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  1. Towards a Definition of Efforts.Olivier Massin - 2017 - Motivation Science 3 (3):230-259.
    Although widely used across psychology, economics, and philosophy, the concept ofeffort is rarely ever defined. This article argues that the time is ripe to look for anexplicit general definition of effort, makes some proposals about how to arrive at thisdefinition, and suggests that a force-based approach is the most promising. Section 1presents an interdisciplinary overview of some chief research axes on effort, and arguesthat few, if any, general definitions have been proposed so far. Section 2 argues thatsuch a definition is (...)
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  • The Dynamics of Embodiment: A Field Theory of Infant Perseverative Reaching.Esther Thelen, Gregor Schöner, Christian Scheier & Linda B. Smith - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):1-34.
    The overall goal of this target article is to demonstrate a mechanism for an embodied cognition. The particular vehicle is a much-studied, but still widely debated phenomenon seen in 7–12 month-old-infants. In Piaget's classic “A-not-B error,” infants who have successfully uncovered a toy at location “A” continue to reach to that location even after they watch the toy hidden in a nearby location “B.” Here, we question the traditional explanations of the error as an indicator of infants' concepts of objects (...)
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  • Theory Construction in Psychology: The Interpretation and Integration of Psychological Data.Gordon M. Becker - 1981 - Theory and Decision 13 (3):251.
  • Early-Connectionism Machines.Roberto Cordeschi - 2000 - AI and Society 14 (3-4):314-330.
    In this paper I put forward a reconstruction of the evolution of certain explanatory hypotheses on the neural basis of association and learning that are the premises of connectionism in the cybernetic age and of present-day connectionism. The main point of my reconstruction is based on two little-known case studies. The first is the project, published in 1913, of a hydraulic machine through which its author believed it was possible to simulate certain essential elements of the plasticity of nervous connections. (...)
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  • The Logic of Unboundedly Reactive Systems.William W. Rozeboom - 1978 - Synthese 39 (3):435 - 530.
    Scientific theories often need to envision that a given output variable Y is jointly determined by all input variables of a certain kind ΣX that we can identify onlyas a kind without knowing all its specific instances or even how many of these there are, When the number of variables in ΣX is possibly infinite, the function by which they determine Y proves to be enormously enigmatic, epistemically, mathematically, and scientifically.
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  • Kognitivní KontraRevoluce?Jaroslav Peregrin - unknown
    Ve standardních výkladech moderních dějin studia mysli ve dvacátém století se dočteme, že zatímco kolem poloviny tohoto století ovládl studium mysli zpozdilý behaviorismus, v šedesátých letech nastoupila "kognitivní revoluce", která nadvládu behaviorismu smetla a otevřela cestu ke skutečně nepředpojatému a adekvátnímu studiu mysli. V tomto textu se chci nad tímto standardním výkladem zamyslet a zpochybnit ho: konkrétně chci poukázat na to, že behaviorismus nebyl ve všech ohledech tak zpozdilý, jak by se z tohoto pohledu mohl jevit; a že "kognitivní revoluce" (...)
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  • The Theory Debate in Psychology.José E. Burgos - 2007 - Behavior and Philosophy 35:149 - 183.
    This paper is a conceptual analysis of the theory debate in psychology, as carried out by cognitivists and radical behaviorists. The debate has focused on the necessity of theories in psychology. However, the logically primary issue is the nature of theories, or what theories are. This claim stems from the fact that cognitivists and radical behaviorists adopt disparate accounts of the nature of theories. The cognitivists' account is closely akin to the received view from logical positivism, where theories are collections (...)
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  • The Evolution of Human Mating: Trade-Offs and Strategic Pluralism.Steven W. Gangestad & Jeffry A. Simpson - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):573-587.
    During human evolutionary history, there were “trade-offs” between expending time and energy on child-rearing and mating, so both men and women evolved conditional mating strategies guided by cues signaling the circumstances. Many short-term matings might be successful for some men; others might try to find and keep a single mate, investing their effort in rearing her offspring. Recent evidence suggests that men with features signaling genetic benefits to offspring should be preferred by women as short-term mates, but there are trade-offs (...)
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  • Nature as Nurture: Behaviorism and the Instinct Doctrine.R. J. Herrnstein - 1998 - Behavior and Philosophy 26 (1/2):73 - 107.
  • On the Conceptual and Linguistic Activity of Psychologists: The Study of Behavior From the 1890s to the 1990s and Beyond. [REVIEW]David E. Leary - 2004 - Behavior and Philosophy 32 (1):13 - 35.
    In the early twentieth century psychology became the study of "behavior." This article reviews developments within animal psychology, functional psychology, and American society and culture that help explain how a term rarely used in the first years of the century became not only an accepted scientific concept but even, for many, an all-encompassing label for the entire subject matter of the discipline. The subsequent conceptual and linguistic activity of John B. Watson, Edward C. Tolman, Clark L. Hull, and B.F. Skinner, (...)
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  • Studies in the Logic of Explanation.Carl Gustav Hempel & Paul Oppenheim - 1948 - Philosophy of Science 15 (2):135-175.
  • Extremum Descriptions, Process Laws and Minimality Heuristics.Elliott Sober - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (2):232-233.
    The examples and concepts that Shoemaker cites are rather heterogeneous. Some distinctions need to be drawn. An optimality thesis involves not just an ordering of options, but a value judgment about them. So let us begin by distinguishing minimality from optimality. And the concept of minimality can play a variety of roles, among which I distinguish between extremum descriptions, statements hypothesizing an optimizing process, and methodological recommendations. Finally, I consider how the three categories relate to Shoemaker’s question that “Who is (...)
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  • The Role of Falsification in the Development of Cognitive Architectures: Insights From a Lakatosian Analysis.Richard P. Cooper - 2007 - Cognitive Science 31 (3):509-533.
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  • Conditioning of the Rabbit Nictitating Membrane Response as a Function of Trials Per Session, ISI, and ITI.W. Ronald Salafia, W. Scott Terry & Anthony P. Daston - 1975 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 6 (5):505-508.
  • Five Reasons to Doubt the Existence of a Geometric Module.Alexandra D. Twyman & Nora S. Newcombe - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (7):1315-1356.
    It is frequently claimed that the human mind is organized in a modular fashion, a hypothesis linked historically, though not inevitably, to the claim that many aspects of the human mind are innately specified. A specific instance of this line of thought is the proposal of an innately specified geometric module for human reorientation. From a massive modularity position, the reorientation module would be one of a large number that organized the mind. From the core knowledge position, the reorientation module (...)
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  • Agentive Spaces, the “Background”, and Other Not Well Articulated Influences in Shaping Our Lives.John Shotter - 2013 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 43 (2):133-154.
    What is special about all our living exchanges with our surroundings is that they occur within the ceaseless, intertwined flow of many unfolding strands of spontaneously responsive, living activity. This requires us to adopt a kind of fluid, process thinking, a shift from thinking of events as occurring between things and beings existing as separate entities prior to their inter-action, to events occurring within a continuously unfolding, holistic but stranded flow of events, with no clear, already existing boundaries to be (...)
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  • Acceptance of a Theory: Justification or Rhetoric?Siu L. Chow - 1992 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 22 (4):447–474.
    The rhetoric-analytic critique of experimental psychology owes its apparent attractiveness to (a) some erroneous ideas about cognitive psychology and the rationale of experimentation, (b) the failure to distinguish between prior data and evidential data vis-à-vis the to-be-corroborated explanatory theory, and (c) evidential data owes their identity to a theory that is independent of the theory being tested. Theories in cognitive psychology are accepted because they can withstand concerted efforts to falsify them.
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  • Science, Ecological Validity and Experimentation.Siu L. Chow - 1987 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 17 (2):181–194.
    Some important meta-theoretical insights about experimental psychology are integrated into the "conjectures and refutations" framework in order to reinforce a realist's view of scientific methodology. Some issues which may be difficult for the realist's position are discussed. It is argued that there is no need for the evidential observation to mimic the phenomenon of interest; such a mimicry may even be counter-productive. A case is also made that questions about ecological validity are not relevant to the rationale of experimentation.
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  • Psychology: A World with Man Left Out.Duane Schultz - 1971 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 1 (2):99–108.
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  • Bi-Stability Of Emotions And Motivations: An Evolutionary Consequence of the Open-Ended Capacity for Learning.P. P. van der Molen - 1984 - Acta Biotheoretica 33 (4):227-251.
    Species, endowed with an open-ended capacity for learning, which is one of the highest evolutionary achievements,will profit most from this ability, if they are urged one way or other to invest any surplus of energy in expanding and refining their behavioural repertoire and in adapting it to prevailing circumstances, while incurring as little risk and stress as possible.It is therefore argued that an open-ended capacity for learning is maximally adding to survival if paired to two distinct tendencies: a tendency to (...)
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  • Why Hunger is Not a Desire.Patrick Butlin - 2017 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 8 (3):617-635.
    This paper presents an account of the nature of desire, informed by psychology and neuroscience, which entails that hunger is not a desire. The account is contrasted with Schroeder’s well-known empirically-informed theory of desire. It is argued that one significant virtue of the present account, in comparison with Schroeder’s theory, is that it draws a sharp distinction between desires and basic drives, such as the drive for food. One reason to draw this distinction is that experiments on incentive learning show (...)
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  • Memory and Cognition: An Information Processing Model of Man.Kenneth Deffenbacher & Evan Brown - 1973 - Theory and Decision 4 (2):141-178.
  • The Discovery of the Artificial: Some Protocybernetic Developments 1930-1940.Roberto Cordeschi - 1991 - Artificial Intelligence and Society 5 (3):218-238.
    In this paper I start from a definition of “culture of the artificial” which might be stated by referring to the background of philosophical, methodological, pragmatical assumptions which characterizes the development of the information processing analysis of mental processes and of some trends in contemporary cognitive science: in a word, the development of AI as a candidate science of mind. The aim of this paper is to show how (with which plausibility and limitations) the discovery of the mentioned background might (...)
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  • Inductive-Nomological Explanations and Psychological Laws.Robert Audi - 1981 - Theory and Decision 13 (3):229-249.
  • The Use of Models in Experimental Psychology.Richard C. Atkinson - 1960 - Synthese 12 (2-3):162 - 171.
  • First-Person Behaviorism.George Graham - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (4):704-705.
  • Behaviorism at Fifty.B. F. Skinner - 1974 - New York: J. Norton Publishers.
    Each of us is uniquely subject to certain kinds of stimulation from a small part of the universe within our skins. Mentalistic psychologies insist that other kinds of events, lacking the physical dimensions of stimuli, are accessible to the owner of the skin within which they occur. One solution often regarded as behavioristic, granting the distinction between public and private events and ruling the latter out of consideration, has not been successful. A science of behavior must face the problem of (...)
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  • The Appropriation of Ideas, Theories, Concepts and Models by Management Practitioners.Laurence Robinson - 2010 - Dissertation, Coventry University
    During the second half of the 20th century there has been both a burgeoning intellectual interest in business and management as a topic and an exponential growth in the formal study of business and management as an academic subject. Indeed by the end of the century it was estimated that worldwide there were 8,000 business schools and more than 13 million students of business and management. In addition, it was estimated that worldwide annual expenditure on university level business and management (...)
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  • The Contribution of the Amygdala to Aversive and Appetitive Pavlovian Processes.Justin M. Moscarello & Joseph E. LeDoux - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (3):248-253.
    Pavlovian cues predict the occurrence of motivationally salient outcomes, thus serving as an important trigger of approach and avoidance behavior. The amygdala is a key substrate of Pavlovian conditioning, and the nature of its contribution varies by the motivational valence of unconditioned stimuli. The literature on aversive Pavlovian learning supports a serial-processing model of amygdalar function, while appetitive studies suggest that Pavlovian associations are processed through parallel circuits in the amygdala. It is proposed that serial and parallel forms of information (...)
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  • Approach and Avoidance as Organizing Structures for Motivated Distance Perception.Emily Balcetis - 2016 - Emotion Review 8 (2):115-128.
    Emerging demonstrations of the malleability of distance perception in affective situations require an organizing structure. These effects can be predicted by approach and avoidance orientation. Approach reduces perceptions of distance; avoidance exaggerates perceptions of distance. Moreover, hedonic valence, motivational intensity, and perceiver arousal cannot alone serve as organizing principles. Organizing the literature based on approach and avoidance can reconcile seeming inconsistent effects in the literature, and offers these motives as psychological mechanisms by which affective situations predict perceptions of distance. Moreover, (...)
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  • Episodic Memory, Amnesia, and the Hippocampal–Anterior Thalamic Axis.John P. Aggleton & Malcolm W. Brown - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):425-444.
    By utilizing new information from both clinical and experimental (lesion, electrophysiological, and gene-activation) studies with animals, the anatomy underlying anterograde amnesia has been reformulated. The distinction between temporal lobe and diencephalic amnesia is of limited value in that a common feature of anterograde amnesia is damage to part of an comprising the hippocampus, the fornix, the mamillary bodies, and the anterior thalamic nuclei. This view, which can be traced back to Delay and Brion (1969), differs from other recent models in (...)
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  • Inside and Outside: The Relation Between Emotional States and Expressions.Michael Lewis - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (2):189-196.
    The association between emotional expression and physiological emotional states is at best, modest. Using data from the autonomic nervous system (ANS), central nervous system (CNS), and hormonal systems there appears to be an association which accounts for approximately 10—20% of the variance between them. Excluding measurement error, it is proposed that the need for action and regulation accounts for the low levels of synchrony. Understanding system responses allows for the study of individual differences as a way of understanding both emotional (...)
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  • An Opponent-Process Theory of Motivation: I. Temporal Dynamics of Affect.Richard L. Solomon & John D. Corbit - 1974 - Psychological Review 81 (2):119-145.
  • An Historical Holistic Thread in the Dynamical Fabric of Psychology.Frederick David Abraham - 1997 - World Futures 49 (1):159-201.
    (1997). An historical holistic thread in the dynamical fabric of psychology. World Futures: Vol. 49, The Dialatic of Evolution: Essays in Honor of David Loye, pp. 159-201.
