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VKnowledge Activation: Accessibility, Applicability, and Salience, V in E. Tory Higgins and Arie W. Kruglanski, eds

In E. E. Higgins & A. Kruglanski (eds.), Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles. Guilford (1996)

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  1. Visible or Influential? Language Reforms and Gender (in)Equality.Angelica Mucchi-Faina - 2005 - Social Science Information 44 (1):189-215.
    English There is much controversy regarding the use and the effects of politically correct language and language reforms. This article is focussed on gender-related PC language, that is, non-sexist language. After a short account of the debate on the issue, it is shown that, with regard to gender, language reforms can be based on two main strategies: inclusion and visibility. The preference for one or the other strategy depends not only on the characteristics of the specific language but also on (...)
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  • The Limits of Commodification Arguments: Framing, Motivation Crowding, and Shared Valuations.Natalie Gold - 2019 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 18 (2):165-192.
    I connect commodification arguments to an empirical literature, present a mechanism by which commodification may occur, and show how this may restrict the range of goods and services that are subject to commodification, therefore having implications for the use of commodification arguments in political theory. Commodification arguments assert that some people’s trading a good or service can debase it for third parties. They consist of a normative premise, a theory of value, and an empirical premise, a mechanism whereby some people’s (...)
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  • Measuring Value Sensitivity in Medicine.Christian Ineichen, Markus Christen & Carmen Tanner - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):5.
    BackgroundValue sensitivity – the ability to recognize value-related issues when they arise in practice – is an indispensable competence for medical practitioners to enter decision-making processes related to ethical questions. However, the psychological competence of value sensitivity is seldom an explicit subject in the training of medical professionals. In this contribution, we outline the traditional concept of moral sensitivity in medicine and its revised form conceptualized as value sensitivity and we propose an instrument that measures value sensitivity.MethodsWe developed an instrument (...)
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  • Applicability Increases the Effect of Misattribution on Judgment.Yael Ecker & Yoav Bar-Anan - 2018 - Cognition and Emotion 33 (4):709-721.
    ABSTRACTFeelings and cognitions influence judgment through attribution. For instance, the attribution of positive feelings and cognitions to a stimulus leads to a positive judgment of that stimulus. We examined whether misattribution is moderated by the applicability of a distractor to the judgment question. For instance, when are people more likely to attribute to a target person the affective and cognitive experiences triggered by a kitten – when trying to judge the person’s cuteness or trustworthiness? The kitten triggers experiences specifically relevant (...)
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  • Survey-Driven Romanticism.Simon Cullen - 2010 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (2):275-296.
    Despite well-established results in survey methodology, many experimental philosophers have not asked whether and in what way conclusions about folk intuitions follow from people’s responses to their surveys. Rather, they appear to have proceeded on the assumption that intuitions can be simply read off from survey responses. Survey research, however, is fraught with difficulties. I review some of the relevant literature—particularly focusing on the conversational pragmatic aspects of survey research—and consider its application to common experimental philosophy surveys. I argue for (...)
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  • Barriers to Physicians' Decisions to Discuss Hospice: Insights Gained From the United States Hospice Model.E. Kiernan McGorty & Brian H. Bornstein - 2003 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 9 (3):363-372.
  • On Dual Processing and Heuristic Approaches to Moral Cognition.Daniel K. Lapsley & Patrick L. Hill - 2008 - Journal of Moral Education 37 (3):313-332.
    We examine the implications of dual?processing theories of cognition for the moral domain, with particular emphasis upon ?System 1? theories: the Social Intuitionist Model (Haidt), moral heuristics (Sunstein), fast?and?frugal moral heuristics (Gigerenzer), schema accessibility (Lapsley & Narvaez) and moral expertise (Narvaez). We argue that these theories differ from each other in important ways and should be carefully distinguished. We examine these theories in the light of the ?Berkowitz Rule? with respect to educational practice and conclude with some thoughts about the (...)
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  • Moral Schemas and Tacit Judgement or How the Defining Issues Test is Supported by Cognitive Science.Darcia Narvaez & Tonia Bock - 2002 - Journal of Moral Education 31 (3):297-314.
    Ideas from cognitive science are increasingly influential and provide insight into the nature of moral judgement. Three core ideas are discussed: modern schema theory, the frequency of automatic decision-making and implicit processes as the default mode of human information processing. The Defining Issues Test (DIT) measures the beginnings of moral understanding, which are largely non-verbal and intuitive, in contrast to the Moral Judgement Interview (MJI), which measures the highest level of verbal understanding. The positive attributes of the DIT and its (...)
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  • A Social Cognitive Perspective on the Relationships Between Ethics Education, Moral Attentiveness, and PRESOR.Kurt Wurthmann - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (1):131-153.
    This research examines the relationships between education in business ethics, Reynolds’s (J Appl Psychol 93:1027–1041, 2008) “moral attentiveness” construct, or the extent to which individuals chronically perceive and reflect on morality and moral elements in their experiences, and Singhapakdi et al.’s (J Bus Ethics 15:1131–1140, 1996) measure of perceptions of the role of ethics and social responsibility (PRESOR). Education in business ethics was found to be positively associated with the two identified factors of moral attentiveness, “reflective” and “perceptual” moral attentiveness, (...)
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  • The Effects of Priming on Business Ethical Perceptions: A Comparison Between Two Cultures.John Tsalikis - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 131 (3):567-575.
    The present study examines the effect of priming on business ethical decision making. Priming is based on the idea that our perceptions, actions, and emotions are distorted by unconscious cues from our environment. Subjects were primed for either “politeness” or “rudeness” using a sentence completion task. Following the priming, the subjects were asked to react to a series of ethical scenarios. The results showed that subjects primed for “rudeness” perceived the scenarios as less unethical than subjects primed for “politeness”. Similar (...)
