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  1. ‘Slaves Among Us’: The Climate and Character of Eighteenth-Century Philosophical Discussions of Slavery.Margaret Watkins - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (1):e12393.
    This article introduces several aspects of eighteenth-century discussions of slavery that may be unfamiliar or surprising to present-day readers. First, even eighteenth-century philosophers who were opponents of slavery often exhibited marked racism and helped develop racial concepts that would later serve pro-slavery theorists. Such thinkers include Hume, Voltaire, and Kant. Second, we must see slavery debates in the context of larger scientific and political debates, including those about climate and character, just political systems, the superiority or inferiority of the moderns (...)
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  • Revisiting Enlightenment Racial Classification: Time and the Question of Human Diversity.Devin Vartija - forthcoming - Intellectual History Review:1-23.
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  • Kant and Women.Helga Varden - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (4):653-694.
    Kant's conception of women is complex. Although he struggles to bring his considered view of women into focus, a sympathetic reading shows it not to be anti-feminist and to contain important arguments regarding human nature. Kant believes the traditional male-female distinction is unlikely to disappear, but he never proposes the traditional gender ideal as the moral ideal; he rejects the idea that such considerations of philosophical anthropology can set the framework for morality. This is also why his moral works clarifies (...)
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  • Johann Gottlieb Stoll and Forster’s Challenge to Kant.Joris Van Gorkom - 2022 - Critical Philosophy of Race 10 (2):295-311.
    When in 1786 Georg Forster criticized Immanuel Kant’s racial theory, he famously challenged him to oppose slavery. Although Kant declined to take up this challenge, the discussion between Forster and Kant was the impetus for Johann Gottlieb Stoll to present his views on the matter. In his defense of monogenesis Stoll did what Kant had failed to do, namely, explicitly criticize oppressive institutions like the slave trade and slavery with a demand to respect the dignity and humanity of every human (...)
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  • Kant on Education and Improvement: Themes and Problems.Martin Sticker & David Bakhurst - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 55 (6):909-920.
  • Kant on Thinking for Oneself and with Others—the Ethical a Priori, Openness and Diversity.Martin Sticker - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 55 (6):949-965.
  • Kant y la crítica en clave jurídica del colonialismo.Nuria Sánchez Madrid - 2015 - Isegoría 53:727-736.
    La crítica de Kant al colonialismo y sus consideraciones sobre la existencia de una multiplicidad de razas humanas se han mantenido hasta muy reciente fecha en la retaguardia de la atención dedicada a sus textos. Sin embargo, los reproches que Kant dirige desde la autoridad del derecho a las prácticas colonialistas de su época constituyen uno de los aspectos más actuales de su pensamiento. Este trabajo pretende exponer y discutir el horizonte interpretativo abierto por el volumen colectivo Kant and Colonialism. (...)
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  • The Essence of Race: Kant and Late Enlightenment Reflections.Phillip R. Sloan - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 47:191-195.
  • Reinventing Kant?Jameliah Inga Shorter-Bourhanou - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-12.
    Immanuel Kant is often interpreted as a universal egalitarian who claims that all people, regardless of their differences, are equal. This view has been challenged by several scholars including Charles Mills and Robert Bernasconi, who note the persistent racist underpinning in Kant’s work; however, the standard reading is that Kant changed his mind about race and eventually reaffirmed his universalism. By considering Charles Mills’ notion of ‘Black Radical Kantianism’, as a way of reinventing Kant, I argue that continued engagement with (...)
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  • La plausible impronta (política) de Diderot en Kant.Roberto R. Aramayo - 2017 - Ideas Y Valores 66 (163):13-37.
    Así como Hume despertó a Kant del sueño dogmático y Rousseau le descubrió el mundo moral, Diderot le habría hecho acceder al universo de la política. El último Kant podría estar muy influido, sin saberlo, por el Diderot que convirtió la Historia de las dos Indias en la "Biblia de las revoluciones", así como por el de la Enciclopedia. Se defiende la tesis de que todo el proyecto ilustrado tendría una índole radical, y conviene matizar la distinción entre Ilustración moderada (...)
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  • Kant’s Racial Mind–Body Unions.John Harfouch & John Elias Nale - 2015 - Continental Philosophy Review 48 (1):41-58.
    Eric Voegelin’s writings on the historical development of the concept of race in the early 1930s are important to philosophy today in part because they provide a model upon which scholars can further integrate modern philosophy with the critical philosophy of race. In constructing his history, Voegelin’s methodological orientation depends on the centrality of both Kant’s work and the problem of the mind–body union to the concept of race. This essay asks how one might hold these premises if Kant seems (...)
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  • Black Radical Kantianism.Charles W. Mills - 2017 - Res Philosophica 95 (1):1-33.
