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  1. Involving Children in Non-Therapeutic Research: On the Development Argument. [REVIEW]Linus Broström & Mats Johansson - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (1):53-60.
    Non-therapeutic research on children raises ethical concerns. Such research is not only conducted on individuals who are incapable of providing informed consent. It also typically involves some degree of risk or discomfort, without prospects of medically benefiting the participating children. Therefore, these children seem to be instrumentalized. Some ethicists, however, have tried to sidestep this problem by arguing that the children may indirectly benefit from participating in such research, in ways not related to the medical intervention as such. It has (...)
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  • Patient’s Perspectives of Experimental HCV-Positive to HCV-Negative Renal Transplantation: Report From a Single Site.Sarah E. Van Pilsum Rasmussen, Shanti Seaman, Diane Brown, Niraj Desai, Mark Sulkowski, Dorry L. Segev, Christine M. Durand & Jeremy Sugarman - 2020 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 11 (1):40-52.
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  • The Management of Incidental Findings in Neuro-Imaging Research: Framework and Recommendations.Erica K. Rangel - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (1):117-126.
    With improved diagnostic capability and accuracy, the fields of medicine, neuroscience, psychiatry, and psychology have benefitted remarkably from the dramatic advancements in neuroimaging technology. Not only can surface and subsurface structures of the brain be mapped with incredible anatomical detail, now neural activity can be imaged across time as the brain responds to different stimuli. These sophisticated techniques have been a vital element in the recent increase in neuroimaging-based research. This increase, while producing new diagnostic techniques and improved treatment mechanisms (...)
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  • Interpretation of the Subjects' Condition Requirement: A Legal Perspective.Seema Shah & David Wendler - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):365-373.
    Clinical research with children generates special ethical concern, raising the need for additional protections beyond those for research with competent adults. Most guidelines permit research with children when it offers a prospect of direct benefit, or poses minimal risk. Unlike many other guidelines, the U.S. federal regulations also allow institutional review boards to approve pediatric research that does not offer a prospect of direct benefit when the risks are no greater than a minor increase over minimal risk. To approve research (...)
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  • The Future of Incidental Findings: Should They Be Viewed as Benefits?Lisa S. Parker - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):341-351.
    This paper argues against considering incidental fndings as potential benefts of research when assessing the social value of proposed research, determining the appropriateness of a study's risk/beneft ratio, and identifying and disclosing the risks and benefts of participation during informed consent. The possibility of generating IFs should be disclosed during informed consent as neither a risk nor beneft, but as a possible outcome collateral to participation. Whether specifc IFs will be disclosed when identifed is a separate question whose answer is (...)
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  • The Future of Incidental Findings: Should They Be Viewed as Benefits?Lisa S. Parker - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):341-351.
    The possibility of generating incidental findings — in both research and clinical contexts — has long been regarded as a risk of these enterprises. Should incidental findings in research also be regarded as potential benefits? At first glance, it would seem they ought to be. After all, in particular circumstances or given a particular set of values, any piece of information can be beneficial. Therefore, it may seem incoherent or unduly paternalistic to regard IFs only as risks. Moreover, developments in (...)
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  • RAC Oversight of Gene Transfer Research: A Model Worth Extending?Nancy M. P. King - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (3):381-389.
    Clinical gene transfer research has both a unique history and a complex and layered system of research oversight, featuring a unique review body, the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee. This paper briefly describes the process of decision-making about clinical GTR, considers whether the questions, problems, and issues raised in clinical GTR are unique, and concludes by examining whether the RAC's oversight is a useful model that should be reproduced for other similar areas of clinical research.Clinical GTR is governed by the same (...)
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  • Unregulated Health Research Using Mobile Devices: Ethical Considerations and Policy Recommendations.Mark A. Rothstein, John T. Wilbanks, Laura M. Beskow, Kathleen M. Brelsford, Kyle B. Brothers, Megan Doerr, Barbara J. Evans, Catherine M. Hammack-Aviran, Michelle L. McGowan & Stacey A. Tovino - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (S1):196-226.
