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  1. Regulating the International Surrogacy Market:The Ethics of Commercial Surrogacy in the Netherlands and India.Jaden Blazier & Rien Janssens - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (4):621-630.
    It is unclear what proper remuneration for surrogacy is, since countries disagree and both commercial and altruistic surrogacy have ethical drawbacks. In the presence of cross-border surrogacy, these ethical drawbacks are exacerbated. In this article, we explore what would be ethical remuneration for surrogacy, and suggest regulations for how to ensure this in the international context. A normative ethical analysis of commercial surrogacy is conducted. Various arguments against commercial surrogacy are explored, such as exploitation and commodification of surrogates, reproductive capacities, (...)
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  • Gendered Geographies of Reproductive Tourism.Daisy Deomampo - 2013 - Gender and Society 27 (4):514-537.
    This article explores the intersections of power within transnational surrogacy in India, using the lens of geography to examine surrogate women’s and commissioning parents’ experiences and perceptions of space and mobility. The author analyzes ethnographic data within a geographical framework to examine how actors embody and experience power relations through space and movement, revealing how power is not simply about who moves and who doesn’t. Rather, in recognizing the specificity of the Indian context, and how different actors inhabit and move (...)
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  • The World’s Not Ready for This: Globalizing Selective Technologies.Lauren Jade Martin - 2014 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 39 (3):432-455.
    The United States has become an ideal marketplace for those seeking selective technologies that are illegal, inaccessible, or unavailable in their own countries. Specifically, technologies such as commercial egg donation, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and sex selection are prohibited or highly regulated in many nations, but remain legal and largely unregulated in the United States. Based on in-depth interviews with US fertility industry providers, including physicians and egg donor and surrogate brokers, this article analyzes how the ideologies of genetic determinism and (...)
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  • Regulating Surrogacy in Europe: Common Problems, Diverse National Laws.Noelia Igareda González - 2019 - European Journal of Women's Studies 26 (4):435-446.
    Despite the diverse legal approaches towards surrogacy in Europe, there are common socio-legal arguments attempting to legitimise it amongst the European Union member states. Regardless of the prevailing regulation in each country, surrogacy in general is confronted with common criticisms and faces similar obstacles. For instance, the operative definition of altruism is put under question in countries where altruistic surrogacy is permitted. Surrogacy is also considered an attack on a woman’s dignity and a risk to children’s welfare. Behind such claims, (...)
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  • Buying and Selling Human Eggs: Infertility Providers’ Ethical and Other Concerns Regarding Egg Donor Agencies.Robert Klitzman - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):71.
    BackgroundEgg donor agencies are increasingly being used as part of IVF in the US, but are essentially unregulated, posing critical ethical and policy questions concerning how providers view and use them, and what the implications might be.MethodsThirty-seven in-depth interviews of approximately 1 h were conducted – with 27 IVF providers and 10 patients.ResultsClinicians vary in their views and interactions concerning egg donor agencies, ranging widely in whether and how often they use agencies. Agencies may offer egg recipients increased choices, but (...)
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  • Fiduciary Duties and Commercial Surrogacy.A. Ryman Emma - 2017 - Dissertation, University of Western Ontario
    Since the 1980’s, surrogacy has become a popular reproductive alternative for individuals experiencing infertility. The ethical and legal analyses of surrogacy have been rich and varied. Some bioethicists have charged the commercial surrogacy industry with the exploitation of global southern women or with the impermissible commodification of children and women’s reproductive capacities. Others have praised the potential for economic empowerment and bodily autonomy that surrogacy may accord to women. However, throughout these explorations of the ethics of surrogacy, comparatively little attention (...)
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  • Exploitation, Structural Injustice, and the Cross-Border Trade in Human Ova.Monique Deveaux - 2016 - Journal of Global Ethics 12 (1):48-68.
    ABSTRACTGlobal demand for human ova in in vitro fertilization has led to its expansion in countries with falling average incomes and rising female unemployment. Paid egg donation in the context of national, regional, and global inequalities has the potential to exploit women who are socioeconomically vulnerable, and indeed there is ample evidence that it does. Structural injustices that render women in middle-income countries – and even some high-income countries – economically vulnerable contribute to a context of ‘omissive coercion’ that is (...)
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  • Commercial Contract Pregnancy in India, Judgment, and Resistance to Oppression.Katy Fulfer - 2015 - Hypatia 30 (4):846-861.
    Feminist scholars have done much to identify oppressive forces within transnational commercial contract pregnancy and its social context that may coerce women into becoming gestational laborers. Feminists have also been careful not to depict gestational laborers as merely passive victims of oppression, though there is disagreement about the degree to which contract pregnancy offers opportunities for agency. In this article I consider how women who sell gestational labor may be agents against their oppression. I make explicit connections between resistance and (...)
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  • Race and a Transnational Reproductive Caste System: Indian Transnational Surrogacy.Amrita Banerjee - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (1):113-128.
    When it comes to discourses around women's labor in global contexts, we need feminist philosophical frameworks that take the intersections of gender, race, and global capitalism seriously in order to arrive at a comprehensive understanding of women's lives within global processes. Women of color feminist philosophy can bring much to the table in such discussions. In this essay, I theorize about a concrete instance of global women's labor: transnational commercial gestational surrogacy. By introducing a “racialized gender” analysis into the philosophical (...)
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  • Egg Donation Compensation: Ethical and Legal Challenges.Nancy Kenney & Michelle McGowan - 2014 - Medicolegal and Bioethics:15.
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  • Global Surrogacy: Exploitation to Empowerment.Vida Panitch - 2013 - Journal of Global Ethics 9 (3):329-343.
    Journal of Global Ethics, Volume 9, Issue 3, Page 329-343, December 2013.
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