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  1. True Belief Belies False Belief: Recent Findings of Competence in Infants and Limitations in 5-Year-Olds, and Implications for Theory of Mind Development.Joseph A. Hedger & William V. Fabricius - 2011 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (3):429-447.
    False belief tasks have enjoyed a monopoly in the research on children?s development of a theory of mind. They have been granted this status because they promise to deliver an unambiguous assessment of children?s understanding of the representational nature of mental states. Their poor cousins, true belief tasks, have been relegated to occasional service as control tasks. That this is their only role has been due to the universal assumption that correct answers on true belief tasks are inherently ambiguous regarding (...)
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  • How Children and Adults Represent God's Mind.Larisa Heiphetz, Jonathan D. Lane, Adam Waytz & Liane L. Young - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (1):121-144.
    For centuries, humans have contemplated the minds of gods. Research on religious cognition is spread across sub-disciplines, making it difficult to gain a complete understanding of how people reason about gods' minds. We integrate approaches from cognitive, developmental, and social psychology and neuroscience to illuminate the origins of religious cognition. First, we show that although adults explicitly discriminate supernatural minds from human minds, their implicit responses reveal far less discrimination. Next, we demonstrate that children's religious cognition often matches adults' implicit (...)
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  • Visible Social Interactions Do Not Support the Development of False Belief Understanding in the Absence of Linguistic Input: Evidence From Deaf Adult Homesigners.Deanna L. Gagne & Marie Coppola - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Strategies of Deception: Under‐Informativity, Uninformativity, and Lies—Misleading With Different Kinds of Implicature.Michael Franke, Giulio Dulcinati & Nausicaa Pouscoulous - forthcoming - Topics in Cognitive Science.
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  • Editorial: Models of Reference.Kees van Deemter, Emiel Krahmer, Albert Gatt & Roger P. G. van Gompel - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Surveying Freedom: Folk Intuitions About Free Will and Moral Responsibility.Eddy Nahmias, Stephen Morris, Thomas Nadelhoffer & Jason Turner - 2005 - Philosophical Psychology 18 (5):561-584.
    Philosophers working in the nascent field of ‘experimental philosophy’ have begun using methods borrowed from psychology to collect data about folk intuitions concerning debates ranging from action theory to ethics to epistemology. In this paper we present the results of our attempts to apply this approach to the free will debate, in which philosophers on opposing sides claim that their view best accounts for and accords with folk intuitions. After discussing the motivation for such research, we describe our methodology of (...)
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  • Production of Referring Expressions for an Unknown Audience: A Computational Model of Communal Common Ground.Roman Kutlak, Kees van Deemter & Chris Mellish - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • How to Construct a Minimal Theory of Mind.Ian A. Apperly Stephen A. Butterfill - 2013 - Mind and Language 28 (5):606-637.
    What could someone represent that would enable her to track, at least within limits, others' perceptions, knowledge states and beliefs including false beliefs? An obvious possibility is that she might represent these very attitudes as such. It is sometimes tacitly or explicitly assumed that this is the only possible answer. However, we argue that several recent discoveries in developmental, cognitive, and comparative psychology indicate the need for other, less obvious possibilities. Our aim is to meet this need by describing the (...)
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  • False-Belief Understanding and the Phenomenological Critics of Folk Psychology.Mitchell Herschbach - 2008 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (12):33-56.
    The dominant account of human social understanding is that we possess a 'folk psychology', that we understand and can interact with other people because we appreciate their mental states. Recently, however, philosophers from the phenomenological tradition have called into question the scope of the folk psychological account and argued for the importance of 'online', non-mentalistic forms of social understanding. In this paper I critically evaluate the arguments of these phenomenological critics, arguing that folk psychology plays a larger role in human (...)
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  • A Review of Visual Perspective Taking in Autism Spectrum Disorder. [REVIEW]Amy Pearson, Danielle Ropar & Antonia F. de C. Hamilton - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  • Cognitive Modeling of Individual Variation in Reference Production and Comprehension.Petra Hendriks - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Understanding and Remediating Social-Cognitive Dysfunctions in Patients with Serious Mental Illness Using Relational Frame Theory.Annemieke L. Hendriks, Yvonne Barnes-Holmes, Ciara McEnteggart, Hubert R. A. De Mey, Gwenny T. L. Janssen & Jos I. M. Egger - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Understanding Children's and Adults' Limitations in Mental State Reasoning.S. Birch - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (6):255-260.
  • Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm.Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Ielka van der Sluis & Richard Power - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (5):799-836.
    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of ‘‘one-shot’’ referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We test this hypothesis by eliciting referring expressions from human subjects and computing the similarity between the expressions elicited and the ones generated by algorithms. It turns out that (...)