    Mobile devices with health apps, direct-to-consumer genetic testing, crowd-sourced information, and other data sources have enabled research by new classes of researchers. Independent researchers, citizen scientists, patient-directed researchers, self-experimenters, and others are not covered by federal research regulations because they are not recipients of federal financial assistance or conducting research in anticipation of a submission to the FDA for approval of a new drug or medical device. This article addresses the difficult policy challenge of promoting the welfare and interests of (...)
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  • Key Information in the New Common Rule: Can It Save Research Consent?Nancy M. P. King - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (2):203-212.
    Informed consent in clinical research is widely regarded as broken, but essential nonetheless. The most recent attempt to reform it comes as part of the first revisions to the Common Rule since it became truly “common” in 1991. This change, the addition of a “key information” requirement for most consent forms, is intended to support and promote a reasoned decision-making process by potential subjects. The key information requirement is both promising and problematic. It is promising because it encourages clarity and (...)
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  • Justice, Fairness, and Membership in a Class: Conceptual Confusions and Moral Puzzles in the Regulation of Human Subjects Research.Ana S. Iltis - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (3):488-501.
    This essay examines conceptual difficulties with one of the ways in which justice has been understood and applied the ethical and regulatory review of human research. Justice requires the fair distribution of the benefits and burdens of research. Class membership is seen as justifying inclusion in higher hazard-no benefit research from which members of potentially vulnerable classes, such as children, typically would be excluded. I argue that class membership does not do the justificatory work it is thought to do and (...)
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  • Justice, Fairness, and Membership in a Class: Conceptual Confusions and Moral Puzzles in the Regulation of Human Subjects Research.Ana S. Iltis - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (3):488-501.
    Much of the human research conducted in the United States or by U.S. researchers is regulated by the Common Rule. The Common Rule reflects the decision of 17 federal agencies, including the Department of Health and Human Services, to require that investigators follow the same rules for conducting human research., though there is significant overlap with the Common Rule.) Many of the obligations delineated in the Common Rule can be traced back to the work of the National Commission for the (...)
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  • Nanomedicine First-in-Human Research: Challenges for Informed Consent.Nancy M. P. King - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):823-830.
    First-in-human research has several characteristics that require special attention with respect to ethics and human subjects protections. At least some nanomedical technologies may also have characteristics that merit special attention in clinical research, as other papers in this symposium show. This paper considers how to address these characteristics in the consent form and process for FIH nanomedicine research, focusing principally on experimental nanotherapeutic interventions but also considering nanodiagnostic interventions.It is essential, as a starting point, to recognize that the consent form (...)
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  • In Plain Sight: A Solution to a Fundamental Challenge in Human Research.Lois Shepherd & Margaret Foster Riley - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):970-989.
    The physician-researcher conflict of interest has thus far eluded satisfactory solution. Most attempts to deal with it focus on improving informed consent. But those attempts are not successful and may even make things worse. Research subjects are already voluntarily undertaking the risks of research — we should not ask them to go it alone — to undergo medical “treatment” without medical “care.” The only effective solution is that in much clinical research, each research subject should have a doctor independent from (...)
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  • In Plain Sight: A Solution to a Fundamental Challenge in Human Research.Lois Shepherd & Margaret Foster Riley - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):970-989.
    The physician-researcher conflict of interest, a long-standing and widely recognized ethical challenge of clinical research, has thus far eluded satisfactory solution. The conflict is fairly straightforward. Medical research and medical therapy are distinct pursuits; the former is aimed at producing generalizable knowledge for the benefit of future patients, whereas the latter is aimed at addressing the individualized medical needs of a particular patient. When the physician-researcher combines these pursuits, he or she serves two masters and cannot — no matter how (...)
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  • A Living Wage for Research Subjects.Trisha B. Phillips - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (2):243-253.
    Offering cash payments to research subjects is a common recruiting method, but this practice continues to be controversial because of its potential to compromise the protection of human subjects. Some critics question whether researchers should be allowed to offer money at all, citing concerns about commodification of the research subject, invalidation of study results, and increased risks to subjects. Other critics are comfortable with the idea of monetary payments but question how much researchers can pay their subjects, citing concerns about (...)
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  • The Management of Incidental Findings in Neuro-Imaging Research: Framework and Recommendations.Erica K. Rangel - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (1):117-126.
