannot be appropriately addressed using the principles and guidance available in one of these areas alone, or by applying these in simple combination. Instead, interdisciplinary and public dialogue will be required to develop appropriate normative principles. In developing this argument, it examines neuroscientific and educational perspectives within three broad categories of ethical issue arising at the interface of cognitive neuroscience and education: issues regarding the carrying out of interdisciplinary research, the (...)
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  • Cognitive Enhancement and Academic Misconduct: A Study Exploring Their Frequency and Relationship.Veljko Dubljević, Sebastian Sattler & Éric Racine - 2014 - Ethics and Behavior 24 (5):408-420.
    We investigated the acceptability and frequency of the use of cognitive enhancement (CE) drugs and three different types of academic misconduct (plagiarism, cheating in exams, and falsifying/fabricating data). Data from a web-based survey among German university students were used. Moral acceptability was relatively low for CE drug use and moderate for academic misconduct, while the correlation of their respective acceptability was moderately weak. Prevalence of CE drug use was lower than for academic misconduct and (very) lightly correlated with the prevalence (...)
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  • “The White Version of Cheating?” Ethical and Social Equity Concerns of Cognitive Enhancing Drug Users in Higher Education.Ross Aikins - 2019 - Journal of Academic Ethics 17 (2):111-130.
    So-called cognitive enhancing drugs are relatively common in higher education, especially among students who are white, male, and attend highly selective institutions. Using qualitative data from a diverse sample of 32 students at an elite university, the present study aims to examine whether students perceive CED use to be advantageous, equitable, and fair. Participants were either medical or nonmedical users of CEDs—primarily ADHD stimulant medications such as Adderall. Data were first coded openly, then axially into themes, and finally arranged to (...)
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  • Constraints on Regulatory Options for Putatively Cognitive Enhancing Drugs.Wayne Hall, Brad Partridge & Jayne Lucke - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (7):35-37.
  • How Research on Stakeholder Perspectives Can Inform Policy on Cognitive Enhancement.Cynthia Forlini, Eric Racine, Jochen Vollmann & Jan Schildmann - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (7):41 - 43.
  • Prohibition or Coffee Shops: Regulation of Amphetamine and Methylphenidate for Enhancement Use by Healthy Adults.Veljko Dubljević - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (7):23-33.
    This article analyzes appropriate public policies for enhancement use of two most important stimulant drugs: Ritalin (methylphenidate) and Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts). The author argues that appropriate regulation of cognition enhancement drugs cannot be a result of a general discussion on cognitive enhancements as such, but has to be made on a case-by-case basis. Starting from the recently proposed taxation approach to cognition enhancement drugs, the author analyzes available, moderately permissive models of regulation. After a thorough analysis of relevant characteristics (...)
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  • Das Ringen Um Sinn Und Anerkennung – Eine Psychodynamische Sicht Auf Das Phänomen des Neuroenhancement The Struggle for Meaning and Acknowledgement—A Psychodynamic View of the Phenomenon of Neuroenhancement.Marc-Andre Wulf, Ljiljana Joksimovic & Wolfgang Tress - 2012 - Ethik in der Medizin 24 (1):29-42.
    Medizinethische Untersuchungen zum Thema Neuroenhancement (NE) wenden sich oft der Frage zu, inwiefern der Einzelne wie auch die Allgemeinheit durch NE zu Schaden kommen können. Gerechtigkeitsprobleme, ein befürchteter Wandel des Menschenbildes oder die Gefahr einer unerwünschten, schleichenden Veränderung der Gesellschaft werden problematisiert. Bezüglich individueller Risiken bleibt es aufgrund des vermeintlichen Zugewinns an Selbstbestimmung und Eigenverantwortung gerne beim Verweis auf die subjektive Kosten-Nutzen-Abwägung. Innerhalb der NE-Debatte gibt es bisher kaum Arbeiten, die die Aspekte der Motivation für die Nutzung von NE aus (...)
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  • Attitudes Toward Cognitive Enhancement: The Role of Metaphor and Context.Erin C. Conrad, Stacey Humphries & Anjan Chatterjee - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (1):35-47.
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  • Public Attitudes Toward Cognitive Enhancement.Nicholas S. Fitz, Roland Nadler, Praveena Manogaran, Eugene W. J. Chong & Peter B. Reiner - 2014 - Neuroethics 7 (2):173-188.
    Vigorous debate over the moral propriety of cognitive enhancement exists, but the views of the public have been largely absent from the discussion. To address this gap in our knowledge, four experiments were carried out with contrastive vignettes in order to obtain quantitative data on public attitudes towards cognitive enhancement. The data collected suggest that the public is sensitive to and capable of understanding the four cardinal concerns identified by neuroethicists, and tend to cautiously accept cognitive enhancement even as they (...)
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  • Taking the “Human” Out of Human Rights.John Harris - 2011 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (1):9-20.
