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  1. Runaway Social Selection for Displays of Partner Value and Altruism.Randolph M. Nesse - 2007 - Biological Theory 2 (2):143-155.
    Runaway social selection resulting from partner choice may have shaped aspects of human cooperation and complex sociality that are otherwise hard to account for. Social selection is the subtype of natural selection that results from the social behaviors of other individuals. Competition to be chosen as a social partner can, like competition to be chosen as a mate, result in runaway selection that shapes extreme traits. People prefer partners who display valuable resources and bestow them selectively on close partners. The (...)
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  • Shared Public Culture: A Reliable Source of Trust.Patti Tamara Lenard - 2007 - Contemporary Political Theory 6 (4):385-404.
    Trust is a central element of any well-functioning democracy, and the fact that it is widely reported to be on the wane is a worrisome phenomenon of contemporary politics. It is therefore critical that political and social philosophers focus on efforts by which to rebuild trust relations. I argue that a shared public culture is up to the task of trust-building, for three reasons. First, a shared public culture gives citizens an insight into the motivations that inspire fellow citizens to (...)
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  • Altruistic behaviors and cooperation among gifted adolescents.Ashraf Atta M. S. Salem, Mahfouz Abdelsattar, Mosaad Abu Al-Diyar, Amthal H. Al-Hwailah, Esraa Derar, Nadiah A. H. Al-Hamdan & Shouket Ahmad Tilwani - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13:945766.
    The present study is a differential study that describes the nature of the relationship between cooperation and altruistic behavior in a sample of gifted adolescents in three universities in Egypt and Kuwait University. It also identified the differences between males/females, and senior students/junior students in both cooperation and altruism. A total of 237 gifted adolescents—with average age 21.3 ± SD 2.6 years—from three Egyptian universities: Alexandria University, Sadat Academy for Management Sciences, and Suez University, and Kuwait University, were involved in (...)
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  • Explaining Human Diversity: the Need to Balance Fit and Complexity.Armin W. Schulz - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 14 (2):1-19.
    While the existence of human cognitive and behavioral diversity is now widely recognized, it is not yet well established how to explain this diversity. In particular, it is still unclear how to determine whether any given instance of human cognitive and behavioral diversity is due to a common psychology that is merely “triggered” differently in different bio-cultural environments, or whether it is due to deeply and fundamentally different psychologies. This paper suggests that, to answer this question, we need to employ (...)
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  • Explaining Human Diversity: the Need to Balance Fit and Complexity.Armin W. Schulz - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 14 (2):457-475.
    While the existence of human cognitive and behavioral diversity is now widely recognized, it is not yet well established how to explain this diversity. In particular, it is still unclear how to determine whether any given instance of human cognitive and behavioral diversity is due to a common psychology that is merely “triggered” differently in different bio-cultural environments, or whether it is due to deeply and fundamentally different psychologies. This paper suggests that, to answer this question, we need to employ (...)
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  • Norm enforcement among the Ju/’hoansi Bushmen.Polly Wiessner - 2005 - Human Nature 16 (2):115-145.
    The concept of cooperative communities that enforce norm conformity through reward, as well as shaming, ridicule, and ostracism, has been central to anthropology since the work of Durkheim. Prevailing approaches from evolutionary theory explain the willingness to exert sanctions to enforce norms as self-interested behavior, while recent experimental studies suggest that altruistic rewarding and punishing—“strong reciprocity”—play an important role in promoting cooperation. This paper will use data from 308 conversations among the Ju/’hoansi (!Kung) Bushmen (a) to examine the dynamics of (...)
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  • Excuse Validation: A Cross‐cultural Study.John Turri - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (8):e12748.
    If someone unintentionally breaks the rules, do they break the rules? In the abstract, the answer is obviously “yes.” But, surprisingly, when considering specific examples of unintentional, blameless rule-breaking, approximately half of people judge that no rule was broken. This effect, known as excuse validation, has previously been observed in American adults. Outstanding questions concern what causes excuse validation, and whether it is peculiar to American moral psychology or cross-culturally robust. The present paper studies the phenomenon cross-culturally, focusing on Korean (...)
