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  1. Reasons Doctors Provide Futile Treatment at the End of Life: A Qualitative Study.Lindy Willmott, Benjamin White, Cindy Gallois, Malcolm Parker, Nicholas Graves, Sarah Winch, Leonie Kaye Callaway, Nicole Shepherd & Eliana Close - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (8):496-503.
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  • Defining Futile Life-Prolonging Treatments Through Neo-Socratic Dialogue.Kuniko Aizawa, Atsushi Asai & Seiji Bito - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):51.
    In Japan, people are negative towards life-prolonging treatments. Laws that regulate withholding or discontinuing life-prolonging treatments and advance directives do not exist. Physicians, however, view discontinuing life-prolonging treatments negatively due to fears of police investigations. Although ministerial guidelines were announced regarding the decision process for end-of-life care in 2007, a consensus could not be reached on the definition of end-of-life and conditions for withholding treatment. We established a forum for extended discussions and consensus building on this topic.
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  • Can Physicians' Judgments of Futility Be Accepted by Patients?: A Comparative Survey of Japanese Physicians and Laypeople.Yasuhiro Kadooka, Atsushi Asai & Seiji Bito - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):7.
    Back groundEmpirical surveys about medical futility are scarce relative to its theoretical assumptions. We aimed to evaluate the difference of attitudes between laypeople and physicians towards the issue.MethodsA questionnaire survey was designed. Japanese laypeople (via Internet) and physicians with various specialties (via paper-and-pencil questionnaire) were asked about whether they would provide potentially futile treatments for end-of-life patients in vignettes, important factors for judging a certain treatment futile, and threshold of quantitative futility which reflects the numerical probability that an act will (...)
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