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  • A Cross-Cultural Assessment of the Semantic Dimensions of Intellectual Humility.Markus Christen, Mark Alfano & Brian Robinson - 2019 - AI and Society 34 (4):785-801.
    Intellectual humility can be broadly construed as being conscious of the limits of one’s existing knowledge and capable of acquiring more knowledge, which makes it a key virtue of the information age. However, the claim “I am humble” seems paradoxical in that someone who has the disposition in question would not typically volunteer it. Therefore, measuring intellectual humility via self-report may be methodologically unsound. As a consequence, we suggest analyzing intellectual humility semantically, using a psycholexical approach that focuses on both (...)
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  • How Group and Perceiver Characteristics Affect Collective Blame Following Counterproductive Work Behavior.Kurt Wurthmann - 2020 - Business Ethics: A European Review 29 (1):212-226.
    Business Ethics: A European Review, EarlyView.
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  • Manager Trustworthiness or Interactional Justice? Predicting Organizational Citizenship Behaviors.Dan S. Chiaburu & Audrey S. Lim - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (3):453-467.
    Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) are essential for effective organizational functioning. Decisions by employees to engage in these important discretionary behaviors are based on how they make sense of the organizational context. Using fairness heuristic theory, we tested two important OCB predictors: manager trustworthiness and interactional justice. In the process, we control for the effects of dispositional factors (propensity to trust) and for system-based organizational fairness (procedural and distributive justice). Results, based on surveys collected from 120 employee–supervisor dyads, indicate that manager (...)
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  • From Selves to Systems: On the Intrapersonal and Intraneural Dynamics of Decision Making.James Grayot - 2019 - Journal of Economic Methodology 26 (3):208-227.
    ABSTRACTNew trends in behavioral decision research see researchers attempting to integrate multiple-self models of behavioral economics with dual-process and dual-system theories of cognitive psych...
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  • The Psychological Veracity of Zaller's Model.Cindy D. Kam - 2012 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 24 (4):545-567.
    Zaller's model of public-opinion formation portrays the average citizen as an automaton who responds unthinkingly to elite cues. That is, once people have received information from political elites, they tend to abide by whatever their respective cue-givers dictate, since rejecting information is more cognitively costly than simply accepting it. Empirical research in psychology on priming supports this view of the citizen as a passive receiver of information. For example, people are likely to be unconsciously influenced by subtle cues and they (...)
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  • Implicit Theories and Issue Characteristics as Determinants of Moral Awareness and Intentions.Kurt Wurthmann - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 142 (1):93-116.
    Individuals’ implicit theories that people’s character is fixed versus malleable are associated with their holding beliefs that morality is primarily determined by fulfilling prescribed duties versus upholding basic rights of others, respectively. Three studies provide evidence that the ability to recognize that a situation can legitimately be considered from a moral point of view is interactively dependent upon the nature of perceivers’ implicit theories and the extent to which the issue involves a violation that emphasizes a failure to fulfill a (...)
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  • At "Permanent Risk": Reasoning and Self-Knowledge in Self-Deception.Dion Scott-Kakures - 2002 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 65 (3):576-603.
    In this essay, I defend the following two claims: reflective, critical reasoning is essential to the process of self-deception; and , the process of self-deception involves a certain characteristic error of self-knowledge. By appeal to and , I hope to show that we can adjudicate the current dispute about the nature of self-deception between those we might term "traditionalists," and those we might term "deflationists.".
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  • Character Cues and Contracting Costs: The Relationship Between Philanthropy and the Cost of Capital.Leon Zolotoy, Don O’Sullivan & Jill Klein - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 154 (2):497-515.
    Prior studies in business ethics highlight the role of philanthropy in shaping stakeholders’ perceptions of a firm’s underlying moral tendencies and values. Scholars argue that philanthropy-based character inferences influence whether and how stakeholders engage with firms. We extend this line of reasoning to examine the impact of philanthropy on firms’ contracting costs in the capital market. We posit that philanthropy-based character inferences reduce investors’ agency concerns, thereby reducing firms’ cost of capital. We also posit that the strength of the philanthropy–cost (...)
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  • Motivational Determinants of Reasoning About Social Relations: The Role of Need for Cognitive Closure.Marcin Bukowski, Ulrich von Hecker & Małgorzata Kossowska - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (2):150-177.
  • Are Self-Deceivers Enhancing Positive Affect or Denying Negative Affect? Toward an Understanding of Implicit Affective Processes.Michael D. Robinson, Sara K. Moeller & Paul W. Goetz - 2009 - Cognition and Emotion 23 (1):152-180.
  • Living Large: Affect Amplification in Visual Perception Predicts Emotional Reactivity to Events in Daily Life.Spencer L. Palder, Scott Ode, Tianwei Liu & Michael D. Robinson - 2013 - Cognition and Emotion 27 (3):453-464.
  • The Associations in Our Heads Belong to Us: Searching for Attitudes and Knowledge in Implicit Evaluation.Brian A. Nosek & Jeffrey J. Hansen - 2008 - Cognition and Emotion 22 (4):553-594.
  • Clear Heads Are Cool Heads: Emotional Clarity and the Down-Regulation of Antisocial Affect.Benjamin M. Wilkowski & Michael D. Robinson - 2008 - Cognition and Emotion 22 (2):308-326.
  • Priming the Trait Category “Hostility”: The Moderating Role of Trait Anxiety.Markus A. Maier, Michael P. Berner, Robin C. Hau & Reinhard Pekrun - 2007 - Cognition and Emotion 21 (3):577-595.