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Semantic Structures

Cambridge: MIT Press (1990)

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  1. Comparing the Argumentum Model of Topics to Other Contemporary Approaches to Argument Schemes: The Procedural and Material Components.Eddo Rigotti & Sara Greco Morasso - 2010 - Argumentation 24 (4):489-512.
    This paper focuses on the inferential configuration of arguments, generally referred to as argument scheme. After outlining our approach, denominated Argumentum Model of Topics, we compare it to other modern and contemporary approaches, to eventually illustrate some advantages offered by it. In spite of the evident connection with the tradition of topics, emerging also from AMT’s denomination, its involvement in the contemporary dialogue on argument schemes should not be overlooked. The model builds in particular on the theoretical and methodological perspective (...)
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  • Truth-Conditional Cognitivism and the Lexical Problem.Fabrizio Calzavarini - 2021 - Topoi 40 (1):43-54.
    When dealing with ‘meaning’ or related notions, one cannot ignore what for a long time was the dominant paradigm in semantics. According to such paradigm, truth-conditional formal semantics for natural language is a theory of semantic competence. In this article, I shall discuss a foundational problem for such semantic program. I shall first be following authors who claim that truth-conditional formal semantics is unable to provide a complete account of lexical competence, and, therefore, it suffers from incompleteness. Moreover, as a (...)
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  • The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning.Michael R. Waldmann (ed.) - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    Causal reasoning is one of our most central cognitive competencies, enabling us to adapt to our world. Causal knowledge allows us to predict future events, or diagnose the causes of observed facts. We plan actions and solve problems using knowledge about cause-effect relations. Without our ability to discover and empirically test causal theories, we would not have made progress in various empirical sciences. In the past decades, the important role of causal knowledge has been discovered in many areas of cognitive (...)
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  • Events and the Semantic Content of Thematic Relations.Barry Schein - 2002 - In Gerhard Preyer Georg Peter (ed.), Logical Form and Language. Oxford University Press. pp. 263--344.
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  • The Word Revisited: Introducing the CogSens Model to Integrate Semiotic, Linguistic, and Psychological Perspectives.Stine Evald Bentsen & Per Durst-Andersen - 2021 - Semiotica 2021 (238):1-35.
    The paper develops a new holistic theory of the word by integrating semiotic, linguistic, and psychological perspectives and introduces the Cogitative-Sensory Word Model, the CogSens Model, that unites the human mind and body. Saussure’s two-sided sign is replaced by a Peirce-inspired three-sided conception in which the expression unit mediates two content units, namely, an idea content connected to the human mind and an image content linked to the human body. It is argued that it is the word that makes human (...)
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  • Thought Insertion: Abnormal Sense of Thought Agency or Thought Endorsement?Paulo Sousa & Lauren Swiney - 2013 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (4):637-654.
    The standard approach to the core phenomenology of thought insertion characterizes it in terms of a normal sense of thought ownership coupled with an abnormal sense of thought agency. Recently, Fernández (2010) has argued that there are crucial problems with this approach and has proposed instead that what goes wrong fundamentally in such a phenomenology is a sense of thought commitment, characterized in terms of thought endorsement. In this paper, we argue that even though Fernández raises new issues that enrich (...)
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  • On Assessing Situations and Events in Conversation: `Extraposition' and its Relatives.Sandra A. Thompson & Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen - 2008 - Discourse Studies 10 (4):443-467.
    Recent research provides strong evidence that the syntacticization of recurrent multi-actional and interactional patterns for accomplishing social actions is quite a general phenomenon. Drawing on a body of audio and video recordings, we consider three pervasive conversational patterns whereby English speakers carry out the assessing of an event or situation, and the interactional contingencies which give rise to these patterns. We propose that one of these patterns can be revealingly understood as having syntacticized to a grammatical and prosodically unified construction (...)
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  • Lingüística generativa y evidencia empírica.José María Gil - 2014 - Metatheoria – Revista de Filosofía E Historia de la Ciencia 4:23--34.
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  • Relational Morphology: A Cousin of Construction Grammar.Ray Jackendoff & Jenny Audring - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • Moral Asymmetries in Judgments of Agency Withstand Ludicrous Causal Deviance.Paulo Sousa, Colin Holbrook & Lauren Swiney - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  • The Use of Conceptual Components in Language Production: An ERP Study.Alexandra Redmann, Ian FitzPatrick, Frauke Hellwig & Peter Indefrey - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • The Form of Morphemes: MEG Evidence From Masked Priming of Two Hebrew Templates.Itamar Kastner, Liina Pylkkänen & Alec Marantz - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • The Architecture of Visual Narrative Comprehension: The Interaction of Narrative Structure and Page Layout in Understanding Comics.Neil Cohn - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Language and Memory for Motion Events: Origins of the Asymmetry Between Source and Goal Paths.Laura Lakusta & Barbara Landau - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (3):517-544.