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  • Fairness and family background.Bertil Tungodden, Erik Ø Sørensen, Kjell G. Salvanes, Alexander W. Cappelen & Ingvild Almås - 2017 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 16 (2):117-131.
    Fairness preferences fundamentally affect individual behavior and play an important role in shaping social and political institutions. However, people differ both with respect to what they view as fair and with respect to how much weight they attach to fairness considerations. In this article, we study the role of family background in explaining these heterogeneities in fairness preferences. In particular, we examine how socioeconomic background relates to fairness views and to how people make trade-offs between fairness and self-interest. To study (...)
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  • Dirty Money: The Role of Moral History in Economic Judgments.Arber Tasimi & Susan A. Gelman - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S3):523-544.
    Although traditional economic models posit that money is fungible, psychological research abounds with examples that deviate from this assumption. Across eight experiments, we provide evidence that people construe physical currency as carrying traces of its moral history. In Experiments 1 and 2, people report being less likely to want money with negative moral history. Experiments 3–5 provide evidence against an alternative account that people's judgments merely reflect beliefs about the consequences of accepting stolen money rather than moral sensitivity. Experiment 6 (...)
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  • Contextual Effect of Wealth on Independence: An Examination through Regional Differences in China.Kosuke Takemura, Takeshi Hamamura, Yanjun Guan & Satoko Suzuki - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • The Reproductive Ecology of Industrial Societies, Part I.Gert Stulp, Rebecca Sear & Louise Barrett - 2016 - Human Nature 27 (4):422-444.
    Is fertility relevant to evolutionary analyses conducted in modern industrial societies? This question has been the subject of a highly contentious debate, beginning in the late 1980s and continuing to this day. Researchers in both evolutionary and social sciences have argued that the measurement of fitness-related traits (e.g., fertility) offers little insight into evolutionary processes, on the grounds that modern industrial environments differ so greatly from those of our ancestral past that our behavior can no longer be expected to be (...)
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  • Satisficing, preferences, and social interaction: a new perspective.Wynn C. Stirling & Teppo Felin - 2016 - Theory and Decision 81 (2):279-308.
    Satisficing is a central concept in both individual and social multiagent decision making. In this paper we first extend the notion of satisficing by formally modeling the tradeoff between costs and decision failure. Second, we extend this notion of “neo”-satisficing into the context of social or multiagent decision making and interaction, and model the social conditioning of preferences in a satisficing framework.
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  • The evolution and evolvability of culture.Kim Sterelny - 2006 - Mind and Language 21 (2):137-165.
    Joseph Henrich and Richard McElreath begin their survey of theories of cultural evolution with a striking historical example. They contrast the fate of the Bourke and Wills expedition — an attempt to explore some of the arid areas of inland Australia — with the routine survival of the local aboriginals in exactly the same area. That expedition ended in failure and death, despite the fact that it was well equipped, and despite the fact that those on the expedition were tough (...)
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  • The Evolution and Evolvability of Culture.Kim Sterelny - 2006 - Mind and Language 21 (2):137-165.
    In this paper I argue, first, that human lifeways depend on cognitive capital that has typically been built over many generations. This process of gradual accumulation produces an adaptive fit between human agents and their environments; an adaptive fit that is the result of hidden‐hand, evolutionary mechanisms. To explain distinctive features of human life, we need to understand how cultures evolve. Second, I distinguish a range of different evolutionary models of culture. Third, I argue that none of meme‐based models, dual (...)
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  • Cooperation in a Complex World: The Role of Proximate Factors in Ultimate Explanations. [REVIEW]Kim Sterelny - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (4):358-367.