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  • Symposium on S. Butterfill and I. Apperly, "How to Construct a Minimal Theory of Mind".Stephen Butterfill, Ian Apperly, Hannes Rakoczy, Shannon Spaulding & Tadeusz Zawidzki - 2013 - Mind and Language Symposia at the Brains Blog.
  • Do Humans Have Two Systems to Track Beliefs and Belief-Like States?Stephen Andrew Butterfill & Ian A. Apperly - 2009 - Psychological Review 116 (4):953-970.
    The lack of consensus on how to characterize humans’ capacity for belief reasoning has been brought into sharp focus by recent research. Children fail critical tests of belief reasoning before 3 to 4 years (Wellman, Cross, & Watson, 2001; Wimmer & Perner, 1983), yet infants apparently pass false belief tasks at 13 or 15 months (Onishi & Baillargeon, 2005; Surian, Caldi, & Sperber, 2007). Non-human animals also fail critical tests of belief reasoning but can show very complex social behaviour (e.g., (...)
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  • Children’s Application of Theory of Mind in Reasoning and Language.Liesbeth Flobbe, Rineke Verbrugge, Petra Hendriks & Irene Krämer - 2008 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (4):417-442.
    Many social situations require a mental model of the knowledge, beliefs, goals, and intentions of others: a Theory of Mind (ToM). If a person can reason about other people’s beliefs about his own beliefs or intentions, he is demonstrating second-order ToM reasoning. A standard task to test second-order ToM reasoning is the second-order false belief task. A different approach to investigating ToM reasoning is through its application in a strategic game. Another task that is believed to involve the application of (...)
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  • Toward a Mechanistic Psychology of Dialogue.Martin J. Pickering & Simon Garrod - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):169-190.
    Traditional mechanistic accounts of language processing derive almost entirely from the study of monologue. Yet, the most natural and basic form of language use is dialogue. As a result, these accounts may only offer limited theories of the mechanisms that underlie language processing in general. We propose a mechanistic account of dialogue, the interactive alignment account, and use it to derive a number of predictions about basic language processes. The account assumes that, in dialogue, the linguistic representations employed by the (...)
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  • ‘Putting Ourselves in the Other Fellow’ s Shoes’ : The Role of ‘Theory of Mind’ in Solving Coordination Problems.Oliver Curry & Matthew Jones Chesters - 2012 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 12 (1-2):147-159.
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  • Logic and Social Cognition.Rineke Verbrugge - 2009 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (6):649-680.
    This article takes off from Johan van Benthem’s ruminations on the interface between logic and cognitive science in his position paper “Logic and reasoning: Do the facts matter?”. When trying to answer Van Benthem’s question whether logic can be fruitfully combined with psychological experiments, this article focuses on a specific domain of reasoning, namely higher-order social cognition, including attributions such as “Bob knows that Alice knows that he wrote a novel under pseudonym”. For intelligent interaction, it is important that the (...)
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  • Carruthers' Marvelous Magical Mindreading Machine.Charlie Lewis & Jeremy I. M. Carpendale - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):152-152.
    Carruthers presents an interesting analysis of confabulation and a clear attack on introspection. Yet his theory-based alternative is a mechanistic view of which neglects the fact that social understanding occurs within a network of social relationships. In particular, the role of language in his model is too simple.
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  • The Development of Shared Liking of Representational but Not Abstract Art in Primary School Children and Their Justifications for Liking.Paul Rodway, Julie Kirkham, Astrid Schepman, Jordana Lambert & Anastasia Locke - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  • Enhancing “Theory of Mind” Through Behavioral Synchrony.Adam Baimel, Rachel L. Severson, Andrew S. Baron & Susan A. J. Birch - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • On-Line False Belief Understanding Qua Folk Psychology?Martin Capstick - 2013 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (1):27-40.
    In this paper, I address Mitchell Herschbach’s arguments against the phenomenological critics of folk psychology. Central to Herschbach’s arguments is the introduction of Michael Wheeler’s distinction between ‘on-line’ and ‘off-line’ intelligence to the debate on social understanding. Herschbach uses this distinction to describe two arguments made by the phenomenological critics. The first is that folk psychology is exclusively off-line and mentalistic. The second is that social understanding is on-line and non-mentalistic. To counter the phenomenological critics, Herschbach argues for the existence (...)
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  • How to Construct a Minimal Theory of Mind.Stephen A. Butterfill & Ian A. Apperly - 2013 - Mind and Language 28 (5):606-637.