    This paper addresses the question of how incidental findings in clinical research should be managed by researchers, focusing in detail on IFs discovered in neuroimaging research. It begins by engaging the larger research ethics issue of whether researchers have any obligations of clinical care to participants, and assesses the content and merits of one particular framework for answering this question, Richardson and Belsky's ancillary care model. From here the paper develops an organizational structure for integrating the ancillary care model with (...)
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  • Interpretation of the Subjects' Condition Requirement: A Legal Perspective.Seema Shah & David Wendler - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):365-373.
    The U.S. Federal regulations allow institutional review boards (IRBs) to approve non-beneficial pediatric research when the risks are a minor increase over minimal, provided that the research is likely to develop generalizable knowledge about the subjects' disorder or condition. This “subjects' condition” requirement is quite controversial; commentators have argued for a variety of interpretations. Despite this considerable disagreement in the literature, there have not been any attempts to apply principles of legal interpretation to determine how the subjects' condition requirement should (...)
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  • Assessing the Quality of Informed Consent in a Resource-Limited Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study.Kiguba Ronald, Kutyabami Paul, Kiwuwa Stephen, Katabira Elly & K. Sewankambo Nelson - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):21.
    Background The process of obtaining informed consent continues to be a contentious issue in clinical and public health research carried out in resource-limited settings. We sought to evaluate this process among human research participants in randomly selected active research studies approved by the School of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee at the College of Health Sciences, Makerere University. Methods Data were collected using semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaires on clinic days after initial or repeat informed consent procedures for the respective clinical studies (...)
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  • Informed Refusal: Toward a Justice-Based Bioethics.Ruha Benjamin - 2016 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 41 (6):967-990.
    “Informed consent” implicitly links the transmission of information to the granting of permission on the part of patients, tissue donors, and research subjects. But what of the corollary, informed refusal? Drawing together insights from three moments of refusal, this article explores the rights and obligations of biological citizenship from the vantage point of biodefectors—those who attempt to resist technoscientific conscription. Taken together, the cases expose the limits of individual autonomy as one of the bedrocks of bioethics and suggest the need (...)
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  • ‘Sham Surgery’ Control Groups: Ethics and Context.Teresa Swift - 2011 - Research Ethics 7 (4):148-155.
    The use of placebo controls in surgical research, or ‘sham surgery’ as it sometimes described, raises a number of ethical issues. Despite such issues, sham surgery is presently being employed, albeit very rarely, in surgical research. In this paper, the ethical implications of such control groups are discussed in the context of research into various conditions, including Parkinson's Disease and arthritis. Conflicting ethical considerations include: i) patients' best interests in relation to the harms and risks involved; ii) the need for (...)
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  • Ethical Issues in Alzheimer’s Disease Research Involving Human Subjects.Dena S. Davis - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (12):852-856.
    As we aggressively pursue research to cure and prevent Alzheimer’s disease, we encounter important ethical challenges. None of these challenges, if handled thoughtfully, would pose insurmountable barriers to research. But if they are ignored, they could slow the research process, alienate potential study subjects and do damage to research recruits and others. These challenges are the necessity of very large cohorts of research subjects, recruited for lengthy studies, probably ending only in the subjects’ death; the creation of cohorts of ’study (...)
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  • Undue Inducement: A Case Study in CAPRISA 008.Kathryn T. Mngadi, Jerome A. Singh, Leila E. Mansoor & Douglas R. Wassenaar - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (12):824-828.
    Participant safety and data integrity, critical in trials of new investigational drugs, are achieved through honest participant report and precision in the conduct of procedures. HIV prevention post-trial access studies in middle-income countries potentially offer participants many benefits including access to proven efficacious but unlicensed technologies, ancillary care that often exceeds local standards-of-care, financial reimbursement for participation and possibly unintended benefits if participants choose to share or sell investigational drugs. This case study examines the possibility that this combination of benefits (...)
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  • Are Positive Experiences of Children in Non-Therapeutic Research Justifiable Research Benefits?Mira S. Staphorst, Joke A. M. Hunfeld & Suzanne van de Vathorst - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (8):530-534.
