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  1. Varieties of Grapheme-Colour Synaesthesia: A New Theory of Phenomenological and Behavioural Differences.Jamie Ward, Ryan Li, Shireen Salih & Noam Sagiv - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):913-931.
    Recent research has suggested that not all grapheme-colour synaesthetes are alike. One suggestion is that they can be divided, phenomenologically, in terms of whether the colours are experienced in external or internal space. Another suggestion is that they can be divided according to whether it is the perceptual or conceptual attributes of a stimulus that is critical. This study compares the behavioural performance of 7 projector and 7 associator synaesthetes. We demonstrate that this distinction does not map on to behavioural (...)
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  • Experimental Study of Phantom Colours in a Colour Blind Synaesthete.M. Hochel, E. G. Milan, A. González, F. Tornay, K. McKenney, R. Díaz Caviedes, J. L. Mata Martín, Rodriguez Artacho, E. Domínguez García & J. Vila - 2007 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (4):75-95.
    Synaesthesia is a condition in which one type of stimulation evokes the sensation of another, as when the hearing of a sound produces photisms, i.e. mental percepts of colours. R is a 20 year old colour blind subject who, in addition to the relatively common grapheme-colour synaesthesia, presents a rarely reported cross modal perception in which a variety of visual stimuli elicit aura-like percepts of colour. In R, photisms seem to be closely related to the affective valence of stimuli and (...)
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  • Can Grapheme-Color Synesthesia Be Induced by Hypnosis?Hazel P. Anderson, Anil K. Seth, Zoltan Dienes & Jamie Ward - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  • What is the Link Between Synaesthesia and Sound Symbolism?Kaitlyn Bankieris & Julia Simner - 2015 - Cognition 136:186-195.
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  • Synaesthesia in Chinese Characters: The Role of Radical Function and Position.Wan-Yu Hung, Julia Simner, Richard Shillcock & David M. Eagleman - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 24:38-48.
    Grapheme-colour synaesthetes experience unusual colour percepts when they encounter letters and/or digits. Studies of English-speaking grapheme-colour synaesthetes have shown that synaesthetic colours are sometimes triggered by rule-based linguistic mechanisms . In contrast, little is known about synaesthesia in logographic languages such as Chinese. The current study shows the mechanisms by which synaesthetic speakers of Chinese colour their language. One hypothesis is that Chinese characters might be coloured by their constituent morphological units, known as radicals, and we tested this by eliciting (...)
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  • Psychophysical Magic: Rendering the Visible 'Invisible'.Chai-Youn Kim & Randolph Blake - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (8):381-388.
  • Increased Structural Connectivity in Grapheme-Color Synesthesia.Romke Rouw & H. Steven Scholte - 2007 - Nature Neuroscience 10 (6):792 - 797.
  • Synaesthesia in a Logographic Language: The Colouring of Chinese Characters and Pinyin/Bopomo Spellings.Julia Simner, Wan-Yu Hung & Richard Shillcock - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1376-1392.
    Studies of linguistic synaesthesias in English have shown a range of fine-grained language mechanisms governing the associations between colours on the one hand, and graphemes, phonemes and words on the other. However, virtually nothing is known about how synaesthetic colouring might operate in non-alphabetic systems. The current study shows how synaesthetic speakers of Mandarin Chinese come to colour the logographic units of their language. Both native and non-native Chinese speakers experienced synaesthetic colours for characters, and for words spelled in the (...)
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  • Color Processing in Synesthesia: What Synesthesia Can and Cannot Tell Us About Mechanisms of Color Processing.Agnieszka B. Janik McErlean & Michael J. Banissy - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4).
    Synesthetic experiences of color have been traditionally conceptualized as a perceptual phenomenon. However, recent evidence suggests a role of higher order cognition in the formation of synesthetic experiences. Here, we discuss how synesthetic experiences of color differ from and influence veridical color processing, and how non-perceptual processes such as imagery and color memory might play a role in eliciting synesthetic color experience.