    What could someone represent that would enable her to track, at least within limits, others' perceptions, knowledge states and beliefs including false beliefs? An obvious possibility is that she might represent these very attitudes as such. It is sometimes tacitly or explicitly assumed that this is the only possible answer. However, we argue that several recent discoveries in developmental, cognitive, and comparative psychology indicate the need for other, less obvious possibilities. Our aim is to meet this need by describing the (...)
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  • Epistemic Focal Bias.Mikkel Gerken - 2013 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (1):41 - 61.
    This paper defends strict invariantism against some philosophical and empirical data that have been taken to compromise it. The defence involves a combination of a priori philosophical arguments and empirically informed theorizing. The positive account of the data is an epistemic focal bias account that draws on cognitive psychology. It involves the assumption that, owing to limitations of the involved cognitive resources, intuitive judgments about knowledge ascriptions are generated by processing only a limited part of the available information?the part that (...)
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  • Perceptual Access Reasoning: Developmental Stage or System 1 Heuristic?Joseph A. Hedger - 2016 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 15 (2):207-226.
    In contrast with the two dominant views in Theory of Mind development, the Perceptual Access Reasoning hypothesis of Fabricius and colleagues is that children don’t understand the mental state of belief until around 6 years of age. Evidence for this includes data that many children ages 4 and 5, who pass the standard 2-location false belief task, nonetheless fail the true belief task, and often fail a 3-location false belief task by choosing the irrelevant option. These findings can be explained (...)
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  • The Primacy of Social Over Visual Perspective-Taking.Henrike Moll & Derya Kadipasaoglu - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  • Visual Perspective Taking Impairment in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder.Antonia F. De C. Hamilton, Rachel Brindley & Uta Frith - 2009 - Cognition 113 (1):37-44.
  • Toward a Computational Psycholinguistics of Reference Production.Kees van Deemter, Albert Gatt, Roger P. G. van Gompel & Emiel Krahmer - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):166-183.
    This article introduces the topic ‘‘Production of Referring Expressions: Bridging the Gap between Computational and Empirical Approaches to Reference’’ of the journal Topics in Cognitive Science. We argue that computational and psycholinguistic approaches to reference production can benefit from closer interaction, and that this is likely to result in the construction of algorithms that differ markedly from the ones currently known in the computational literature. We focus particularly on determinism, the feature of existing algorithms that is perhaps most clearly at (...)
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  • Pooling the Ground: Understanding and Coordination in Collective Sense Making.Joanna Rä…Czaszek-Leonardi, Agnieszka Dä™Bska & Adam Sochanowicz - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • When the Theory of Mind Would Be Very Useful.Piergiorgio Battistelli & Alessandra Farneti - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • How We Know Our Conscious Minds: Introspective Access to Conscious Thoughts.Keith Frankish - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):145-146.
    Carruthers considers and rejects a mixed position according to which we have interpretative access to unconscious thoughts, but introspective access to conscious ones. I argue that this is too hasty. Given a two-level view of the mind, we can, and should, accept the mixed position, and we can do so without positing additional introspective mechanisms beyond those Carruthers already recognizes.
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  • The Role of the Self in Mindblindness in Autism.Michael V. Lombardo & Simon Baron-Cohen - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (1):130-140.
    Since its inception the ‘mindblindness’ theory of autism has greatly furthered our understanding of the core social-communication impairments in autism spectrum conditions . However, one of the more subtle issues within the theory that needs to be elaborated is the role of the ‘self’. In this article, we expand on mindblindness in ASC by addressing topics related to the self and its central role in the social world and then review recent research in ASC that has yielded important insights by (...)
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  • The Psychology of Epistemic Judgment.Jennifer Nagel & Jessica Wright - forthcoming - In Sarah K. Robins, John Symons & Paco Calvo (eds.), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology, 2nd Edition.
    Human social intelligence includes a remarkable power to evaluate what people know and believe, and to assess the quality of well- or ill-formed beliefs. Epistemic evaluations emerge in a great variety of contexts, from moments of deliberate private reflection on tough theoretical questions, to casual social observations about what other people know and think. We seem to be able to draw systematic lines between knowledge and mere belief, to distinguish justified and unjustified beliefs, and to recognize some beliefs as delusional (...)
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  • Matched False-Belief Performance During Verbal and Nonverbal Interference.James Dungan & Rebecca Saxe - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (6):1148-1156.
    Language has been shown to play a key role in the development of a child’s theory of mind, but its role in adult belief reasoning remains unclear. One recent study used verbal and nonverbal interference during a false-belief task to show that accurate belief reasoning in adults necessarily requires language (Newton & de Villiers, 2007). The strength of this inference depends on the cognitive processes that are matched between the verbal and nonverbal inference tasks. Here, we matched the two interference (...)