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  • Weaponising Medicine: "Tutti Fratelli," No More.T. Koch - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (5):249-255.
    The acceptance of military directives violating medical ethics and international covenants encouraged by the demonisation of the enemy by the US president in 2002 has effectively removed the right of medical personnel to refuse participation in internationally proscribed actionsMedicine and its traditional ethic of care is today a victim of the current conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan, its uniquely humanising mission rejected by US President George W Bush and his advisors. In denying the applicability of international agreements guaranteeing medicine’s ecumenical (...)
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  • Phase I Oncology Trials: Why the Therapeutic Misconception Will Not Go Away.W. Glannon - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (5):252-255.
    In many cases, the “therapeutic misconception” may be an unavoidable part of the imperfect process of recruitment and consent in medical researchPaul Appelbaum, Loren Roth, and Charles Lidz coined the term “therapeutic misconception” in 1982.1 They described it as the misconception that participating in research is the same as receiving individualised treatment from a physician. It referred to the research subject’s failure to appreciate that the aim of research is to obtain scientific knowledge, and that any benefit to the subject (...)
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  • Therapeutic Optimism in the Consent Forms of Phase 1 Gene Transfer Trials: An Empirical Analysis.J. Kimmelman - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (4):209-214.
    Background: “Therapeutic misconception” arises when human subjects interpret a clinical trial as aimed primarily at therapy rather than producing knowledge. Therapeutic misconceptions may be more prevalent in trials enrolling gravely ill subjects or involving novel and well publicised investigational agents.Objective: To examine the extent to which investigators express therapeutic optimism in phase 1 human gene transfer consent documents, whether highly active gene transfer researchers are more prone to expressing therapeutic optimism, and whether consent forms have grown more optimistic in their (...)
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  • Ethics of Treatment Interruption Trials in HIV Cure Research: Addressing the Conundrum of Risk/Benefit Assessment.Gail E. Henderson, Holly L. Peay, Eugene Kroon, Rosemary Jean Cadigan, Karen Meagher, Thidarat Jupimai, Adam Gilbertson, Jill Fisher, Nuchanart Q. Ormsby, Nitiya Chomchey, Nittaya Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich & Stuart Rennie - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2017-104433.
    Though antiretroviral therapy is the standard of care for people living with HIV, its treatment limitations, burdens, stigma and costs lead to continued interest in HIV cure research. Early-phase cure trials, particularly those that include analytic treatment interruption, involve uncertain and potentially high risk, with minimal chance of clinical benefit. Some question whether such trials should be offered, given the risk/benefit imbalance, and whether those who choose to participate are acting rationally. We address these questions through a longitudinal decision-making study (...)
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  • For Love and Money: The Need to Rethink Benefits in HIV Cure Studies.Emily Largent - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (2):96-99.
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  • Better Consent—and Not Just for When Time Is Short.Jerry Menikoff - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (5):1-3.
    Volume 20, Issue 5, June 2020, Page 1-3.
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  • A Framework for Risk-Benefit Evaluations in Biomedical Research.Wendler Annette Rid David - 2011 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (2):141-179.
    One of the key ethical requirements for biomedical research is that it have an acceptable risk-benefit profile (Emanuel, Wendler, and Grady 2000). The International Conference of Harmonization guidelines mandate that clinical trials should be initiated and continued only if “the anticipated benefits justify the risks” (1996). Guidelines from the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences state that biomedical research is acceptable only if the “potential benefits and risks are reasonably balanced” (2002). U.S. federal regulations require that the “risks to (...)
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  • Eschewing Definitions of the Therapeutic Misconception: A Family Resemblance Analysis.D. S. Goldberg - 2011 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (3):296-320.
    Twenty-five years after the term "therapeutic misconception’ (TM) first entered the literature, most commentators agree that it remains widespread. However, the majority of scholarly attention has focused on the reasons why a patient cum human subject might confuse the goals of research with the goals of therapy. Although this paper addresses the social and cultural factors that seem to animate the TM among subjects, it also fills a niche in the literature by examining why investigators too might operate under a (...)