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  • Visual Crowding: A Fundamental Limit on Conscious Perception and Object Recognition.David Whitney & Dennis M. Levi - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (4):160-168.
  • Familial Patterns and the Origins of Individual Differences in Synaesthesia.Kylie J. Barnett, Ciara Finucane, Julian E. Asher, Gary Bargary, Aiden P. Corvin, Fiona N. Newell & Kevin J. Mitchell - 2008 - Cognition 106 (2):871-893.
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  • Synaesthesia: Supernormal Integration?C. Mulvenna & V. Walsh - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (8):350-352.
  • Can Tracking Representationalism Make Sense of Synesthesia?Casey Landers - unknown
    Synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which a single stimulus typically associated with one sensory modality automatically and involuntarily produces sensations not typically associated with that modality. I argue that synesthesia elucidates how two naturalistic theories of representation and phenomenal experience conflict. Strong representationalism holds that what an experience is like is determined by the experience’s representational content. Informational semantics holds that representational content is determined by causal co-variation between a representation and an external object or property. I argue that (...)
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  • Contextual Priming in Grapheme-Color Synaesthesia.V. S. Ramachandran - unknown
    ��Grapheme-color synaesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which particular graphemes, such as the numeral 9, automatically induce the simultaneous perception of a particular color, such as the color red. To test whether the concurrent color sensations in graphemecolor synaesthesia are treated as meaningful stimuli, we recorded event-related brain potentials as 8 synaesthetes and 8 matched control subjects read sentences such as ‘‘Looking very clear, the lake was the most beautiful hue of 7.’’ In synaesthetes, but not control subjects, congruous graphemes, (...)
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  • Semantic Mechanisms May Be Responsible for Developing Synesthesia.Aleksandra Mroczko-Wąsowicz & Danko Nikolić - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8:1-13.
  • Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Synesthesia.Edward M. Hubbard & Vilayanur S. Ramachandran - 2005 - Neuron 48 (3):509-520.
  • Temporal Sequences, Synesthetic Mappings, and Cultural Biases: The Geography of Time.David Brang, Ursina Teuscher, V. S. Ramachandran & Seana Coulson - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):311-320.
    Time–space synesthetes report that they experience the months of the year as having a spatial layout. In Study 1, we characterize the phenomenology of calendar sequences produced by synesthetes and non-synesthetes, and show a conservative estimate of time–space synesthesia at 2.2% of the population. We demonstrate that synesthetes most commonly experience the months in a circular path, while non-synesthetes default to linear rows or rectangles. Study 2 compared synesthetes’ and non-synesthetes’ ability to memorize a novel spatial calendar, and revealed better (...)
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  • Synesthesia: A Colorful Word with a Touching Sound?Myrto I. Mylopoulos & Tony Ro - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  • Synaesthetic Perception of Colour and Visual Space in a Blind Subject: An fMRI Case Study.Valentina Niccolai, Tessa M. van Leeuwen, Colin Blakemore & Petra Stoerig - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):889-899.
    In spatial sequence synaesthesia ordinal stimuli are perceived as arranged in peripersonal space. Using fMRI, we examined the neural bases of SSS and colour synaesthesia for spoken words in a late-blind synaesthete, JF. He reported days of the week and months of the year as both coloured and spatially ordered in peripersonal space; parts of the days and festivities of the year were spatially ordered but uncoloured. Words that denote time-units and triggered no concurrents were used in a control condition. (...)
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  • Ovals of Time: Time-Space Associations in Synaesthesia.Daniel Smilek, Alicia Callejas, Mike J. Dixon & Philip M. Merikle - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):507-519.
    We examine a condition in which units of time, such as months of the year, are associated with specific locations in space. For individuals with this time-space synaesthesia, contiguous time units such as months are spatially linked forming idiosyncratically shaped patterns such as ovals, oblongs or circles. For some individuals, each time unit appears in a highly specific colour. For instance, one of the synaesthetes we studied experienced December as a red area located at arms length to the left of (...)