    Mayr’s distinction between proximate and ultimate explanation is justly famous, marking out a division of explanatory labor in biology. But while it is a useful heuristic in many cases, there are others in which proximate factors play an important role in shaping evolutionary trajectories, and in such cases, each project is sensitive to, and relevant to, the other. This general methodological claim is developed in the context of a discussion of human cooperation, and in particular, in a discussion on the (...)
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  • Cooperation, Culture, and Conflict.Kim Sterelny - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (1):31-58.
    In this article I develop a big picture of the evolution of human cooperation, and contrast it to an alternative based on group selection. The crucial claim is that hominin history has seen two major transitions in cooperation, and hence poses two deep puzzles about the origins and stability of cooperation. The first is the transition from great ape social lives to the lives of Pleistocene cooperative foragers; the second is the stability of the social contract through the early Holocene (...)
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  • Protecting rainforest realism: James Ladyman, Don Ross: Everything must go: metaphysics naturalized, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007, pp. 368 £49.00 HB.P. Kyle Stanford, Paul Humphreys, Katherine Hawley, James Ladyman & Don Ross - 2010 - Metascience 19 (2):161-185.
    Reply in Book Symposium on James Ladyman, Don Ross: 'Everything must go: metaphysics naturalized', Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
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  • From good institutions to generous citizens: Top-down incentives to cooperate promote subsequent prosociality but not norm enforcement.Michael N. Stagnaro, Antonio A. Arechar & David G. Rand - 2017 - Cognition 167:212-254.
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  • Hearing Prosocial Stories Increases Hadza Hunter-Gatherers’ Generosity in an Economic Game.Kristopher M. Smith, Ibrahim A. Mabulla & Coren L. Apicella - 2023 - Human Nature 34 (1):103-121.
    Folk stories featuring prosocial content are ubiquitous across cultures. One explanation for the ubiquity of such stories is that stories teach people about the local socioecology, including norms of prosociality, and stories featuring prosocial content may increase generosity in listeners. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 185 Hadza hunter-gatherers. We read participants a story in which the main character either swims with another person (control story) or rescues him from drowning (prosocial story). After hearing the story, participants played (...)
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  • Group-level traits emerge.Paul E. Smaldino - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (3):281-295.
  • Donald Campbell's doubt: Cultural difference or failure of communication?Richard A. Shweder - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):109 - 110.
    The objection, rightfully noted but then dismissed by Henrich et al., that the observed variation across populations is a theoretically profound and potentially constructive criticism. It parallels Donald Campbell's concern that many cultural differences reported by psychologists Ironically, Campbell's doubt is a good foundation for investigations in cultural psychology.
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  • The needs of the many do not outweigh the needs of the few: The limits of individual sacrifice across diverse cultures.Mark Sheskin, Coralie Chevallier, Kuniko Adachi, Renatas Berniūnas, Thomas Castelain, Martin Hulín, Hillary Lenfesty, Denis Regnier, Anikó Sebestény & Nicolas Baumard - 2018 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 18 (1-2):205-223.
    A long tradition of research in WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic) countries has investigated how people weigh individual welfare versus group welfare in their moral judgments. Relatively less research has investigated the generalizability of results across non-WEIRD populations. In the current study, we ask participants across nine diverse cultures (Bali, Costa Rica, France, Guatemala, Japan, Madagascar, Mongolia, Serbia, and the USA) to make a series of moral judgments regarding both third-party sacrifice for group welfare and first-person sacrifice for group (...)
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  • “Who is There That Doesn’t Calculate?” Homo Economicus as a Measuring Instrument in Non-Market Accounting.Oliver Schlaudt - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (6):842-868.
    Contemporary approaches to “non-market accounting” depend critically on methods of “monetization,” i.e., determining prices for goods outside the market. Monetization constitutes a case of economic measurement in a narrow sense that has not yet been analyzed in the literature on measurement in economics. Monetization, I will argue, uses homo economicus—originally created as a model to explain existing prices—as a measuring device, one that generates new prices for goods that are not traded on markets. Homo economicus, though long contested in microeconomics, (...)