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  • Are Indirect Benefits Relevant to Health Care Allocation Decisions?Jessica Du Toit & Joseph Millum - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (5):540-557.
    When allocating scarce healthcare resources, the expected benefits of alternative allocations matter. But, there are different kinds of benefits. Some are direct benefits to the recipient of the resource such as the health improvements of receiving treatment. Others are indirect benefits to third parties such as the economic gains from having a healthier workforce. This article considers whether only the direct benefits of alternative healthcare resource allocations are relevant to allocation decisions, or whether indirect benefits are relevant too. First, we (...)
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  • Assessing the Quality of Informed Consent in a Resource-Limited Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study. [REVIEW]Ronald Kiguba, Paul Kutyabami, Stephen Kiwuwa, Elly Katabira & Nelson Sewankambo - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):21-.
    Background: The process of obtaining informed consent continues to be a contentious issue in clinical and public health research carried out in resource-limited settings. We sought to evaluate this process among human research participants in randomly selected active research studies approved by the School of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee at the College of Health Sciences, Makerere University. Methods: Data were collected using semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaires on clinic days after initial or repeat informed consent procedures for the respective clinical studies (...)
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  • International Variation in Ethics Committee Requirements: Comparisons Across Five Westernised Nations. [REVIEW]Felicity Goodyear-Smith, Brenda Lobb, Graham Davies, Israel Nachson & Sheila Seelau - 2002 - BMC Medical Ethics 3 (1):1-8.
    Background Ethics committees typically apply the common principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice to research proposals but with variable weighting and interpretation. This paper reports a comparison of ethical requirements in an international cross-cultural study and discusses their implications. Discussion The study was run concurrently in New Zealand, UK, Israel, Canada and USA and involved testing hypotheses about believability of testimonies regarding alleged child sexual abuse. Ethics committee requirements to conduct this study ranged from nil in Israel to considerable (...)
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  • Minimal Risk Remains an Open Question.Ariella Binik, Charles Weijer & Mark Sheehan - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):25 - 27.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 6, Page 25-27, June 2011.
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  • Different Context, Similar Motives: External Influences on Motivation.Aisha Y. Malik - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (11):26-28.
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  • Advancing Neuroregenerative Medicine: A Call for Expanded Collaboration Between Scientists and Ethicists.Jocelyn Grunwell, Judy Illes & Katrina Karkazis - 2008 - Neuroethics 2 (1):13-20.
    To date, ethics discussions about stem cell research overwhelmingly have centered on the morality and acceptability of using human embryonic stem cells. Governments in many jurisdictions have now answered these “first-level questions” and many have now begun to address ethical issues related to the donation of cells, gametes, or embryos for research. In this commentary, we move beyond these ethical concerns to discuss new themes that scientists on the forefront of NRM development anticipate, providing a preliminary framework for further discussion (...)
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  • Challenging Research on Human Subjects: Justice and Uncompensated Harms.Stephen Napier - 2013 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (1):29-51.
    Ethical challenges to certain aspects of research on human subjects are not uncommon; examples include challenges to first-in-human trials (Chapman in J Clin Res Bioethics 2(4):1–8, 2011), certain placebo controlled trials (Anderson in J Med Philos 31:65–81, 2006; Anderson and Kimmelman in Kennedy Inst Ethics J 20(1):75–98, 2010) and “sham” surgery (Macklin in N Engl J Med 341:992–996, 1999). To date, however, there are few challenges to research when the subjects are competent and the research is more than minimal risk (...)
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  • Mehr Nutzen als Schaden?More good than harm?Angelika Hüppe & Heiner Raspe - 2011 - Ethik in der Medizin 23 (2):107-121.
    Forschung an und mit Menschen muss sich legitimieren, d. h. sie muss ihre wissenschaftliche Qualität, Rechtmäßigkeit und ethische Vertretbarkeit aufzeigen. Zu den Rechtfertigungsbedingungen zählt ein „günstiges“ Verhältnis von Nutzen- und Schadenpotenzialen des Forschungsvorhabens. Unabhängige Ethikkommissionen sind den Forschenden zur Seite gestellt, um sie bei der Prüfung und Sicherstellung der genannten Erfordernisse zu unterstützen. Eine zum Gebrauch durch Ethikkommissionen und Forschende entwickelte Nutzen- und Schadentaxonomie sowie ein Schema zur Systematisierung von Chancen-Risiken-Bewertungen wurde nachträglich auf alle Ethikanträge des Jahres 2006 an die (...)