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  • Coloured Letters and Numbers (CLaN): A Reliable Factor-Analysis Based Synaesthesia Questionnaire.Nicolas Rothen, Elias Tsakanikos, Beat Meier & Jamie Ward - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):1047-1060.
    Synaesthesia is a heterogeneous phenomenon, even when considering one particular sub-type. The purpose of this study was to design a reliable and valid questionnaire for grapheme-colour synaesthesia that captures this heterogeneity. By the means of a large sample of 628 synaesthetes and a factor analysis, we created the Coloured Letters and Numbers questionnaire with 16 items loading on 4 different factors . These factors were externally validated with tests which are widely used in the field of synaesthesia research. The questionnaire (...)
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  • Do Synesthetic Colors Grab Attention in Visual Search?Berit Brogaard, Kristian Marlow & Kevin Rice - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (4):701-714.
    Recent research on synesthesia has focused on how the condition may depend on selective attention, but there is a lack of consensus on whether selective attention is required to bind colors to their grapheme inducers. In the present study, we used a novel change detection paradigm to examine whether synesthetic colors guide the subject’s attention to the location of the inducer or whether selective attention is required to act as a unique feature during visual search. If synesthetic experiences are elicited (...)
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  • Psychophysiological Evidence for the Genuineness of Swimming-Style Colour Synaesthesia.Nicolas Rothen, Danko Nikolić, Uta Maria Jürgens, Aleksandra Mroczko-Wąsowicz, Josephine Cock & Beat Meier - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):35-46.
    Recently, swimming-style colour synaesthesia was introduced as a new form of synaesthesia. A synaesthetic Stroop test was used to establish its genuineness. Since Stroop interference can occur for any type of overlearned association, in the present study we used a modified Stroop test and psychophysiological synaesthetic conditioning to further establish the genuineness of this form of synaesthesia. We compared the performance of a swimming-style colour synaesthete and a control who was trained on swimming-style colour associations. Our results showed that behavioural (...)
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  • Beyond Perception: Synaesthesia as a Psycholinguistic Phenomenon.Julia Simner - 2007 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (1):23-29.
  • Genuine and Drug-Induced Synesthesia: A Comparison.Christopher Sinke, John H. Halpern, Markus Zedler, Janina Neufeld, Hinderk M. Emrich & Torsten Passie - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1419-1434.
    Despite some principal similarities, there is no systematic comparison between the different types of synesthesia . This comprehensive review compares the three principal types of synesthesia and focuses on their phenomenological features and their relation to different etiological models. Implications of this comparison for the validity of the different etiological models are discussed.Comparison of the three forms of synesthesia show many more differences than similarities. This is in contrast to their representation in the literature, where they are discussed in many (...)
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  • Why Color Synesthesia Involves More Than Color.David M. Eagleman & Melvyn A. Goodale - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (7):288-292.
  • Synesthesia and Number Cognition in Children.Jennifer A. K. Green & Usha Goswami - 2008 - Cognition 106 (1):463-473.
  • Synaesthesia is Associated with Enhanced, Self-Rated Visual Imagery.Kylie J. Barnett & Fiona N. Newell - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):1032-1039.
    Although the condition known as synaesthesia is currently undergoing a scientific resurgence, to date the literature has largely focused on the heterogeneous nature of synaesthesia across individuals. In order to provide a better understanding of synaesthesia, however, general characteristics need to be investigated. Synaesthetic experiences are often described as occurring ‘internally’ or in the ‘mind’s eye’, which is remarkably similar to how we would describe our experience of visual mental imagery. We assessed the role of visual imagery in synaesthesia by (...)