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  • Music as a coevolved system for social bonding.Patrick E. Savage, Psyche Loui, Bronwyn Tarr, Adena Schachner, Luke Glowacki, Steven Mithen & W. Tecumseh Fitch - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44:e59.
    Why do humans make music? Theories of the evolution of musicality have focused mainly on the value of music for specific adaptive contexts such as mate selection, parental care, coalition signaling, and group cohesion. Synthesizing and extending previous proposals, we argue that social bonding is an overarching function that unifies all of these theories, and that musicality enabled social bonding at larger scales than grooming and other bonding mechanisms available in ancestral primate societies. We combine cross-disciplinary evidence from archeology, anthropology, (...)
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  • What’s new in the new ideology critique?Kirun Sankaran - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (5):1441-1462.
    I argue that contemporary accounts of ideology critique—paradigmatically those advanced by Haslanger, Jaeggi, Celikates, and Stanley—are either inadequate or redundant. The Marxian concept of ideology—a collective epistemic distortion or irrationality that helps maintain bad social arrangements—has recently returned to the forefront of debates in contemporary analytic social philosophy. Ideology critique has similarly emerged as a technique for combating such social ills by remedying those collective epistemic distortions. Ideologies are sets of social meanings or shared understandings. I argue in this paper (...)
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  • Gender-Biased Expectations of Altruism in Adolescents.Mauricio Salgado - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Ghoshal’s Ghost: Financialization and the End of Management Theory.Gregory A. Daneke & Alexander Sager - 2015 - Philosophy of Management 14 (1):29-45.
    Sumantra Ghoshal’s condemnation of “bad management theories” that were “destroying good management practices” has not lost any of its salience, after a decade. Management theories anchored in agency theory (and neo-classical economics generally) continue to abet the financialization of society and undermine the functioning of business. An alternative approach (drawn from a more classic institutional, new ecological, and refocused ethical approaches) is reviewed.
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  • We humans are the worst and the best and ….Holmes Rolston - 2022 - Zygon 57 (1):5-24.
    Zygon®, Volume 57, Issue 1, Page 5-24, March 2022.
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  • The Puzzle of Evaluating Moral Cognition in Artificial Agents.Madeline G. Reinecke, Yiran Mao, Markus Kunesch, Edgar A. Duéñez-Guzmán, Julia Haas & Joel Z. Leibo - 2023 - Cognitive Science 47 (8):e13315.
    In developing artificial intelligence (AI), researchers often benchmark against human performance as a measure of progress. Is this kind of comparison possible for moral cognition? Given that human moral judgment often hinges on intangible properties like “intention” which may have no natural analog in artificial agents, it may prove difficult to design a “like‐for‐like” comparison between the moral behavior of artificial and human agents. What would a measure of moral behavior for both humans and AI look like? We unravel the (...)
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  • Another Brick in the Wall? Moral Education, Social Learning, and Moral Progress.Paul Rehren & Hanno Sauer - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-16.
    Many believe that moral education can cause moral progress. At first glance, this makes sense. A major goal of moral education is the improvement of the moral beliefs, values and behaviors of young people. Most would also consider all of these improvements to be important instances of moral progress. Moreover, moral education is a form of social learning, and there are good reasons to think that social learning processes shape episodes of progressive moral change. Despite this, we argue that instead (...)
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  • Giving or taking: the role of dispositional power motivation and positive affect in profit maximization. [REVIEW]Markus Quirin, Martin Beckenkamp & Julius Kuhl - 2009 - Mind and Society 8 (1):109-126.
    Socio-economic decisions are commonly explained by rational cost versus benefit considerations, whereas person variables have not much been considered. The present study aimed at investigating the degree to which dispositional power motivation and affective states predict socio-economic decisions. The power motive was assessed both indirectly and directly using a TAT-like picture test and a power motive self-report, respectively. After 9 months, 62 students completed an affect rating and performed on a money allocation task. We hypothesized and confirmed that dispositional power (...)