    When people describe motion events, their path expressions are biased toward inclusion of goal paths (e.g., into the house) and omission of source paths (e.g., out of the house). In this paper, we explored whether this asymmetry has its origins in people’s non-linguistic representations of events. In three experiments, 4-year-old children and adults described or remembered manner of motion events that represented animate/intentional and physical events. The results suggest that the linguistic asymmetry between goals and sources is not fully rooted (...)
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  • Visual Narrative Structure.Neil Cohn - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (3):413-452.
    Narratives are an integral part of human expression. In the graphic form, they range from cave paintings to Egyptian hieroglyphics, from the Bayeux Tapestry to modern day comic books (Kunzle, 1973; McCloud, 1993). Yet not much research has addressed the structure and comprehension of narrative images, for example, how do people create meaning out of sequential images? This piece helps fill the gap by presenting a theory of Narrative Grammar. We describe the basic narrative categories and their relationship to a (...)
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  • You 'Re a Good Structure, Charlie Brown: The Distribution of Narrative Categories in Comic Strips'.Neil Cohn - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (7):1317-1359.
    Cohn's (2013) theory of “Visual Narrative Grammar” argues that sequential images take on categorical roles in a narrative structure, which organizes them into hierarchic constituents analogous to the organization of syntactic categories in sentences. This theory proposes that narrative categories, like syntactic categories, can be identified through diagnostic tests that reveal tendencies for their distribution throughout a sequence. This paper describes four experiments testing these diagnostics to provide support for the validity of these narrative categories. In Experiment 1, participants reconstructed (...)
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  • Form is Easy, Meaning is Hard: Resolving a Paradox in Early Child Language.Letitia R. Naigles - 2002 - Cognition 86 (2):157-199.
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  • Understanding How Input Matters: Verb Learning and the Footprint of Universal Grammar.Jeffrey Lidz, Henry Gleitman & Lila Gleitman - 2003 - Cognition 87 (3):151-178.
  • Mandarin Learners Use Syntactic Bootstrapping in Verb Acquisition.Joanne N. Lee & Letitia R. Naigles - 2008 - Cognition 106 (2):1028-1037.
  • Accessing Words in Speech Production: Stages, Processes and Representations.Willem J. M. Levelt - 1992 - Cognition 42 (1-3):1-22.
  • Motion Events in Language and Cognition.S. Gennari - 2002 - Cognition 83 (1):49-79.
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  • What Sort of Innate Structure is Needed to “Bootstrap” Into Syntax?Martin D. S. Braine - 1992 - Cognition 45 (1):77-100.
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  • Intention, Interpretation and the Computational Structure of Language.Matthew Stone - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (5):781-809.
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  • Structural Priming as Structure-Mapping: Children Use Analogies From Previous Utterances to Guide Sentence Production.Micah B. Goldwater, Marc T. Tomlinson, Catharine H. Echols & Bradley C. Love - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (1):156-170.
    What mechanisms underlie children’s language production? Structural priming—the repetition of sentence structure across utterances—is an important measure of the developing production system. We propose its mechanism in children is the same as may underlie analogical reasoning: structure-mapping. Under this view, structural priming is the result of making an analogy between utterances, such that children map semantic and syntactic structure from previous to future utterances. Because the ability to map relationally complex structures develops with age, younger children are less successful than (...)
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  • Symbolically Speaking: A Connectionist Model of Sentence Production.Franklin Chang - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (5):609-651.
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  • Strudel: A Corpus‐Based Semantic Model Based on Properties and Types.Marco Baroni, Brian Murphy, Eduard Barbu & Massimo Poesio - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (2):222-254.
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  • Source-Goal Asymmetries in Motion Representation: Implications for Language Production and Comprehension.Anna Papafragou - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (6):1064-1092.
    Recent research has demonstrated an asymmetry between the origins and endpoints of motion events, with preferential attention given to endpoints rather than beginnings of motion in both language and memory. Two experiments explore this asymmetry further and test its implications for language production and comprehension. Experiment 1 shows that both adults and 4-year-old children detect fewer within-category changes in source than goal objects when tested for memory of motion events; furthermore, these groups produce fewer references to source than goal objects (...)
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  • A Probabilistic Computational Model of Cross-Situational Word Learning.Afsaneh Fazly, Afra Alishahi & Suzanne Stevenson - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (6):1017-1063.
    Words are the essence of communication: They are the building blocks of any language. Learning the meaning of words is thus one of the most important aspects of language acquisition: Children must first learn words before they can combine them into complex utterances. Many theories have been developed to explain the impressive efficiency of young children in acquiring the vocabulary of their language, as well as the developmental patterns observed in the course of lexical acquisition. A major source of disagreement (...)