    This essay tries to develop a “black radical Kantianism”—that is, a Kantianism informed by the black experience in modernity. After looking briefly at socialist and feminist appropriations of Kant, I argue that an analogous black radical appropriation should draw on the distinctive social ontology and view of the state associated with the black radical tradition. In ethics, this would mean working with a social ontology of white persons and black sub-persons and then asking what respect for oneself and others would (...)
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  • Beyond (Non)-Instrumentalization: Migration and Dignity within a Kantian Framework.Corinna Mieth & Garrath Williams - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-16.
    This article offers a Kantian account of dignity violations in the context of contemporary migration to western states. It considers three major issues: “modern slavery,” statutory detention, and lack of rights to engage in economic activity. While most Kantian accounts emphasize the dignity violations of treating people as “mere means,” we point out that this does not capture the central issue: the “hostile environment” that so many migrants face. The first part of the article briefly sets out a Kantian account (...)
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  • Deflating '''Race'''.Lionel K. Mcpherson - 2015 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 1 (4):674--693.
    ABSTRACT:‘Race’ has long searched for a stable, suitable idea, with no consensus on a master meaning in sight. What I call deflationary pluralism about the existence of race recognizes that various meanings may be true as far as they go but avoids murky disputes over whether there are races in some sense. Once we have rejected the notion that racial essences yield innate cognitive differences, there is little point to arguing over the race idea. In its place, I propose the (...)
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  • A Science for Gods, a Science for Humans: Kant on Teleological Speculations in Natural History.Michael Bennett McNulty - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 94:47-55.
  • White Progress: Kant, Race and Teleology.Inder S. Marwah - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-20.
    This article examines how Kant’s conceptualizations of natural history and teleological judgement shape his understanding of human difference and race. I argue that the teleological framework encasing Kant’s racial theory implies constraints on the capacity of non-whites to make moral progress. While commentators tend to approach Kant’s racial theory in relation to his political theory, his late-life cosmopolitanism, and his treatments of colonialism, empire and slavery, the problem I focus on here is that race is itself only intelligible in relation (...)
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  • Philosophical Racism and Ubuntu: In Dialogue with Mogobe Ramose.C. W. Maris - 2020 - South African Journal of Philosophy 39 (3):308-326.
  • Kant and Slavery—Or Why He Never Became a Racial Egalitarian.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2022 - Critical Philosophy of Race 10 (2):263-294.
    According to an oft-repeated narrative, while Kant maintained racist views through the 1780s, he changed his mind in the 1790s. Pauline Kleingeld introduced this narrative based on passages from Kant’s Metaphysics of Morals and “Toward Perpetual Peace”. On her reading, Kant categorically condemned chattel slavery in those texts, which meant that he became more racially egalitarian. But the passages involving slavery, once contextualized, either do not concern modern, race-based chattel slavery or at best suggest that Kant mentioned it as a (...)
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  • Racismo Filosófico: El Concepto de ‘Raza’ En Immanuel Kant.Patricio Lepe-Carrión - 2014 - Filosofia Unisinos 15 (1).
  • Kant on Historiography and the Use of Regulative Ideas.Pauline Kleingeld - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (4):523-528.
    In this paper, I examine Kant’s methodological remarks in the ‘Idea for a universal history’ against the background of the Critique of pure reason. I argue that Kant’s approach to the function of regulative ideas of human history as a whole may still be fruitful. This approach allows for regulative ideas that are grand in scope, but modest and fallibilistic in their epistemic status. Kant’s methodological analysis should be distinguished from the specific teleological model of history he developed on its (...)
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  • How to Use Someone ‘Merely as a Means’.Pauline Kleingeld - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (3):389-414.
    The prohibition on using others ‘merely as means’ is one of the best-known and most influential elements of Immanuel Kant’s moral theory. But it is widely regarded as impossible to specify with precision the conditions under which this prohibition is violated. On the basis of a re-examination of Kant’s texts, the article develops a novel account of the conditions for using someone ‘merely as a means’. It is argued that this account has not only strong textual support but also significant (...)
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  • Charles Mills’ ‘Black Radical Kantianism’ as a Plot Twist for Kant Studies and Contemporary Kantian-Liberal Political Philosophy.Dilek Huseyinzadegan - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-15.
    This article shows that the methodology of Mills’ ‘Black Radical Kantianism’ represents a major plot twist for Kant studies as well as contemporary political philosophy utilizing Kantian ideas. BRK is no mere upgrade of Kant’s or Kantian ideal theory for racial justice. Mills’ methodology requires us to posit both that the real Kant and establishment Kantianism have been racist, sexist and Eurocentric; and that only by first admitting and reckoning with the compatibility of white supremacy and liberal egalitarianism can we (...)
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  • The Quest for a Global Age of Reason. Part I: Asia, Africa, the Greeks, and the Enlightenment Roots.Dag Herbjørnsrud - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (3):113-131.