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  • Children’s Inequity Aversion in Procedural Justice Context: A Comparison of Advantageous and Disadvantageous Inequity.Qiu Xiaoju, Yu Jing, Li Tingyu, Cheng Nanhua & Zhu Liqi - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Rethinking Rationality.Emmanuel M. Pothos & Timothy J. Pleskac - 2022 - Topics in Cognitive Science 14 (3):451-466.
    Topics in Cognitive Science, Volume 14, Issue 3, Page 451-466, July 2022.
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  • How to Do Empirical Political Philosophy: A Case Study of Miller’s Argument for Needs-Based Justice.Thomas Pölzler - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-30.
    In recent years an increasing number of political philosophers have begun to ground their arguments in empirical evidence. I investigate this novel approach by way of example. The object of my case study is David Miller’s renewed empirical argument for a needs-based principle of justice. First, I introduce Miller’s argument. Then I raise four worries about the application of his methodology that give rise to corresponding general recommendations for how to do empirical political philosophy. Proponents of this approach should take (...)
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  • Importing social preferences across contexts and the pitfall of over-generalization across theories.Anne C. Pisor & Daniel Mt Fessler - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (1):34-35.
    Claims regarding negative strong reciprocity do indeed rest on experiments lacking established external validity, often without even a small Guala's review should prompt strong reciprocity proponents to extend the real-world validity of their work, exploring the preferences participants bring to experiments. That said, Guala's approach fails to differentiate among group selection approaches and glosses over cross-cultural variability.
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  • Against democratic education.Mark Pennington - 2014 - Social Philosophy and Policy 31 (1):1-35.
  • Individual Differences in Moral Behaviour: A Role for Response to Risk and Uncertainty?Colin J. Palmer, Bryan Paton, Trung T. Ngo, Richard H. Thomson, Jakob Hohwy & Steven M. Miller - 2012 - Neuroethics 6 (1):97-103.
    Investigation of neural and cognitive processes underlying individual variation in moral preferences is underway, with notable similarities emerging between moral- and risk-based decision-making. Here we specifically assessed moral distributive justice preferences and non-moral financial gambling preferences in the same individuals, and report an association between these seemingly disparate forms of decision-making. Moreover, we find this association between distributive justice and risky decision-making exists primarily when the latter is assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task. These findings are consistent with neuroimaging studies (...)
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  • Culture-specific models of negotiation for virtual characters: multi-attribute decision-making based on culture-specific values.Elnaz Nouri, Kallirroi Georgila & David Traum - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (1):51-63.
  • Educated or Indoctrinated? Remarks on the Influence of Economic Teaching on Students’ Attitudes Based on Evidence from the Public Good Game Experiment.Jarosław Neneman & Joanna Dzionek-Kozłowska - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (4):353-371.
    Economic education is frequently blamed for negatively affecting students’ values and attitudes. Economists are reported as less cooperative, more self-interested, and more prone to free-riding. However, empirical evidence is inconclusive – certain studies support while others gainsay the so-called indoctrination hypothesis. We contribute to the discussion by running a Public Good Game quasi-experiment. Working with economics and non-economics graduates, we compared contributions to the common fund by representatives of both subsamples. Students’ contributions were then juxtaposed against the scores they achieved (...)
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  • The Gauthier Contract: Applicable or Not?Jeremy Neill - 2017 - Res Publica 23 (1):1-22.
    In a 2013 article, David Gauthier noted upon the twenty-fifth anniversary of the publication of Morals by Agreement that his contractarian approach to morality had found a niche among ‘some of those who remain unpersuaded by either Kantianism or utilitarianism’. In this article I will focus on Pareto optimization and I will argue that the Gauthier contract, even in spite of the article’s revisions, is still less useful for consultation purposes than Gauthier is assuming. To highlight the conceptual distance that (...)
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  • Can Development Programs Shape Cooperation?Lucentezza Napitupulu, Jetske Bouma, Sonia Graham & Victoria Reyes-García - 2020 - Human Nature 31 (2):174-195.
