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Logic: Techniques of Formal Reasoning

Harcourt, Brace, and Jovanovich (1964)

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  1. On Defining ‘Argument’.Jeffrey Goodman - 2018 - Argumentation 32 (4):589-602.
    There is no concept more central to logic and critical thinking than the concept of an argument. I here address the definition of ‘argument’ in the logical sense of the term and defend the claim that many current proposals, once they are interpreted in a way that makes them sufficiently precise, are extensionally inadequate. Definitions found in some contemporary, prominent critical thinking textbooks will serve as a springboard. I claim that each may be interpreted in an absolutist way or a (...)
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  • Implicit Association Test: Validity Debates.Anthony Greenwald - manuscript
    Note posted 9 Jun 08 : Modifications made today include a new section on predictive validity, and addition of recently published article and in in-press article, both by Nosek & Hansen, under the "CULTURE VS. PERSON" heading, which replaces a previously listed unpublished ms. of theirs. I continue to encourage all interested to send material that they are willing to be included on this page. Please also to let me know about errors, including faulty links.
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  • Commentary on Blair.Maurice Finocchiaro - unknown
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  • Verification: The Hysteron Proteron Argument.Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Bernard Linsky - 2018 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 6 (6).
    This paper investigates the strange case of an argument that was directed against a positivist verification principle. We find an early occurrence of the argument in a talk by the phenomenologist Roman Ingarden at the 1934 International Congress of Philosophy in Prague, where Carnap and Neurath were present and contributed short rejoinders. We discuss the underlying presuppositons of the argument, and we evaluate whether the attempts by Carnap actually succeed in answering this argument. We think they don’t, and offer instead (...)
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  • Reducing Stereotype Threat in First-Year Logic Classes.Vanessa Lehan - 2015 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 1 (2):1-13.
    In this paper I examine some research on how to diminish or eliminate stereotype threat in mathematics. Some of the successful strategies include: informing our students about stereotype threat, challenging the idea that logical intelligence is an “innate” ability, making students In threatened groups feel welcomed, and introducing counter-stereotypical role models. The purpose of this paper is to take these strategies that have proven successful and come up with specific ways to incorporate them into introductory logic classes. For example, the (...)
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  • Incomplete Symbols — Definite Descriptions Revisited.Norbert Gratzl - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 44 (5):489-506.
    We investigate incomplete symbols, i.e. definite descriptions with scope-operators. Russell famously introduced definite descriptions by contextual definitions; in this article definite descriptions are introduced by rules in a specific calculus that is very well suited for proof-theoretic investigations. That is to say, the phrase ‘incomplete symbols’ is formally interpreted as to the existence of an elimination procedure. The last section offers semantical tools for interpreting the phrase ‘no meaning in isolation’ in a formal way.
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  • Formalization and the Objects of Logic.Georg Brun - 2008 - Erkenntnis 69 (1):1 - 30.
    There is a long-standing debate whether propositions, sentences, statements or utterances provide an answer to the question of what objects logical formulas stand for. Based on the traditional understanding of logic as a science of valid arguments, this question is firstly framed more exactly, making explicit that it calls not only for identifying some class of objects, but also for explaining their relationship to ordinary language utterances. It is then argued that there are strong arguments against the proposals commonly put (...)
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  • Cross-Linguistic Semantics.Maria Bittner - 1994 - Linguistics and Philosophy 17 (1):53 - 108.
    Rooth & Partee (1982) and Rooth (1985) have shown that the English-specific rule-by-rule system of PTQ can be factored out into function application plus two transformations for resolving type mismatch (type lifting and variable binding). Building on these insights, this article proposes a universal system for type-driven translation, by adding two more innovations: local type determination for gaps (generalizing Montague 1973) and a set of semantic filters (extending Cooper 1983). This system, dubbed Cross-Linguistic Semantics (XLS), is shown to account for (...)
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  • The Feminist Critique [Repudiation] of Logic.Noretta Koertge - manuscript
    Logic is the systematic study of patterns of correct inference. The first treatise on logic is Aristotle's Prior Analytics , written around 350 B.C. and there are remarkable similarities between the way he presented his theory of valid arguments and the way it is still taught today. He analyzes the form of various inferences and then illustrates them with concrete examples. He begins with very simple cases.