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  • Is “Σ” Purple or Green? Bistable Grapheme-Color Synesthesia Induced by Ambiguous Characters.Suhkyung Kim, Randolph Blake & Chai-Youn Kim - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):955-964.
    People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive specific colors when viewing different letters or numbers. Previous studies have suggested that synesthetic color experience can be bistable when induced by an ambiguous character. However, the exact relationship between processes underlying the identity of an alphanumeric character and the experience of the induced synesthetic color has not been examined. In the present study, we explored this by focusing on the temporal relation of inducer identification and color emergence using inducers whose identity could be rendered (...)
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  • Mental Imagery and Synaesthesia: Is Synaesthesia From Internally-Generated Stimuli Possible?Mary Jane Spiller & Ashok S. Jansari - 2008 - Cognition 109 (1):143-151.
  • Tasty Non-Words and Neighbours: The Cognitive Roots of Lexical-Gustatory Synaesthesia.Julia Simner & Sarah L. Haywood - 2009 - Cognition 110 (2):171-181.
  • Can Synaesthesia Research Inform Cognitive Science?Roi Cohen Kadosh & Avishai Henik - 2007 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (4):177-184.
  • Type-Based Associations in Grapheme-Color Synaesthesia Revealed by Response Time Distribution Analyses.Jun Saiki, Ayako Yoshioka & Hiroki Yamamoto - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1548-1557.
    Determining the nature of binding in grapheme-color synaesthesia has consequences for understanding the neural basis of synaesthesia and visual awareness in general. We evaluated type- and token-based letter-color binding using a synaesthetic version of the object-reviewing paradigm. Although mean response times failed to reveal any significant differences between synaesthetes and control participants, RT analyses with ex-Gaussian distributions revealed that the response facilitation in the synaesthesia group reflected type representations exclusively, while response facilitation in the control group, who learned letter-color associations, (...)
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  • Executive Functions in Synesthesia.Romke Rouw, Joram van Driel, Koen Knip & K. Richard Ridderinkhof - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):184-202.
    In grapheme-color synesthesia, a number or letter can evoke two different and possibly conflicting color sensations at the same time. In this study, we investigate the relationship between synesthesia and executive control functions. First, no general skill differences were obtained between synesthetes and non-synesthetes in classic executive control paradigms. Furthermore, classic executive control effects did not interact with synesthetic behavioral effects. Third, we found support for our hypothesis that inhibition of a synesthetic color takes effort and time. Finally, individual differences (...)
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  • Beyond Visual Imagery: How Modality-Specific is Enhanced Mental Imagery in Synesthesia?Mary Jane Spiller, Clare N. Jonas, Julia Simner & Ashok Jansari - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 31:73-85.
  • Phantom Perception: Voluntary and Involuntary Nonretinal Vision.Joel Pearson & Fred Westbrook - 2015 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (5):278-284.
  • Color Processing in Synesthesia: What Synesthesia Can and Cannot Tell Us About Mechanisms of Color Processing.Agnieszka B. Janik McErlean & Michael J. Banissy - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):215-227.
    Synesthetic experiences of color have been traditionally conceptualized as a perceptual phenomenon. However, recent evidence suggests a role of higher order cognition in the formation of synesthetic experiences. Here, we discuss how synesthetic experiences of color differ from and influence veridical color processing, and how non-perceptual processes such as imagery and color memory might play a role in eliciting synesthetic color experience.
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  • Embodied Conceivability: How to Keep the Phenomenal Concept Strategy Grounded.Guy Dove & Andreas Elpidorou - 2016 - Mind and Language 31 (5):580-611.
    The Phenomenal Concept Strategy offers the physicalist perhaps the most promising means of explaining why the connection between mental facts and physical facts appears to be contingent even though it is not. In this article, we show that the large body of evidence suggesting that our concepts are often embodied and grounded in sensorimotor systems speaks against standard forms of the PCS. We argue, nevertheless, that it is possible to formulate a novel version of the PCS that is thoroughly in (...)
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