    Empirical studies among small-scale societies show that participation in national development programs impact traditional norms of community cooperation. We explore the extent to which varying levels of village and individual involvement in development policies relate to voluntary cooperation within community settings. We used a field experiment conducted in seven villages from an indigenous society in Indonesia known for their strong traditional cooperative norms, the Punan Tubu. We framed the experiment in terms of an ongoing government house-building program. The results indicate (...)
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  • Is Cooperation a Maladaptive By-product of Social Learning? The Docility Hypothesis Reconsidered.Olivier Morin - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (3):286-295.
    The docility hypothesis holds that human social learning produces genuinely altruistic behaviors as a maladaptive by-product. This article examines five possible sources of such altruistic mistakes. The first two mechanisms, the smoke-detector principle and the cost-accuracy tradeoff, are not specifically linked to social learning. Both predict that it may be adaptive for cooperators to allow some altruistic mistakes to happen, as long as those mistakes are rare and cost little. The other three mechanisms are specific to social learning: Through culture, (...)
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  • Self-Compassion and Cultural Values: A Cross-Cultural Study of Self-Compassion Using a Multitrait-Multimethod (MTMM) Analytical Procedure.Jesus Montero-Marin, Willem Kuyken, Catherine Crane, Jenny Gu, Ruth Baer, Aida A. Al-Awamleh, Satoshi Akutsu, Claudio Araya-Véliz, Nima Ghorbani, Zhuo Job Chen, Min-Sun Kim, Michail Mantzios, Danilo N. Rolim dos Santos, Luiz C. Serramo López, Ahmed A. Teleb, P. J. Watson, Ayano Yamaguchi, Eunjoo Yang & Javier García-Campayo - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Towards a unified science of cultural evolution.Alex Mesoudi, Andrew Whiten & Kevin N. Laland - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):329-347.
    We suggest that human culture exhibits key Darwinian evolutionary properties, and argue that the structure of a science of cultural evolution should share fundamental features with the structure of the science of biological evolution. This latter claim is tested by outlining the methods and approaches employed by the principal subdisciplines of evolutionary biology and assessing whether there is an existing or potential corresponding approach to the study of cultural evolution. Existing approaches within anthropology and archaeology demonstrate a good match with (...)
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  • Do infants detect indirect reciprocity?Marek Meristo & Luca Surian - 2013 - Cognition 129 (1):102-113.
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  • Cognitive systems for revenge and forgiveness.Michael E. McCullough, Robert Kurzban & Benjamin A. Tabak - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):1-15.
    Minimizing the costs that others impose upon oneself and upon those in whom one has a fitness stake, such as kin and allies, is a key adaptive problem for many organisms. Our ancestors regularly faced such adaptive problems. One solution to this problem is to impose retaliatory costs on an aggressor so that the aggressor and other observers will lower their estimates of the net benefits to be gained from exploiting the retaliator in the future. We posit that humans have (...)
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  • Children are sensitive to norms of giving.Katherine McAuliffe, Nichola J. Raihani & Yarrow Dunham - 2017 - Cognition 167 (C):151-159.
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  • Modernizing Evolutionary Anthropology.Siobhán M. Mattison & Rebecca Sear - 2016 - Human Nature 27 (4):335-350.
  • “Self-sacrifice” as an accidental outcome of extreme within-group mutualism.Antoine Marie - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
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  • Hadza Cooperation.Frank W. Marlowe - 2009 - Human Nature 20 (4):417-430.
    Strong reciprocity is an effective way to promote cooperation. This is especially true when one not only cooperates with cooperators and defects on defectors (second-party punishment) but even punishes those who defect on others (third-party, “altruistic” punishment). Some suggest we humans have a taste for such altruistic punishment and that this was important in the evolution of human cooperation. To assess this we need to look across a wide range of cultures. As part of a cross-cultural project, I played three (...)
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