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  • The Barber Paradox: On its Paradoxicality and its Relationship to Russell's Paradox.Jiri Raclavsky - 2014 - Prolegomena 13 (2):269-278.
    The Barber paradox is often introduced as a popular version of Russell’s paradox, though some experts have denied their similarity, evencalling the Barber paradox a pseudoparadox. In the first part of thepaper, I demonstrate mainly that in the standard (Quinean) defini-tion of a paradox the Barber paradox is a clear-cut example of a non-paradox. Despite some outward similarities, it differs radically fromRussell’s paradox. I also expose many other differences. In the secondpart of the paper, I examine a probable source of (...)
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  • Dialectics, Evaluation, and Argument.Maurice A. Finocchiaro - 2003 - Informal Logic 23 (1).
    A critical examination of the dialectical approach, focusing on a comparison ofthe illative and the dialectical definitions of argument. I distinguish a moderate, a strong and a hyper dialectical conception of argument. I critique Goldman's argument for the moderate conception and Johnson's argument for the strong conception, and argue that the moderate conception is correct.
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  • Defining Deduction.Mark Vorobej - 1992 - Informal Logic 14 (2).
    This paper defends the view that the classification of an argument as being deductive ought to rest exclusively upon psychological considerations; specifically, upon whether the argument's author holds certain beliefs. This account is justified on theoretical and pedagogical grounds, and situated within a general taxonomy of competing proposals. Epistemological difficulties involved in the application of psychological definitions are recognized but claimed to be ineliminable from the praetice of argumentation. The paper concludes by discussing embryonic arguments where the author's relevant beliefs (...)
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  • Definite Descriptions and Existence Attribution.Francesco Orilia - 1987 - Topoi 6 (2):133-138.
    The hierarchical analysis of existence attribution is Fregean in its endorsement of senses, understood as guises. Furthermore, the hierarchical analysis makes an essential use of the Russellian analysis (9′) as a means to understand what it is for a sense to present a given entity (cf. biconditional (11) above). The hierarchical analysis, on the other hand, is more general than the Russellian one and hence - in accordance with natural language usage - allows for a wider range of applications.
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  • Constructions and Negationless Logic.E. G. K. López-Escobar - 1972 - Studia Logica 30 (1):7 - 22.
  • Formal Properties of 'Now'.Hans Kamp - 1971 - Theoria 37 (3):227-273.
  • Names and Indefinite Descriptions in Ontological Arguments.Jordan Howard Sobel - 1983 - Dialogue 22 (2):195-202.
  • ‘Hoist with His Owne Petar’:1 On the Undoing of a Liar Paradox.Jordan Howard Sobel - 2008 - Theoria 74 (2):115-145.
    Abstract: A Liar would express a proposition that is true and not true. A Liar Paradox would, per impossibile, demonstrate the reality of a Liar. To resolve a Liar Paradox it is sufficient to make out of its demonstration a reductio of the existence of the proposition that would be true and not true, and to "explain away" the charm of the paradoxical contrary demonstration. Persuasive demonstrations of the Liar Paradox in this paper trade on allusive scope-ambiguities of English definite (...)
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  • The Inconspicuous Role of Paraphrase.David Sherry - 1991 - History and Philosophy of Logic 12 (2):151-166.
    In formal logic there is a premium on clever paraphrase, for it subsumes troublesome inferences under a familiar theory. (A paradigm is Davidson's analysis 1967 of inferences like ?He buttered his toast with a knife; so, he buttered his toast?.) But the need for paraphrase in formal logic runs deeper than the odd recalcitrant inference, and thus, I shall argue, commits logicians to some interesting consequences. First, the thesis that arguments are valid in virtue of their form must be severely (...)
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  • Existing by Convention.Kenneth G. Ferguson - 1992 - Religious Studies 28 (2):185 - 194.
  • Montague Semantics.Theo M. V. Janssen - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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