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  • Shake, Rattle, 'N' Roll: The Representation of Motion in Language and Cognition.Anna Papafragou - 2002 - Cognition 84 (2):189-219.
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  • Dynamics and the Perception of Causal Events.Phillip Wolff - 2006 - Understanding Events.
    We use our knowledge of causal relationships to imagine possible events. We also use these relationships to look deep into the past and infer events that were not witnessed or to infer what can not be directly seen in the present. Knowledge of causal relationships allows us to go beyond the here and now. This chapter introduces a new theoretical framework for how this very basic concept might be mentally represented. It proposes an epistemological theory of causation — that is, (...)
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  • Meaning, Concepts, and the Lexicon.Michael Glanzberg - 2011 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 11 (1):1-29.
    This paper explores how words relate to concepts. It argues that in many cases, words get their meanings in part by associating with concepts, but only in conjunction with substantial input from language. Language packages concepts in grammatically determined ways. This structures the meanings of words, and determines which sorts of concepts map to words. The results are linguistically modulated meanings, and the extralinguistic concepts associated with words are often not what intuitively would be expected. The paper concludes by discussing (...)
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  • And What of Human Musicality?Michael P. Lynch - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):788-788.
  • Interface Transparency and the Psychosemantics of Most.Jeffrey Lidz, Paul Pietroski, Tim Hunter & Justin Halberda - 2011 - Natural Language Semantics 19 (3):227-256.
    This paper proposes an Interface Transparency Thesis concerning how linguistic meanings are related to the cognitive systems that are used to evaluate sentences for truth/falsity: a declarative sentence S is semantically associated with a canonical procedure for determining whether S is true; while this procedure need not be used as a verification strategy, competent speakers are biased towards strategies that directly reflect canonical specifications of truth conditions. Evidence in favor of this hypothesis comes from a psycholinguistic experiment examining adult judgments (...)
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  • Proceedings of Sinn Und Bedeutung 9.Emar Maier, Corien Bary & Janneke Huitink (eds.) - 2005 - Nijmegen Centre for Semantics.
  • Why Should Syntactic Islands Exist?Eran Asoulin - 2020 - Mind and Language 36.
    Sentences that are ungrammatical and yet intelligible are instances of what I call perfectly thinkable thoughts. I argue that the existence of perfectly thinkable thoughts is revealing in regard to the question of why syntactic islands should exist. If language is an instrument of thought as understood in the biolinguistics tradition, then a uniquely human subset of thoughts is generated in narrow syntax, which suggests that island constraints cannot be rooted in narrow syntax alone and thus must reflect interface conditions (...)
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  • The Epistemology of Geometry I: The Problem of Exactness.Anne Newstead & Franklin James - 2010 - Proceedings of the Australasian Society for Cognitive Science 2009.
    We show how an epistemology informed by cognitive science promises to shed light on an ancient problem in the philosophy of mathematics: the problem of exactness. The problem of exactness arises because geometrical knowledge is thought to concern perfect geometrical forms, whereas the embodiment of such forms in the natural world may be imperfect. There thus arises an apparent mismatch between mathematical concepts and physical reality. We propose that the problem can be solved by emphasizing the ways in which the (...)
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  • Learning From Grammatical SLI: Response to JB Tomblin and J. Pandich (1999).Heather K. J. Van der Lely - 1999 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (8):286-288.
  • Constructional Sources of Implicit Agents in Sentence Comprehension.Micah B. Goldwater & Arthur B. Markman - 2006 - Cognitive Linguistics 20 (4).
  • Thematic Roles and Syntactic Structure.Mark Baker - manuscript
    Suppose that one adopts a broadly Chomskyan perspective, in which there is a distinction between the language faculty and other cognitive faculties, including what Chomsky has recently called the “Conceptual-Intensional system”. Then there must in principle be at least three stages in this association that need to be understood. First, there is the nonlinguistic stage of conceptualizing a particular event.1 For example, while all of the participants in an event may be affected by the event in some way or another, (...)
     
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  • Concepts, Meanings and Truth: First Nature, Second Nature and Hard Work.Paul M. Pietroski - 2010 - Mind and Language 25 (3):247-278.
    I argue that linguistic meanings are instructions to build monadic concepts that lie between lexicalizable concepts and truth-evaluable judgments. In acquiring words, humans use concepts of various adicities to introduce concepts that can be fetched and systematically combined via certain conjunctive operations, which require monadic inputs. These concepts do not have Tarskian satisfaction conditions. But they provide bases for refinements and elaborations that can yield truth-evaluable judgments. Constructing mental sentences that are true or false requires cognitive work, not just an (...)