    This paper will contend that we, in the first quarter of the 21st century, need an enhanced Age of Reason based on global epistemology. One reason to legitimize such a call for more intellectual enlightenment is the lack of required information on non-European philosophy in today’s reading lists at European and North American universities. Hence, the present-day Academy contributes to the scarcity of knowledge about the world’s global history of ideas outside one’s ethnocentric sphere. The question is whether we genuinely (...)
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  • Kant on the Highest Moral-Physical Good: The Social Aspect of Kant's Moral Philosophy.Paul Formosa - 2010 - Kantian Review 15 (1):1-36.
    Kant identifies the “highest moral-physical good” as that combination of “good living” and “true humanity” which best harmonises in a “good meal in good company”. Why does Kant privilege the dinner party in this way? By examining Kant’s accounts of enlightenment, cosmopolitanism, love and respect, and gratitude and friendship, the answer to this question becomes clear. Kant’s moral ideal is that of an enlightened and just cosmopolitan human being who feels and acts with respect and love for all persons and (...)
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  • A Kantian Approach to Education for Moral Sensitivity.Paul Formosa - 2022 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 55 (6):1017-1028.
    An important aspect of moral expertise is moral sensitivity, which is the ability to be sensitive to the presence of morally salient features in a context. This requires being able to see and acquire the morally relevant information, as well as organise and interpret it, so that you can undertake the related work of moral judgement, focus (or motivation) and action. As a distinct but interrelated component of ethical expertise, moral sensitivity can and must be trained and educated. However, despite (...)
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  • At the Bar of Conscience: A Kantian Argument for Slavery Reparations.Jason R. Fisette - 2022 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 48 (5):674-702.
    Arguments for slavery reparations have fallen out of favor even as reparations for other forms of racial injustice are taken more seriously. This retreat is unsurprising, as arguments for slavery reparations often rely on two normatively irregular claims: that reparations are owed to the dead (as opposed to, say, their living heirs), and that the present generation inherits an as yet unrequited guilt from past generations. Outside of some strands of Black thought and activism on slavery reparations, these claims are (...)
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  • Kant on Race and Barbarism: Towards a More Complex View on Racism and Anti-Colonialism in Kant.Oliver Eberl - 2019 - Kantian Review 24 (3):385-413.
    Whether Kant’s late legal theory and his theory of race are contradictory in their account of colonialism has been a much-debated question that is also of highest importance for the evaluation of the Enlightenment’s contribution to Europe’s colonial expansion and the dispossession and enslavement of native and black peoples. This article discusses the problem by introducing the discourse on barbarism. This neglected discourse is the original and traditional European colonial vocabulary and served the justification of colonialism from ancient Greece throughout (...)
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  • Can Non‐Europeans Philosophize? Transnational Literacy and Planetary Ethics in a Global Age.Nikita Dhawan - 2017 - Hypatia 32 (3):488-505.
    Defenders of the Enlightenment highlight the long neglected anticolonial writings of thinkers like Immanuel Kant, which serve as a corrective to the misrepresentation of the Enlightenment's epistemological investment in imperialism. One of the most pervasive repercussions of the claim that the Enlightenment was always already anti-imperial is that postcolonial critique is rendered redundant, and the project of decolonizing European philosophy becomes unnecessary. Contesting the exoneration of Enlightenment philosophers of racism and sexism, this article debunks the claim that Kantian cosmopolitanism was (...)
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  • Adorno's Two‐Track Conceptualization of Progress: The New Categorical Imperative and Politics of Remembrance.Volkan Çıdam - 2021 - Constellations 28 (1):79-94.
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  • Sources of Kant’s Cosmopolitanism: Basedow, Rousseau, and Cosmopolitan Education.Georg Cavallar - 2013 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 33 (4):369-389.
    The goal of this essay is to analyse the influence of Johann Bernhard Basedow and Rousseau on Kant’s cosmopolitanism and concept of cosmopolitan education. It argues that both Basedow and Kant defined cosmopolitan education as non-denominational moral formation or Bildung, encompassing—in different forms—a thin version of moral religion following the core tenets of Christianity. Kant’s encounter with Basedow and the Philanthropinum in Dessau helps to understand the development of Kant’s concept of cosmopolitanism and educational theory ‘in weltbürgerlicher Absicht’. Rousseau’s role (...)
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  • Appropriating Resources: Land Claims, Law, and Illicit Business.Edmund F. Byrne - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 106 (4):453-466.
    Business ethicists should examine ethical issues that impinge on the perimeters of their specialized studies (Byrne 2011 ). This article addresses one peripheral issue that cries out for such consideration: the international resource privilege (IRP). After explaining briefly what the IRP involves I argue that it is unethical and should not be supported in international law. My argument is based on others’ findings as to the consequences of current IRP transactions and of their ethically indefensible historical precedents. In particular I (...)
