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  1. Bayesian Informal Logic and Fallacy.Kevin Korb - 2004 - Informal Logic 24 (1):41-70.
    Bayesian reasoning has been applied formally to statistical inference, machine learning and analysing scientific method. Here I apply it informally to more common forms of inference, namely natural language arguments. I analyse a variety of traditional fallacies, deductive, inductive and causal, and find more merit in them than is generally acknowledged. Bayesian principles provide a framework for understanding ordinary arguments which is well worth developing.
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  • Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds.John S. Wilkins - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (2):221-240.
    The vision of natural kinds that is most common in the modern philosophy of biology, particularly with respect to the question whether species and other taxa are natural kinds, is based on a revision of the notion by Mill in A System of Logic. However, there was another conception that Whewell had previously captured well, which taxonomists have always employed, of kinds as being types that need not have necessary and sufficient characters and properties, or essences. These competing views employ (...)
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  • Donald C. Williams’s Defence of Real Metaphysics.A. R. J. Fisher - 2017 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 25 (2):332-355.
    In the middle of last century metaphysics was widely criticized, ridiculed, and committed to the flames. During this period a handful of philosophers, against several anti-metaphysical trends, defended metaphysics and articulated novel metaphysical doctrines. Donald C. Williams was one of these philosophers. But while his contributions to metaphysics are well known his defence of metaphysics is not and yet it played a key part in the development and revival of metaphysics. In this paper I present his defence of metaphysics in (...)
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  • Enthymemes, Common Knowledge, and Plausible Inference.Douglas N. Walton - 2001 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 34 (2):93-112.
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  • The Pure Calculus of Entailment.Alan Ross Anderson & Nuel D. Belnap - 1962 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 27 (1):19-52.
  • Existential Import and an Unnecessary Restriction on Predicate Logics.George Boger - 2018 - History and Philosophy of Logic 39 (2):109-134.
    Contemporary logicians continue to address problems associated with the existential import of categorical propositions. One notable problem concerns invalid instances of subalternation in the case of a universal proposition with an empty subject term. To remedy problems, logicians restrict first-order predicate logics to exclude such terms. Examining the historical origins of contemporary discussions reveals that logicians continue to make various category mistakes. We now believe that no proposition per se has existential import as commonly understood and thus it is unnecessary (...)
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  • Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds.John S. Wilkins - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (2):221-240.
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  • Completion, Reduction and Analysis: Three Proof-Theoretic Processes in Aristotle’s Prior Analytics.George Boger - 1998 - History and Philosophy of Logic 19 (4):187-226.
    Three distinctly different interpretations of Aristotle?s notion of a sullogismos in Prior Analytics can be traced: (1) a valid or invalid premise-conclusion argument (2) a single, logically true conditional proposition and (3) a cogent argumentation or deduction. Remarkably the three interpretations hold similar notions about the logical relationships among the sullogismoi. This is most apparent in their conflating three processes that Aristotle especially distinguishes: completion (A4-6)reduction(A7) and analysis (A45). Interpretive problems result from not sufficiently recognizing Aristotle?s remarkable degree of metalogical (...)
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  • Hugh Maccoll: Eine Bibliographische Erschließung Seiner Hauptwerke Und Notizen Zu Ihrer Rezeptionsgeschichte.Shahid Rahman - 1997 - History and Philosophy of Logic 18 (3):165-183.
    The work of Hugh MacColl (1837?1909) suffered the same fate after his death as before it:despite being vaguely alluded to and in part even commended, on the whole it has remained an unknown quantity. Even worse, those of his ideas which have played a decisive role in the history of logic have been credited to his successors; this is especially the case with the definition of strict implication and the first formal development of formal modal logic. This paper takes an (...)
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  • Identity, Continuity and Consciousness.Mark R. Whittington - unknown
    It is my intention in this thesis to demonstrate that there exists a clear and explicit formal relationship between the seemingly exclusive descriptions of spatio-temporal and purely temporal continuity, and further, that this relationship manifests itself within our most fundamental understanding of the physical world itself, namely; within our understanding of the identity, diversity and re-identification of material bodies. It may therefore be claimed that behind that cultural understanding which leads us to imagine that the physical world is located in (...)