    Human rights are universally acknowledged to be important, although they are, of course, by no means universally respected. This universality has helped to combat racism and sexism and other arbitrary and vicious forms of discrimination. Unfortunately, as we shall see, the universality of human rights is both too universal and not universal enough. It is time to take the “human” out of human rights. Indeed, it is very probable that in the future there will be no more humans as we (...)
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  • Moral and Social Reasons to Acknowledge the Use of Cognitive Enhancers in Competitive-Selective Contexts.Mirko D. Garasic & Andrea Lavazza - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1-12.
    BackgroundAlthough some of the most radical hypothesis related to the practical implementations of human enhancement have yet to become even close to reality, the use of cognitive enhancers is a very tangible phenomenon occurring with increasing popularity in university campuses as well as in other contexts. It is now well documented that the use of cognitive enhancers is not only increasingly common in Western countries, but also gradually accepted as a normal procedure by the media as well. In fact, its (...)
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  • Cognitive Neuroenhancement: False Assumptions in the Ethical Debate.Andreas Heinz, Roland Kipke, Hannah Heimann & Urban Wiesing - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (6):372-375.
    The present work critically examines two assumptions frequently stated by supporters of cognitive neuroenhancement. The first, explicitly methodological, assumption is the supposition of effective and side effect-free neuroenhancers. However, there is an evidence-based concern that the most promising drugs currently used for cognitive enhancement can be addictive. Furthermore, this work describes why the neuronal correlates of key cognitive concepts, such as learning and memory, are so deeply connected with mechanisms implicated in the development and maintenance of addictive behaviour so that (...)
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  • The Implications of Methylphenidate Use by Healthy Medical Students and Doctors in South Africa.Chad Beyer, Ciara Staunton & Keymanthri Moodley - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):20.
    The use of medical stimulants to sustain attention, augment memory and enhance intellectual capacity is increasing in society. The use of Methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement is a subject that has received much attention in the literature and academic circles in recent times globally. Medical doctors and medical students appear to be equally involved in the off-label use of Methylphenidate. This presents a potential harm to society and the individual as the long-term side effect profile of this medication is unknown.
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  • The Future of Psychopharmacological Enhancements: Expectations and Policies.Maartje Schermer, Ineke Bolt, Reinoud de Jongh & Berend Olivier - 2009 - Neuroethics 2 (2):75-87.
    The hopes and fears expressed in the debate on human enhancement are not always based on a realistic assessment of the expected possibilities. Discussions about extreme scenarios may at times obscure the ethical and policy issues that are relevant today. This paper aims to contribute to an adequate and ethically sound societal response to actual current developments. After a brief outline of the ethical debate concerning neuro-enhancement, it describes the current state of the art in psychopharmacological science and current uses (...)
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  • Bioconservatism, Bioenhancement and Backfiring.Tamara Kayali Browne & Steve Clarke - forthcoming - Journal of Moral Education:1-16.
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  • Ethical Considerations in the Framing of the Cognitive Enhancement Debate.Simon M. Outram - 2012 - Neuroethics 5 (2):173-184.
    Over the past few years the use of stimulants such as methylphenidate and modafinil among the student population has attracted considerable debate in the pages of bioethics journals. Under the rubric of cognitive enhancement, bioethicists have discussed this use of stimulants—along with future technologies of enhancement—and have launched a sometimes forceful debate of such practices. In the following paper, it is argued that even if we focus solely upon current practices, the term cognitive enhancement encompasses a wide range of ethical (...)
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  • Enhanced Humans Versus "Normal People": Elusive Definitions.M. Bess - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (6):641-655.
    A key aspect of transhumanist thought involves the modification or augmentation of human physical and mental capabilities—a form of intervention often encapsulated under the term "enhancement." This article provides an overview of the concept of enhancement, focusing on six major areas in which usages of the term become slippery and controversial: normal or species-typical functioning, therapeutics or healing, natural functioning, human nature, authenticity, and the ambiguity between "more" and "better." I argue that we need to be aware of the tendency (...)
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  • “It Was Me on a Good Day”: Exploring the Smart Drug Use Phenomenon in England.Elisabeth J. Vargo & Andrea Petróczi - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Neuroenhancement and the Strength Model of Self-Control.Chris Englert & Wanja Wolff - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Does Amphetamine Enhance Your Health? On the Distinction Between Health and “Health-Like” Enhancements.Per-Anders Tengland - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (5):484-510.
    It is an imperative within health care, medicine, and public health to restore, preserve, and enhance health. Therefore, it is important to determine what kinds of enhancement are increases in health and what kinds are not. Taking as its point of departure two conceptions of health, namely, “manifest health” and “fundamental health,” the paper discusses various means used to enhance ability and well-being, and if those means, such as wheelchairs, implants, medicines, stimulants, or narcotics, enhance health. The fact that some (...)
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