Switch to: References

Add citations

You must login to add citations.
  1. Why There's No Cause to Randomize.John Worrall - 2007 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (3):451-488.
    The evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is widely regarded as supplying the ‘gold standard’ in medicine—we may sometimes have to settle for other forms of evidence, but this is always epistemically second-best. But how well justified is the epistemic claim about the superiority of RCTs? This paper adds to my earlier (predominantly negative) analyses of the claims produced in favour of the idea that randomization plays a uniquely privileged epistemic role, by closely inspecting three related arguments from leading contributors (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   47 citations  
  • The Virtues of Randomization.David Papineau - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (2):437-450.
    Peter Urbach has argued, on Bayesian grounds, that experimental randomization serves no useful purpose in testing causal hypothesis. I maintain that he fails to distinguish general issues of statistical inference from specific problems involved in identifying causes. I concede the general Bayesian thesis that random sampling is inessential to sound statistical inference. But experimental randomization is a different matter, and often plays an essential role in our route to causal conclusions.
    Direct download (12 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   25 citations  
  • Is Meta-Analysis the Platinum Standard of Evidence?Jacob Stegenga - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (4):497-507.
    An astonishing volume and diversity of evidence is available for many hypotheses in the biomedical and social sciences. Some of this evidence—usually from randomized controlled trials (RCTs)—is amalgamated by meta-analysis. Despite the ongoing debate regarding whether or not RCTs are the ‘gold-standard’ of evidence, it is usually meta-analysis which is considered the best source of evidence: meta-analysis is thought by many to be the platinum standard of evidence. However, I argue that meta-analysis falls far short of that standard. Different meta-analyses (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   31 citations  
  • Semmelweis's Methodology From the Modern Stand-Point: Intervention Studies and Causal Ontology.Johannes Persson - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 40 (3):204-209.
    Semmelweis’s work predates the discovery of the power of randomization in medicine by almost a century. Although Semmelweis would not have consciously used a randomized controlled trial (RCT), some features of his material—the allocation of patients to the first and second clinics—did involve what was in fact a randomization, though this was not realised at the time. This article begins by explaining why Semmelweis’s methodology, nevertheless, did not amount to the use of a RCT. It then shows why it is (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Psychical Research and the Origins of American Psychology.Andreas Sommer - 2012 - History of the Human Sciences 25 (2):23-44.
    Largely unacknowledged by historians of the human sciences, late-19th-century psychical researchers were actively involved in the making of fledgling academic psychology. Moreover, with few exceptions historians have failed to discuss the wider implications of the fact that the founder of academic psychology in America, William James, considered himself a psychical researcher and sought to integrate the scientific study of mediumship, telepathy and other controversial topics into the nascent discipline. Analysing the celebrated exposure of the medium Eusapia Palladino by German-born Harvard (...)
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • The Resisted Rise of Randomisation in Experimental Design: British Agricultural Science, C.1910–1930.Dominic Berry - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 37 (3):242-260.
    The most conspicuous form of agricultural experiment is the field trial, and within the history of such trials, the arrival of the randomised control trial is considered revolutionary. Originating with R.A. Fisher within British agricultural science in the 1920s and 30s, the RCT has since become one of the most prodigiously used experimental techniques throughout the natural and social sciences. Philosophers of science have already scrutinised the epistemological uniqueness of RCTs, undermining their status as the ‘gold standard’ in experimental design. (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • The Role of Randomization in Bayesian and Frequentist Design of Clinical Trial.Paola Berchialla, Dario Gregori & Ileana Baldi - 2019 - Topoi 38 (2):469-475.
    A key role in inference is played by randomization, which has been extensively used in clinical trials designs. Randomization is primarily intended to prevent the source of bias in treatment allocation by producing comparable groups. In the frequentist framework of inference, randomization allows also for the use of probability theory to express the likelihood of chance as a source for the difference of end outcome. In the Bayesian framework, its role is more nuanced. The Bayesian analysis of clinical trials can (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Some Reasons for Not Taking Parapsychology Very Seriously.Ian Hacking - 1993 - Dialogue 32 (3):587-.
  • ‘Sexual Chemistry’ Before the Pill: Science, Industry and Chemical Contraceptives, 1920–1960.Ilana Löwy - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Science 44 (2):245-274.
    The history of contraceptives met the history of drugs long before the invention of the contraceptive pill. In the first half of the twentieth century, numerous pharmaceutical laboratories, including major ones, manufactured and marketed chemical contraceptives: jellies, suppositories, creams, powders and foams applied locally to prevent conception. Efforts to put an end to the marginal status of these products and to transform them into ‘ethical’ drugs played an important role in the development of standardized laboratory tests of efficacy of contraceptive (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Multiple Personality Disorder and its Hosts.Ian Hacking - 1992 - History of the Human Sciences 5 (2):3-31.
  • The Entry of Randomized Assignment Into the Social Sciences.Julian C. Jamison - 2019 - Journal of Causal Inference 7 (1).
    Although the concept of randomized assignment in order to control for extraneous confounding factors reaches back hundreds of years, the first empirical use appears to have been in an 1835 trial of homeopathic medicine. Throughout the 19th century there was a growing awareness of the need for comparison groups, albeit often without the realization that randomization could be a clean method to achieve that goal. In the second and more crucial phase of this history, four separate but related disciplines introduced (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  • Trust and Mistrust in the Marketplace: Statistics and Clinical Research, 1945-1960.Harry M. Marks - 2000 - History of Science 38 (3):343-355.
  • The Origins of French Experimental Psychology: Experiment and Experimentalism.Jacqueline Carroy & Régine Plas - 1996 - History of the Human Sciences 9 (1):73-84.
  • R. A. Fisher and His Advocacy of Randomization.Nancy S. Hall - 2007 - Journal of the History of Biology 40 (2):295-325.
    The requirement of randomization in experimental design was first stated by R. A. Fisher, statistician and geneticist, in 1925 in his book Statistical Methods for Research Workers. Earlier designs were systematic and involved the judgment of the experimenter; this led to possible bias and inaccurate interpretation of the data. Fisher's dictum was that randomization eliminates bias and permits a valid test of significance. Randomization in experimenting had been used by Charles Sanders Peirce in 1885 but the practice was not continued. (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  • Is Meta-Analysis the Platinum Standard of Evidence?Jacob Stegenga - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (4):497-507.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   31 citations  
  • Psychical Research in the History and Philosophy of Science. An Introduction and Review.Andreas Sommer - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 48:38-45.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Psychology and Psychical Research in France Around the End of the 19th Century.Régine Plas - 2012 - History of the Human Sciences 25 (2):91-107.
    During the last third of the 19th century, the ‘new’ French psychology developed within ‘the hypnotic context’ opened up by Charcot. In spite of their claims to the scientific nature of their hypnotic experiments, Charcot and his followers were unable to avoid the miracles that had accompanied mesmerism, the forerunner of hypnosis. The hysterics hypnotized in the Salpêtrière Hospital were expected to have supernormal faculties and these experiments opened the door to psychical research. In 1885 the first French psychology society (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Haunted Thoughts of the Careful Experimentalist: Psychical Research and the Troubles of Experimental Physics.Richard Noakes - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 48:46-56.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation