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Plato’s Ethics

Oxford University Press (1995)

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  1. “Justice is Happiness”?—An Analysis of Plato's Strategies in Response to Challenges From the Sophists.Limin Bao - 2011 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (2):258-272.
    The challenge from the sophists with whom Plato is confronted is: Who can prove that the just man without power is happy whereas the unjust man with power is not? This challenge concerns the basic issue of politics: the relationship between justice and happiness. Will the unjust man gain the exceptional happiness of the strong by abusing his power and by injustice? The gist of Plato’s reply is to speak not of justice but of intrinsic justice, i.e., the strength of (...)
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  • Is Plato an Innatist in the Meno?David Bronstein & Whitney Schwab - 2019 - Phronesis 64 (4):392-430.
    Plato in the Meno is standardly interpreted as committed to condition innatism: human beings are born with latent innate states of knowledge. Against this view, Gail Fine has argued for prenatalism: human souls possess knowledge in a disembodied state but lose it upon being embodied. We argue against both views and in favor of content innatism: human beings are born with innate cognitive contents that can be, but do not exist innately in the soul as, the contents of states of (...)
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  • Diotima's Eudaemonism: Intrinsic Value and Rational Motivation in Plato's Symposium.Ralph Wedgwood - 2009 - Phronesis 54 (4-5):297-325.
    This paper gives a new interpretation of the central section of Plato's Symposium (199d-212a). According to this interpretation, the term "καλóν", as used by Plato here, stands for what many contemporary philosophers call "intrinsic value"; and "love" (ἔρως) is in effect rational motivation , which for Plato consists in the desire to "possess" intrinsically valuable things - that is, according to Plato, to be happy - for as long as possible. An explanation is given of why Plato believes that "possessing" (...)
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  • Plato's Rejection of Thoughtless and Pleasureless Lives.Matthew Evans - 2007 - Phronesis 52 (4):337 - 363.
    In the Philebus Plato argues that every rational human being, given the choice, will prefer a life that is moderately thoughtful and moderately pleasant to a life that is utterly thoughtless or utterly pleasureless. This is true, he thinks, even if the thoughtless life at issue is intensely pleasant and the pleasureless life at issue is intensely thoughtful. Evidently Plato wants this argument to show that neither pleasure nor thought, taken by itself, is sufficient to make a life choiceworthy for (...)
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  • Socrates in the Platonic Dialogues.Catherine Osborne - 2006 - Philosophical Investigations 29 (1):1–21.
    If Socrates is portrayed holding one view in one of Plato's dialogues and a different view in another, should we be puzzled? If (as I suggest) Plato's Socrates is neither the historical Socrates, nor a device for delivering Platonic doctrine, but a tool for the dialectical investigation of a philosophical problem, then we should expect a new Socrates, with relevant commitments, to be devised for each setting. Such a dialectical device – the tailor-made Socrates – fits with what we know (...)
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  • The Essence of Response-Dependence.Ralph Wedgwood - 1997 - European Review of Philosophy 3:31-54.
    Many philosophers have thought that colours or flavours or values are in some way less objective than shape or mass or motion. This paper explores the approach to capturing this thought that is based on the idea of ‘ response-dependence ’. First, it is argued that the conceptions of response-dependence developed by Mark Johnston, Philip Pettit and Crispin Wright fail to capture this thought adequately. Then, the rest of the paper proposes an alternative conception, based in part on Kit Fine's (...)
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  • Disputas por el método: ἔλεγχος y dialéctica en el Eutidemo de Platón.Hernán Inverso - 2014 - Circe de Clásicos y Modernos 18 (2):47-60.
    Platón delinea la filosofía como una disciplina que supera otros modos discursivos, como la poesía y la retórica, sugiriendo que deben ser transformados y orientados a criterios objetivistas con la dialéctica como parámetro en la cual tiene importancia central el mecanismo de la refutación. El presente trabajo se propone examinar este punto en el Eutidemo, prestando atención a la figura de Marsias para describir a Sócrates e identificar rasgos de la metodología platónica, y, sobre esta base, elucidar la relación entre (...)
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  • Elenchus, Recollection, and the Method of Hypothesis in the Meno.Cristina Ionescu - 2017 - Plato Journal: The Journal of the International Plato Society 17:9-29.
    The Meno is often interpreted as an illustration of Plato’s decision to replace elenchus with recollection and the method of hypothesis. My paper challenges this view and defends instead two theses: that far from replacing elenchus, the method of hypothesis incorporates and uses elenctic arguments in order to test and build its own steps; and that recollection is not a method of search on a par with elenchus and the method of hypothesis, but is rather primarily a theory that accounts (...)
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  • Gorgias' Defense: Plato and His Opponents on Rhetoric and the Good.Rachel Barney - 2010 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 48 (1):95-121.
    This paper explores in detail Gorgias' defense of rhetoric in Plato 's Gorgias, noting its connections to earlier and later texts such as Aristophanes' Clouds, Gorgias' Helen, Isocrates' Nicocles and Antidosis, and Aristotle's Rhetoric. The defense as Plato presents it is transparently inadequate; it reveals a deep inconsistency in Gorgias' conception of rhetoric and functions as a satirical precursor to his refutation by Socrates. Yet Gorgias' defense is appropriated, in a streamlined form, by later defenders of rhetoric such as Isocrates (...)
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  • Meno's Paradox in Context.David Ebrey - 2014 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (1):4-24.
    I argue that Meno’s Paradox targets the type of knowledge that Socrates has been looking for earlier in the dialogue: knowledge grounded in explanatory definitions. Socrates places strict requirements on definitions and thinks we need these definitions to acquire knowledge. Meno’s challenge uses Socrates’ constraints to argue that we can neither propose definitions nor recognize them. To understand Socrates’ response to the challenge, we need to view Meno’s challenge and Socrates’ response as part of a larger disagreement about the value (...)
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  • 'Making New Gods? A Reflection on the Gift of the Symposium.Mitchell Miller - 2015 - In Debra Nails, Harold Tarrant, Mika Kajava & Eero Salmenkivi (eds.), Second Sailing: Alternative Perspectives on Plato. Societas Scientiarum Fennica. pp. 285-306.
    A commentary on the Symposium as a challenge and a gift to Athens. I begin with a reflection on three dates: 416 bce, the date of Agathon’s victory party, c. 400, the approximate date of Apollodorus’ retelling of the party, and c. 375, the approximate date of the ‘publication’ of the dialogue, and I argue that Plato reminds his contemporary Athens both of its great poetic and legal and scientific traditions and of the historical fact that the way late fourth (...)
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  • Is the Idea of the Good Beyond Being? Plato's "Epekeina Tês Ousias" Revisited.Rafael Ferber & Gregor Damschen - 2015 - In Debra Nails, Harold Tarrant, Mika Kajava & Eero Salmenkivi (eds.), SECOND SAILING: Alternative Perspectives on Plato. Wellprint Oy. pp. 197-203.
    The article tries to prove that the famous formula "epekeina tês ousias" has to be understood in the sense of being beyond being and not only in the sense of being beyond essence. We make hereby three points: first, since pure textual exegesis of 509b8–10 seems to lead to endless controversy, a formal proof for the metaontological interpretation could be helpful to settle the issue; we try to give such a proof. Second, we offer a corollary of the formal proof, (...)
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  • Platonic Know‐How and Successful Action.Tamer Nawar - 2017 - European Journal of Philosophy 25 (4):944-962.
    In Plato's Euthydemus, Socrates claims that the possession of epistēmē suffices for practical success. Several recent treatments suggest that we may make sense of this claim and render it plausible by drawing a distinction between so-called “outcome-success” and “internal-success” and supposing that epistēmē only guarantees internal-success. In this paper, I raise several objections to such treatments and suggest that the relevant cognitive state should be construed along less than purely intellectual lines: as a cognitive state constituted at least in part (...)
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  • The Politics of Virtue in Plato's "Laws".John Melvin Armstrong - 1998 - Dissertation, The University of Arizona
    This dissertation identifies and explains four major contributions of the Laws and related late dialogues to Plato's moral and political philosophy. -/- Chapter 1: I argue that Plato thinks the purpose of laws and other social institutions is the happiness of the city. A happy city is one in which the city's parts, i.e. the citizens, are unified under the rule of intelligence. Unlike the citizens of the Republic, the citizens of the Laws can all share the same true judgments (...)
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  • Socrates on Why We Should Inquire.David Ebrey - 2017 - Ancient Philosophy 37 (1):1-17.
    This paper examines whether Socrates provides his interlocutors with good reasons to seek knowledge of what virtue is, reasons that they are in a position to appreciate. I argue that in the Laches he does provide such reasons, but they are not the reasons that are most commonly identified as Socratic. Socrates thinks his interlocutors should be motivated not by the idea that virtue is knowledge nor by the idea that knowledge is good for its own sake, but rather by (...)
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  • Plato on Well-Being.Eric Brown - 2016 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-Being. London, UK: pp. 9-19.
    Plato's dialogues use several terms for the concept of well-being, which concept plays a central ethical role as the ultimate goal for action and a central political role as the proper aim for states. But the dialogues also reveal sharp debate about what human well-being is. I argue that they endorse a Socratic conception of well-being as virtuous activity, by considering and rejecting several alternatives, including an ordinary conception that lists a variety of goods, a Protagorean conception that identifies one's (...)
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  • Thrasymachus’ Unerring Skill and the Arguments of Republic 1.Tamer Nawar - 2018 - Phronesis 63 (4):359-391.
    In defending the view that justice is the advantage of the stronger, Thrasymachus puzzlingly claims that rulers never err and that any practitioner of a skill or expertise (τέχνη) is infallible. In what follows, Socrates offers a number of arguments directed against Thrasymachus’ views concerning the nature of skill, ruling, and justice. Commentators typically take a dim view of both Thrasymachus’ claims about skill (which are dismissed as an ungrounded and purely ad hoc response to Socrates’ initial criticisms) and Socrates’ (...)
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  • Pathos, Pleasure and the Ethical Life in Aristippus.Kristian Urstad - 2009 - Journal of Ancient Philosophy.
    For many of the ancient Greek philosophers, the ethical life was understood to be closely tied up with important notions like rational integrity, self-control, self-sufficiency, and so on. Because of this, feeling or passion (pathos), and in particular, pleasure, was viewed with suspicion. There was a general insistence on drawing up a sharp contrast between a life of virtue on the one hand and one of pleasure on the other. While virtue was regarded as rational and as integral to advancing (...)
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  • Corpses, Self-Defense, and Immortality: Callicles’ Fear of Death in the Gorgias.Emily A. Austin - 2013 - Ancient Philosophy 33 (1):33-52.
  • Consistency and Akrasia in Plato's Protagoras.Raphael Woolf - 2002 - Phronesis 47 (3):224-252.
    Relatively little attention has been paid to Socrates' argument against akrasia in Plato's "Protagoras" as an example of Socratic method. Yet seen from this perspective the argument has some rather unusual features: in particular, the presence of an impersonal interlocutor ("the many") and the absence of the crisp and explicit argumentation that is typical of Socratic elenchus. I want to suggest that these features are problematic, considerably more so than has sometimes been supposed, and to offer a reading of the (...)
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  • Le bien, la vie, la mort: art et art politique d’après le Gorgias de Platon.René Lefebvre - 2017 - Humanitas 69:63-80.
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  • Anarchic Souls: Plato’s Depiction of the ‘Democratic Man’.Mark Johnstone - 2013 - Phronesis 58 (2):139-59.
    In books 8 and 9 of Plato’s Republic, Socrates provides a detailed account of the nature and origins of four main kinds of vice found in political constitutions and in the kinds of people that correspond to them. The third of the four corrupt kinds of person he describes is the ‘democratic man’. In this paper, I ask what ‘rules’ in the democratic man’s soul. It is commonly thought that his soul is ruled in some way by its appetitive part, (...)
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  • Die Gespannte Seele: Tonos Bei Galen.Julia Trompeter - 2016 - Phronesis 61 (1):82-109.
    _ Source: _Volume 61, Issue 1, pp 82 - 109 Galen talks about tension, _tonos_, in a physiological sense, which seems to be related to either the innate heat of the living being, the good mixture of its humors, or the body’s _pneuma_. This paper shows that Galen, with some important distinctions concerning the substance of the soul, derives this use of _tonos_ from the Stoics. But beyond that, it shows that Galen uses _tonos_ in a strict psychological sense derived (...)
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  • Knowledge, Virtue, and Method in Republic 471c-502c.Hugh H. Benson - 2008 - Philosophical Inquiry 30 (3-4):87-114.
  • Misunderstanding the Myth in the Gorgias.Daniel C. Russell - 2001 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 39 (4):557-573.
  • Akrasia Et Enkrateia Dans les Mémorables de Xénophon.Louis-andré Dorion - 2003 - Dialogue 42 (4):645-.
    This article aims to shed light on both the foundations and the consistency of the position regarding akrasia Xenophon attributes to Socrates in the Memorabilia. As does Plato's Socrates, Xenophon's Socrates maintains that akrasia is impossible in the presence of knowledge. On the other hand, he differs from the platonic Socrates by granting to enkrateia, instead of knowledge, the role of foundation for virtue. If enkrateia is the very condition for acquiring knowledge and virtue, consequently the responsibility for countering akrasia (...)
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  • Comparing Lives in Plato, Laws 5.James Warren - 2013 - Phronesis 58 (4):319-346.
    In Laws 5, the Athenian argues in favour of virtuous over vicious lives on the basis that the former are preferable to the latter when we consider the pleasures and pains in each. This essay offers an interpretation of the argument which does not attribute to the Athenian an exclusively hedonist axiology. It argues for a new reading of the division of ‘types of life’ at 733c-d and suggests that the Athenian relies on the conclusion established earlier in the Laws (...)
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  • Love: Self-Propagation, Self-Preservation, or Ekstasis?Jennifer Whiting - 2013 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 43 (4):403-429.
    My title refers to three accounts of interpersonal love: the rationalist account that Terence Irwin ascribes to Plato; the anti-rationalist but strikingly similar account that Harry Frankfurt endorses in his own voice; and the ‘ekstatic’ account that I – following the lead of Martha Nussbaum – find in Plato's Phaedrus. My claim is that the ekstatic account points to important features of interpersonal love to which the other accounts fail to do justice, especially reciprocity and a regulative ideal of equality.
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  • Plato on the Rule of Reason.Fred D. Miller - 2005 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 43 (S1):50-83.
  • Colloquium 2: Socrates, Aristotle, and the Stoics on the Apparent and Real Good1.Marcelo Boeri - 2005 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 20 (1):109-152.
  • Colloquium 2: Plato on the Nature of Life Itself.Christine Thomas - 2003 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 18 (1):39-73.
  • Colloquium 4: The Method of Hypothesis in the Meno.Hugh Benson - 2003 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 18 (1):95-143.
  • Colloquium 8: A Socratic Interpretation Pf Plato’s Theaetetus.David Sedley - 2003 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 18 (1):277-325.
  • Commentary on Kelsey.Raphael Woolf - 2000 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 16 (1):122-133.
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  • Commentary on Scott.David Roochnik - 2000 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 16 (1):21-27.
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  • Commentary on Rist: Is Plato Interested in Meta-Ethics?Rachel Barney - 1998 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 14 (1):73-82.
  • Plato and the Love of Learning.Geoffrey Hinchliffe - 2006 - Ethics and Education 1 (2):117-131.
    This paper explores the relation between love, learning and knowledge as found in three dialogues of Plato, Symposium, Phaedrus and Republic. It argues that the account of the ascent from carnal desire to the love of beauty, as set out in the Symposium, is best seen in terms of a genealogy of love in which the object of love is transformed into an object of knowledge. The Phaedrus shows us how affection and love between two individuals can help motivate a (...)
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  • Socrates, the Primary Question, and the Unity of Virtue.Justin C. Clark - 2015 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 45 (4):445-470.
    For Socrates, the virtues are a kind of knowledge, and the virtues form a unity. Sometimes, Socrates suggests that the virtues are all ‘one and the same’ thing. Other times, he suggests they are ‘parts of a single whole.’ I argue that the ‘what is x?’ question is sophisticated, it gives rise to two distinct kinds of investigations into virtue, a conceptual investigation into the ousia and a psychological investigation into the dunamis, Plato recognized the difference between definitional accounts of (...)
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  • The Ethics of Pitcher Retaliation in Baseball.Sean McAleer - 2009 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 36 (1):50-65.
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  • Aristotle's Ethics and the Crafts: A Critique.Thomas Peter Stephen Angier - unknown
    This dissertation is a study of the relation between Aristotle’s ethics and the crafts (or technai). My thesis is that Aristotle’s argument is at key points shaped by models proper to the crafts, this shaping being deeper than is generally acknowledged, and philosophically more problematic. Despite this, I conclude that the arguments I examine can, if revised, be upheld. The plan of the dissertation is as follows – Preface: The relation of my study to the extant secondary literature; Introduction: The (...)
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  • A definição de justiça ea unidade da virtude em República IV.Carolina Araújo - 2011 - Cuadernos de Filosofía 57:21-30.
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  • The Tripartite Theory of Motivation in Plato’s Republic.Rachel Singpurwalla - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (11):880-892.
  • The Virtue of Dialogue, Dialogue as Virtue in Plato's Protagoras.Francisco J. Gonzalez - 2014 - Philosophical Papers 43 (1):33-66.
  • Socrates on the Moral Mischief of Misology.Dale Jacquette - 2014 - Argumentation 28 (1):1-17.
    In Plato’s dialogues, the Phaedo, Laches, and Republic, Socrates warns his interlocutors about the dangers of misology. Misology is explained by analogy with misanthropy, not as the hatred of other human beings, but as the hatred of the logos or reasonable discourse. According to Socrates, misology arises when a person alternates between believing an argument to be correct, and then refuting it as false. If Socrates is right, then misanthropy is sometimes instilled when a person goes from trusting people to (...)
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  • Platonic Virtue: An Alternative Approach.Iakovos Vasiliou - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (9):605-614.
    I begin by describing certain central features of a prominent Anglophone approach to Platonic virtue over the last few decades. I then present an alternative way of thinking about virtue in Plato that shifts central concern away from moral psychology and questions about virtue's relationship to happiness. The approach I defend focuses on virtue, both as a supreme aim of a person's actions and as something whose nature needs to be determined.
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  • The Ethics of Pitcher’s Retaliation in Baseball.Sean McAleer - 2009 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 36 (2009) 36 (1):50-65.
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  • Armchair Luck: Apriority, Intellection and Epistemic Luck. [REVIEW]Nenad Miščević - 2007 - Acta Analytica 22 (1):48-73.
    The paper argues that there is such a thing as luck in acquisition of candidate a priori beliefs and knowledge, and that the possibility of luck in this “armchair” domain shows that definitions of believing by luck that p offered in literature are inadequate, since they mostly rely on the possibility of it being the case that not- p. When p is necessary, such a definition should be supplemented by one pointing to variation in belief, not in the fact believed. (...)
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  • Meno and the Monist.Kristoffer Ahlstrom-Vij - 2013 - Metaphilosophy 44 (1-2):157-170.
    Recent critiques of veritistic value monism, or the idea that true belief is unique in being of fundamental epistemic value, typically invoke a claim about the surplus value of knowledge over mere true belief, in turn traced back to Plato's Meno. However, to the extent Plato at all defends a surplus claim in the Meno, it differs from that figuring in contemporary discussions with respect to both its scope and the kind of value at issue, and is under closer scrutiny (...)
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  • How Should I Be? A Defense of Platonic Rational Egoism.Jyl Gentzler - 2012 - European Journal of Philosophy 20 (4):39-67.
    There has been a long tradition of interpreting Plato as a rational egoist. Over the past few decades, however, some scholars have challenged this reading. While Rational Egoism appeals to many ordinary folk, in sophisticated philosophical circles it has fallen out of favor as a general and complete account of the nature of reasons for action. I argue that while the theory of practical rationality that is often equated with rational egoism—a view that I call ‘Simple-Minded Rational Egoism'—is neither plausible (...)
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  • What Managers Could See in the Philosophical Block of “Free Will”?Matej Drascek & Stane Maticic - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (1):1-14.
    Business ethics’ theories have come under a lot of criticism lately. The problem has been the lack of a philosophical base or the inadequate implementation of it. We are trying to solve this problem by examining the roots of ethics and then applying it to the business environment. The root that has been undeservedly overlooked has been the concept of free will, the oldest philosophical problem on which every ethics theory lies. We have chosen two theories that we think would (...)
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