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  • A Marxist Educated Kant: Philosophy of History in Kant and the Frankfurt School.Hauke Brunkhorst - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (4):515-540.
    In a lecture that Habermas gave on his 90th birthday he ironically, but with serious intent, called a good Kant a sufficiently Marxist educated Kant. This dialectical Kant is the only one of the many Kants who maintains the idea of an unconditioned moral autonomy but completely within evolution, history and in the middle of societal class and other struggles. The article tries to show what Kant could have learned from his later critics to enable him to become a member (...)
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  • What is an Anti-Racist Philosophy of Race and History?Elvira Basevich - 2022 - Critical Philosophy of Race 10 (1):71-89.
    In this article, I defend the pragmatic relevance of race in history. Kant and Hegel's racist development thesis assumes that nonwhite, non-European racial groups are defective practical agents. In response, philosophers have opted to drop race from a theory of history and progress. They posit that denying its pragmatic relevance amounts to anti-racist egalitarianism. I dub this tactic “colorblind cosmopolitanism” and offer grounds for its rejection. Following Du Bois, I ascribe, instead, a pragmatic role to race in history. Namely, Du (...)
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  • The plausible influence of diderot on kant.Roberto R. Aramayo - 2017 - Ideas Y Valores 66 (163):13-37.
    RESUMEN Así como Hume despertó a Kant del sueño dogmático y Rousseau le descubrió el mundo moral, Diderot le habría hecho acceder al universo de la política. El último Kant podría estar muy influido, sin saberlo, por el Diderot que convirtió la Historia de las dos Indias en la "Biblia de las revoluciones", así como por el de la Enciclopedia. Se defiende la tesis de que todo el proyecto ilustrado tendría una índole radical, y conviene matizar la distinción entre Ilustración (...)
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  • Kant’s Racism.Lucy Allais - 2016 - Philosophical Papers 45 (1-2):1-36.
    After a long period of comparative neglect, in the last few decades growing numbers of philosophers have been paying attention to the startling contrast presented between Kant’s universal moral theory, with its inspiring enlightenment ideas of human autonomy, equality and dignity and Kant’s racism. Against Charles Mills, who argues that the way to make Kant consistent is by attributing to him a threshold notion of moral personhood, according to which some races do not qualify for consideration under the categorical imperative, (...)
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  • The Concept of Race in Kant’s Lectures on Anthropology.Alexey Zhavoronkov & Alexey Salikov - 2018 - Con-Textos Kantianos 7:275-292.
    In the course of the last 20 years, the problem of Kant’s view of races has evolved from a marginal topic to a question which affects his critical philosophy in general, including the anthropology and its influence on contemporary social studies. The goal of our paper is to examine the anthropological role of Kant’s concept of race from the largely overlooked or underestimated perspective of his Lectures on Anthropology. Taking into account the differences between Kant’s approach in the early lectures (...)
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  • Wittgenstein's Critical Physiognomy.Daniel Kirwan Wack - 2014 - Nordic Wittgenstein Review 3 (1):113-137.
    In saying that meaning is a physiognomy, Wittgenstein invokes a philosophical tradition of critical physiognomy, one that developed in opposition to a scientific physiognomy. The form of a critical physiognomic judgment is one of reasoning that is circular and dynamic, grasping intention, thoughts, and emotions in seeing the expressive movements of bodies in action. In identifying our capacities for meaning with our capacities for physiognomic perception, Wittgenstein develops an understanding of perception and meaning as oriented and structured by our shared (...)
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  • African Communitarianism and Difference.Thaddeus Metz - 2020 - In Elvis Imafidon (ed.), Handbook of the African Philosophy of Difference. Springer. pp. 31-51.
    There has been the recurrent suspicion that community, harmony, cohesion, and similar relational goods as understood in the African ethical tradition threaten to occlude difference. Often, it has been Western defenders of liberty who have raised the concern that these characteristically sub-Saharan values fail to account adequately for individuality, although some contemporary African thinkers have expressed the same concern. In this chapter, I provide a certain understanding of the sub-Saharan value of communal relationship and demonstrate that it entails a substantial (...)
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  • Kant's Second Thoughts on Colonialism.Pauline Kleingeld - 2014 - In Katrin Flikschuh & Lea Ypi (eds.), Kant and Colonialism: Historical and Critical Perspectives. Oxford University Press. pp. 43-67.
    Kant is widely regarded as a fierce critic of colonialism. In Toward Perpetual Peace and the Metaphysics of Morals, for example, he forcefully condemns European conduct in the colonies as a flagrant violation of the principles of right. His earlier views on colonialism have not yet received much detailed scrutiny, however. In this essay I argue that Kant actually endorsed and justified European colonialism until the early 1790s. I show that Kant’s initial endorsement and his subsequent criticism of colonialism are (...)
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