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  • Understanding Children's and Adults' Limitations in Mental State Reasoning.Paul Bloom - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (6):255-260.
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  • To Name or to Describe: Shared Knowledge Affects Referential Form.Daphna Heller, Kristen S. Gorman & Michael K. Tanenhaus - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):290-305.
    The notion of common ground is important for the production of referring expressions: In order for a referring expression to be felicitous, it has to be based on shared information. But determining what information is shared and what information is privileged may require gathering information from multiple sources, and constantly coordinating and updating them, which might be computationally too intensive to affect the earliest moments of production. Previous work has found that speakers produce overinformative referring expressions, which include privileged names, (...)
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  • Addressees Distinguish Shared From Private Information When Interpreting Questions During Interactive Conversation.Michael K. Tanenhaus Sarah Brown-Schmidt, Christine Gunlogson - 2008 - Cognition 107 (3):1122.
  • Two Sources of Evidence on the Non-Automaticity of True and False Belief Ascription.Elisa Back & Ian A. Apperly - 2010 - Cognition 115 (1):54-70.
  • When Good Evidence Goes Bad: The Weak Evidence Effect in Judgment and Decision-Making.Philip M. Fernbach, Adam Darlow & Steven A. Sloman - 2011 - Cognition 119 (3):459-467.
  • Editorial: Social Cognition: Mindreading and Alternatives.Daniel D. Hutto, Mitchell Herschbach & Victoria Southgate - 2011 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (3):375-395.
    Human beings, even very young infants, and members of several other species, exhibit remarkable capacities for attending to and engaging with others. These basic capacities have been the subject of intense research in developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, comparative psychology, neuroscience, and philosophy of mind over the last several decades. Appropriately characterizing the exact level and nature of these abilities and what lies at their basis continues to prove a tricky business. The contributions to this special issue investigate whether and to (...)
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  • Perspective-Taking Behavior as the Probabilistic Weighing of Multiple Domains.Daphna Heller, Christopher Parisien & Suzanne Stevenson - 2016 - Cognition 149:104-120.
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  • The Role of Perspective in Identifying Domains of Reference.Daphna Heller, Daniel Grodner & Michael K. Tanenhaus - 2008 - Cognition 108 (3):831-836.
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  • I’Ve Got Your Number: Spontaneous Perspective-Taking in an Interactive Task.Andrew Surtees, Ian Apperly & Dana Samson - 2016 - Cognition 150:43-52.
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  • A ‘Curse of Knowledge’ in the Absence of Knowledge? People Misattribute Fluency When Judging How Common Knowledge is Among Their Peers.Susan A. J. Birch, Patricia E. Brosseau-Liard, Taeh Haddock & Siba E. Ghrear - 2017 - Cognition 166:447-458.
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  • Learning to Apply Theory of Mind.Rineke Verbrugge & Lisette Mol - 2008 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (4):489-511.
    In everyday life it is often important to have a mental model of the knowledge, beliefs, desires, and intentions of other people. Sometimes it is even useful to to have a correct model of their model of our own mental states: a second-order Theory of Mind. In order to investigate to what extent adults use and acquire complex skills and strategies in the domains of Theory of Mind and the related skill of natural language use, we conducted an experiment. It (...)
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  • Producing Pronouns and Definite Noun Phrases: Do Speakers Use the Addressee's Discourse Model?Kumiko Fukumura & Roger P. G. van Gompel - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (7):1289-1311.
    We report two experiments that investigated the widely held assumption that speakers use the addressee’s discourse model when choosing referring expressions (e.g., Ariel, 1990; Chafe, 1994; Givón, 1983; Prince, 1985), by manipulating whether the addressee could hear the immediately preceding linguistic context. Experiment 1 showed that speakers increased pronoun use (and decreased noun phrase use) when the referent was mentioned in the immediately preceding sentence compared to when it was not, even though the addressee did not hear the preceding sentence, (...)
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  • Conceptual Development and Conversational Understanding.Michael Siegal & Luca Surian - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (12):534-538.
  • In Defense of a Developmental Dogma: Children Acquire Propositional Attitude Folk Psychology Around Age 4.Hannes Rakoczy - 2017 - Synthese 194 (3):689-707.
    When do children acquire a propositional attitude folk psychology or theory of mind? The orthodox answer to this central question of developmental ToM research had long been that around age 4 children begin to apply “belief” and other propositional attitude concepts. This orthodoxy has recently come under serious attack, though, from two sides: Scoffers complain that it over-estimates children’s early competence and claim that a proper understanding of propositional attitudes emerges only much later. Boosters criticize the orthodoxy for underestimating early (...)
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