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  • Informed Consent and Standard of Care: What Must Be Disclosed.Ruth Macklin & Lois Shepherd - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (12):9-13.
    The Office for Human Research Protections was correct in determining that the consent forms for the National Institutes of Health -sponsored SUPPORT study were seriously flawed. Several articles defended the consent forms and criticized the OHRP's actions. Disagreement focuses on three central issues: how risks and benefits should be described in informed consent documents; the meaning and application of the concept of “standard of care” in the context of research; and the proper role of OHRP. Examination of the consent forms (...)
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  • Umbrella and Basket Trials in Oncology: Ethical Challenges.Karolina Strzebonska & Marcin Waligora - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-10.
    Novel precision oncology trial designs, such as basket and umbrella trials, are designed to test new anticancer agents in more effective and affordable ways. However, they present some ethical concerns referred to scientific validity, risk-benefit balance and informed consent. Our aim is to discuss these issues in basket and umbrella trials, giving examples of two ongoing cancer trials: NCI-MATCH and Lung-MAP study. We discuss three ethical requirements for clinical trials which may be challenged in basket and umbrella trial designs. Firstly, (...)
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  • Phase 1 Oncology Trials and Informed Consent.Franklin G. Miller & Steven Joffe - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (12):761-764.
    Ethical concerns have been raised about the quality of informed consent by participants in phase 1 oncology trials. Interview surveys indicate that substantial proportions of trial participants do not understand the purpose of these trials—evaluating toxicity and dosing for subsequent efficacy studies—and overestimate the prospect of therapeutic benefit that they offer. In this article we argue that although these data suggest the desirability of enhancing the process of information disclosure and assessment of comprehension of the implications of study participation, they (...)
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  • Assessing the Quality of Informed Consent in a Resource-Limited Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study.Nelson K. Sewankambo Ronald Kiguba, Paul Kutyabami, Stephen Kiwuwa, Elly Katabira - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):21.
    The process of obtaining informed consent continues to be a contentious issue in clinical and public health research carried out in resource-limited settings. We sought to evaluate this process among human research participants in randomly selected active research studies approved by the School of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee at the College of Health Sciences, Makerere University.
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  • Young Persons in Research: A Call for the Engagement of Youth in Mental Health Research.Emily Bell - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (11):28-30.
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  • Empirical Data on Benefits Children Experience in Clinical Research.Mira Staphorst & Suzanne van de Vathorst - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (11):20-21.
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  • Vulnerability to Influence: A Two-Way Street.Gail E. Henderson, Arlene M. Davis & Nancy M. P. King - 2004 - American Journal of Bioethics 4 (3):50 – 52.
  • The Concept of Minimal Risk: The Need for Better Guidance on the Ethics Review Process.Kyoko Wada - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):27 - 29.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 6, Page 27-29, June 2011.
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  • Does Placebo Surgery-Controlled Research Call for New Provisions to Protect Human Research Participants?Dorothy E. Vawter, Karen G. Gervais & Thomas B. Freeman - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (4):50-53.
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  • Instead of Revising Half the Story, Why Not Rewrite the Whole Thing?Holly A. Taylor - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (3):19 – 21.
  • “When They See Us, It’s Like They Have Seen the Benefits!”: Experiences of Study Benefits Negotiations in Community-Based Studies on the Kenyan Coast.Dorcas M. Kamuya, Vicki Marsh, Patricia Njuguna, Patrick Munywoki, Michael Parker & Sassy Molyneux - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):90.
    Benefit sharing in health research has been the focus of international debates for many years, particularly in developing countries. Whilst increasing attention is being given to frameworks that can guide researchers to determine levels of benefits to participants, there is little empirical research from developing countries on the practical application of these frameworks, including in situations of extreme poverty and vulnerability. In addition, the voices of those who often negotiate and face issues related to benefits in practice - frontline researchers (...)
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