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  • The Method of Speculative Philosophy - An Essay on the Foundations of Whitehead's Metaphysics.Johan Isaac Siebers - unknown
    Philosophy becomes speculative when it raises questions about the ultimate nature of being and thought. What does it mean to be? What does it mean to think? How are being and thought related? What does it mean to ask these questions? These questions have occupied a central place in philosophy throughout history, but have led a shadow existence in twentieth-century thought, which has cut the tie between reason and these fundamental questions, leaving the questions in the twilight, and reason instrumentalised. (...)
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  • Aristotle’s Treatment of Fallacious Reasoning in Sophistical Refutations and Prior Analytics.George Boger - unknown
    Aristotle studies syllogistic argumentation in Sophistical Refutations and Prior Analytics. In the latter he focuses on the formal and syntactic character of arguments and treats the sullogismoi and non-sullogismoi as argument patterns with valid or invalid instances. In the former Aristotle focuses on semantics and rhetoric to study apparent sullogismoi as object language arguments. Interpreters usually take Sophistical Refutations as considerably less mature than Prior Analytics. Our interpretation holds that the two works are more of a piece than previously believed (...)
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  • Toward the Development of a Paradigm of Human Flourishing in a Free Society.Edward W. Younkins - 2008 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 9 (2):253-304.
    This essay presents a skeleton of a potential conceptual framework for human flourishing in a free society. Its aim is to present a diagram that illustrates the ways in which its topics relate to one another and why they do. It argues for a plan of conceptualization rather than for the topics themselves. It emphasizes the interconnections among the components of the schema presented. It sees an essential interconnection between objective concepts, arguing that all of the disciplines of human action (...)
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  • A Little Survey of Induction.John D. Norton - unknown
    My purpose in this chapter is to survey some of the principal approaches to inductive inference in the philosophy of science literature. My first concern will be the general principles that underlie the many accounts of induction in this literature. When these accounts are considered in isolation, as is more commonly the case, it is easy to overlook that virtually all accounts depend on one of very few basic principles and that the proliferation of accounts can be understood as efforts (...)
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  • Russell's Transcendental Argument Revisited.David Sullivan - 2008 - The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 4:200.
    This paper seeks to delineate some of the significant modes of philosophical resistance to, and subversion of, British Idealism already operational in Russell's earliest work. One key tactic employed in "An Essay On the Foundations of Geometry" is to reorient the findings of the "modern logic" of Bradley and Bosanquet by employing some "transcendental" or neo-Kantian strategies. Russell thereby arrives at a number of conclusions with a metaphysical or epistemological import at wide variance with the approach of the British Idealists. (...)
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  • Populism and Informal Fallacies: An Analysis of Right-Wing Populist Rhetoric in Election Campaigns.Sina Blassnig, Florin Büchel, Nicole Ernst & Sven Engesser - 2019 - Argumentation 33 (1):107-136.
    Populism is on the rise, especially in Western Europe. While it is often assumed that populist actors have a tendency for fallacious reasoning, this has not been systematically investigated. We analyze the use of informal fallacies by right-wing populist politicians and their representation in the media during election campaigns. We conduct a quantitative content analysis of press releases of right-wing populist parties and news articles in print media during the most recent elections in the United Kingdom and Switzerland in 2015. (...)
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  • Plausible Argumentation in Eikotic Arguments: The Ancient Weak Versus Strong Man Example.Douglas Walton - 2019 - Argumentation 33 (1):45-74.
    In this paper it is shown how plausible reasoning of the kind illustrated in the ancient Greek example of the weak and strong man can be analyzed and evaluated using a procedure in which the pro evidence is weighed against the con evidence using formal, computational argumentation tools. It is shown by means of this famous example how plausible reasoning is based on an audience’s recognition of situations of a type they are familiar with as normal and comprehensible in their (...)
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  • Piaget Before and After.Smith Leslie - 1997 - History of the Human Sciences 10 (2):125-131.
  • Le Parti E l'Intero Nella Concezione di Aristotele la Holologia Come Progetto di Metafisica Descrittiva Parte II.Luigi Dappiano - 1993 - Axiomathes 4 (2):227-248.