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  • In Defense of Definitions.David Pitt - 1999 - Philosophical Psychology 12 (2):139-156.
    The arguments of Fodor, Garret, Walker and Parkes [(1980) Against definitions, Cognition, 8, 263-367] are the source of widespread skepticism in cognitive science about lexical semantic structure. Whereas the thesis that lexical items, and the concepts they express, have decompositional structure (i.e. have significant constituents) was at one time "one of those ideas that hardly anybody [in the cognitive sciences] ever considers giving up" (p. 264), most researchers now believe that "[a]ll the evidence suggests that the classical [(decompositional)] view is (...)
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  • Symbolic Invention: The Missing (Computational) Link?Andy Clark - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):753-754.
  • “What” and “Where” in Spatial Language and Spatial Cognition.Barbara Landau & Ray Jackendoff - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):217-238.
    Fundamental to spatial knowledge in all species are the representations underlying object recognition, object search, and navigation through space. But what sets humans apart from other species is our ability to express spatial experience through language. This target article explores the language ofobjectsandplaces, asking what geometric properties are preserved in the representations underlying object nouns and spatial prepositions in English. Evidence from these two aspects of language suggests there are significant differences in the geometric richness with which objects and places (...)
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  • Mind in Action: Action Representation and the Perception of Biological Motion.Paul Hemeren - 2008 - Dissertation, Lund University
    The ability to understand and communicate about the actions of others is a fundamental aspect of our daily activity. How can we talk about what others are doing? What qualities do different actions have such that they cause us to see them as being different or similar? What is the connection between what we see and the development of concepts and words or expressions for the things that we see? To what extent can two different people see and talk about (...)
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  • Os vlogs e a identificação paradoxal dos criadores do discurso.Guilherme Adorno - 2016 - Línguas E Instrumentos Linguísticos 37:257-292.
    Resumo: Com o objetivo de compreender os processos de identificação do sujeito em alguns funcionamentos discursivos dos vlogs, no YouTube, este trabalho analisa o modo como o contraponto entre a eficácia imaginária e o jogo significante na história produz o reconhecimento de lugares e poderes do dizer no desconhecimento constitutivo de sua relação com o Interdiscurso, nas condições de produção específicas do digital. Os recortes delimitados são: as designações equívocas de vlogueiro, youtuber e criador; a produção da autoria na imbricação (...)
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  • Ingredients of Instrumental Meaning.Lilia Rissman & Kyle Rawlins - 2017 - Journal of Semantics 34 (3):507-537.
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  • The Semantics of Implicit Content.Dan Zeman - 2011 - Dissertation, University of Barcelona
    The main aim of the thesis is to give a semantic account of implicit content – the kind of content that plays a crucial role in implicit communication. Implicit communication is a species of communication in which a speaker communicates certain contents that go over and above the contents retrievable from the linguistic meaning of the words used. The focus of the thesis is a certain kind of implicit communication involving locations (when sentences such as “It is raining” are used (...)
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  • Representing Causation.Phillip Wolff - 2007 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 136 (1):82-111.
    The dynamics model, which is based on Talmy’s (1988) theory of force dynamics, characterizes causation as a pattern of forces and a position vector. In contrast to counterfactual and probabilistic models, the dynamics model naturally distinguishes between different cause-related concepts and explains the induction of causal relationships from single observations. Support for the model is provided in experiments in which participants categorized 3D animations of realistically rendered objects with trajectories that were wholly determined by the force vectors entered into a (...)
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  • Could Grammatical Encoding and Grammatical Decoding Be Subserved by the Same Processing Module?Gerard Kempen - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (1):38-39.
    Grodzinsky interprets linguistic differences between agrammatic comprehension and production symptoms as supporting the hypothesis that the mechanisms underlying grammatical encoding (sentence formulation) and grammatical decoding (syntactic parsing) are at least partially distinct. This inference is shown to be premature. A range of experimentally established similarities between the encoding and decoding processes is highlighted, testifying to the viability of the hypothesis that receptive and productive syntactic tasks are performed by the same syntactic processor.
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  • Pragmatics and Logical Form.François Recanati - 2007 - In Esther Romero & Belen Soria (eds.), Explicit Communication: Robyn Carston's Pragmatics. Palgrave. pp. 25-41.
    Robyn Carston and I share a general methodological position which I call ‘Truth-Conditional Pragmatics' (TCP). TCP is the view that the effects of context on truth-conditional content need not be traceable to the linguistic material in the uttered sentence. Some effects of context on truth-conditional content are due to the linguistic material (e.g. to context-sensitive words or morphemes which trigger the search for contextual values), but others result from ‘free' pragmatic processes. Free pragmatic processes take place not because the linguistic (...)
     
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