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  • Mental Acts and Mechanistic Psychology in Descartes' Passions.Gary Hatfield - 2008 - In Neil Robertson, Gordon McOuat & Tom Vinci (eds.), Descartes and the Modern. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 49-71.
    This chapter examines the mechanistic psychology of Descartes in the _Passions_, while also drawing on the _Treatise on Man_. It develops the idea of a Cartesian “psychology” that relies on purely bodily mechanisms by showing that he explained some behaviorally appropriate responses through bodily mechanisms alone and that he envisioned the tailoring of such responses to environmental circumstances through a purely corporeal “memory.” An animal’s adjustment of behavior as caused by recurring patterns of sensory stimulation falls under the notion of (...)
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  • Incubated Cognition and Creativity.Dustin Stokes - 2007 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (3):83-100.
    Many traditional theories of creativity put heavy emphasis on an incubation stage in creative cognitive processes. The basic phenomenon is a familiar one: we are working on a task or problem, we leave it aside for some period of time, and when we return attention to the task we have some new insight that services completion of the task. This feature, combined with other ostensibly mysterious features of creativity, has discouraged naturalists from theorizing creativity. This avoidance is misguided: we can (...)
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  • Epistemology as General Systems Theory: An Approach to the Design of Complex Decision-Making Experiments.Ian I. Mitroff & Francisco Sagasti - 1973 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 3 (2):117-134.
  • Progress and Degeneration in the 'IQ Debate' (II).Peter Urbach - 1974 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 25 (3):235-259.
  • Cliometric Metatheory III: Peircean Consensus, Verisimilitude, and Asymptotic Method.Paul E. Meehl - 2004 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (4):615-643.
    Statistical procedures can be applied to episodes in the history of science in order to weight attributes to predict short-term survival of theories; an asymptotic method is used to show that short-term survival is a valid proxy for ultimate survival; and a theoretical argument is made that ultimate survival is a valid proxy for objective truth. While realists will appreciate this last step, instrumentalists do not need it to benefit from the actuarial procedures of cliometric metatheory. Introduction A plausible proxy (...)
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  • The Intellectual Origins of Rational Psychotherapy.Arthur Still & Windy Dryden - 1998 - History of the Human Sciences 11 (3):63-86.
    In this paper we attempt to understand the intellectual origins of Albert Ellis' Rational Psychotherapy (now known as Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy). In his therapeutic practice Ellis used a 'lumper' argument to replace the focus of change in psychoanalysis: not the lengthy uncovering and reworking of the individual's personal history, but the demands in self-talk through which the client is currently dis turbed. In constructing around this the persuasive (rhetorical) package that became his therapy, Ellis drew on a number of (...)
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  • Metaphor and Monophony in the 20th-Century Psychology of Emotions.Kenneth J. Gergen - 1995 - History of the Human Sciences 8 (2):1-23.
  • Emotions at the Service of Cultural Construction.Bernard Rimé - 2019 - Emotion Review 12 (2):65-78.
    Emotions signal flaws in the person’s anticipation systems, or in other words, in aspects of models of how the world works. As these models are essentially shared in society, emotional challenges e...
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  • Why Do People With Depression Use Faulty Emotion Regulation Strategies?Sunkyung Yoon & Jonathan Rottenberg - 2019 - Emotion Review 12 (2):118-128.
    Why do people with psychopathology use less adaptive and more maladaptive strategies for negative emotions if such usage has self-destructive consequences? Although researchers have examined the reasons for people’s engagement in maladaptive “behaviors,” such as nonsuicidal self-injury, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the reasons why people might endorse maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. This article addresses this question, focusing on the case of depression, evaluating an array of 10 possible explanations. After considering the existing evidence, we provide a blueprint (...)
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  • Effects of Prolonged Work on Data Entry Speed and Accuracy.Alice F. Healy, James A. Kole, Carolyn J. Buck-Gengler & Lyle E. Bourne - 2004 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 10 (3):188-199.
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  • Back to the Future: Synaesthesia Could Be Due to Associative Learning.Daniel Yon & Clare Press - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Does Conflict Help or Hurt Cognitive Control? Initial Evidence for an Inverted U-Shape Relationship Between Perceived Task Difficulty and Conflict Adaptation.Henk van Steenbergen, Guido P. H. Band & Bernhard Hommel - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Commentary: Pre-Crastination: Hastening Subgoal Completion at the Expense of Extra Physical Effort.Michael Richter - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Efficient Multitasking: Parallel Versus Serial Processing of Multiple Tasks.Rico Fischer & Franziska Plessow - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Conflict Adaptation is Predicted by the Cognitive, but Not the Affective Alexithymia Dimension.Michiel de Galan, Roberta Sellaro, Lorenza S. Colzato & Bernhard Hommel - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  • Toward a Unified Sub-Symbolic Computational Theory of Cognition.Martin V. Butz - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.