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  1. Deciding for a Child: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Best Interest Standard. [REVIEW]Erica K. Salter - 2012 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (3):179-198.
    This article critically examines, and ultimately rejects, the best interest standard as the predominant, go-to ethical and legal standard of decision making for children. After an introduction to the presumption of parental authority, it characterizes and distinguishes six versions of the best interest standard according to two key dimensions related to the types of interests emphasized. Then the article brings three main criticisms against the best interest standard: (1) that it is ill-defined and inconsistently appealed to and applied, (2) that (...)
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  • “If an Acute Event Occurs, What Should We Do?” Diverse Ethical Approaches to Decision-Making in the ICU.Federico Nicoli, Paul Cummins, Joseph A. Raho, Rouven Porz, Giulio Minoja & Mario Picozzi - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (3):475-486.
    The aim of this paper is to analyze an Intensive Care Unit case that required ethics consultation at a University Hospital in Northern Italy. After the case was resolved, a retrospective ethical analysis was performed by four clinical ethicists who work in different healthcare contexts. Each ethicist used a different method to analyze the case; the four general approaches provide insight into how these ethicists conduct ethics consultations at their respective hospitals. Concluding remarks examine the similarities and differences among the (...)
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  • Non-Beneficial Pediatric Research: Individual and Social Interests.Jan Piasecki, Marcin Waligora & Vilius Dranseika - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (1):103-112.
    Biomedical research involving human subjects is an arena of conflicts of interests. One of the most important conflicts is between interests of participants and interests of future patients. Legal regulations and ethical guidelines are instruments designed to help find a fair balance between risks and burdens taken by research subjects and development of knowledge and new treatment. There is an universally accepted ethical principle, which states that it is not ethically allowed to sacrifice individual interests for the sake of society (...)
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  • A Narrative Approach to the Clinical Reasoning Process in Pediatric Intensive Care: The Story of Matthew.Michele A. Carter & Sally S. Robinson - 2001 - Journal of Medical Humanities 22 (3):173-194.
    This paper offers a narrative approach to understanding the process of clinical reasoning in complex cases involving medical uncertainty, moral ambiguity, and futility. We describe a clinical encounter in which the pediatric health care team experienced a great deal of conflict and distrust as a result of an ineffective process of interpretation and communication. We propose a systematic method for analyzing the technical, ethical, behavioral, and existential dimensions of the clinical reasoning process, and introduce the Clinical Reasoning Discussion Tool—a dialogical (...)
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  • Best Interests, Public Interest, and the Power of the Medical Profession.John Coggon - 2008 - Health Care Analysis 16 (3):219-232.
    This article provides an understanding and defence of ‘best interests’. The analysis is performed in the context of, and is informed by, English law. The understanding that develops allows for differences in values, and is thus argued to be appropriate in a pluralist liberal system. When understood properly, it is argued, best interests provides the best means of decision-making for people deemed incompetent to decide for themselves. It is accepted that some commentators are cynical of best interests in practice. Following (...)
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  • The Best Interests Standard for Incompetent or Incapacitated Persons of All Ages.Loretta M. Kopelman - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (1):187-196.
    When making decisions for adults who lack decision-making capacity and have no discernable preferences, widespread support exists for using the Best Interests Standard. This policy appeals to adults and is compatible with many important recommendations for persons facing end-of-life choices.Common objections to the policy are discussed as well as different meanings of this Standard identified, such as using it to express goals or ideals and to make practical decisions incorporating what reasonable persons would want. For reasons of consistency, fairness, and (...)
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  • Children, Fetuses, and the Non-Existent: Moral Obligations and the Beginning of Life.Elizabeth Jackson - 2021 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 46 (4):379–393.
    The morality of abortion is a longstanding controversy. One may wonder whether it’s even possible to make significant progress on an issue over which so much ink has already been split and there is such polarizing disagreement (Boyle 1994). The papers in this issue show that this progress is possible—there is more to be said about abortion and other crucial beginning-of-life issues. They do so largely by applying contemporary philosophical tools to moral questions involving life’s beginning. The first two papers (...)
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  • Whose Harm? Which Metaphysic?Abram Brummett - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (1):43-61.
    Douglas Diekema has argued that it is not the best interest standard, but the harm principle that serves as the moral basis for ethicists, clinicians, and the courts to trigger state intervention to limit parental authority in the clinic. Diekema claims the harm principle is especially effective in justifying state intervention in cases of religiously motivated medical neglect in pediatrics involving Jehovah’s Witnesses and Christian Scientists. I argue that Diekema has not articulated a harm principle that is capable of justifying (...)
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  • Parental Refusals of Medical Treatment: The Harm Principle as Threshold for State Intervention.Douglas Diekema - 2004 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 25 (4):243-264.
    Minors are generally considered incompetent to provide legally binding decisions regarding their health care, and parents or guardians are empowered to make those decisions on their behalf. Parental authority is not absolute, however, and when a parent acts contrary to the best interests of a child, the state may intervene. The best interests standard is the threshold most frequently employed in challenging a parent''s refusal to provide consent for a child''s medical care. In this paper, I will argue that the (...)
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  • Using a New Analysis of the Best Interests Standard to Address Cultural Disputes: Whose Data, Which Values?Loretta M. Kopelman & Arthur E. Kopelman - 2007 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (5):373-391.
    Clinicians sometimes disagree about how much to honor surrogates’ deeply held cultural values or traditions when they differ from those of the host country. Such a controversy arose when parents requested a cultural accommodation to let their infant die by withdrawing life saving care. While both the parents and clinicians claimed to be using the Best Interests Standard to decide what to do, they were at an impasse. This standard is analyzed into three necessary and jointly sufficient conditions and used (...)
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  • Interests and Neonates: There is More to the Story Than We Explicitly Acknowledge.D. Micah Hester - 2007 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (5):357-372.
    Although there are many different moral arguments concerning the use of Best Interests in neonatal decision-making, there seems in practice a firm commitment to application of the concept. And yet, there is still little reflection given by practitioners about what employing a Best Interest determination means in infant care. The following lays out a comprehensive taxonomy of interest-sources in order to provide for more robust considerations of what constitutes best interests of/for neonates.
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  • Accepting Adoption’s Uncertainty: The Limited Ethics of Pre-Adoption Genetic Testing.Kimberly J. Leighton - 2014 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (2):245-260.
    An increasing number of children are adopted in the United States from countries where both medical care and environmental conditions are extremely poor. In response to worries about the accuracy of medical histories, prospective adoptive parents increasingly request genetic testing of children prior to adoption. Though a general consensus on the ethics of pre-adoption genetic testing (PAGT) argues against permitting genetic testing on children available for adoption that is not also permitted for children in general, a view gaining traction argues (...)
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  • Secular Clinical Ethicists Should Not Be Neutral Toward All Religious Beliefs: An Argument for a Moral-Metaphysical Proceduralism.Abram L. Brummett - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (6):5-16.
    Secular clinical ethics has responded to the problem of moral pluralism with a procedural approach. However, defining this term stirs debate: H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr. has championed a contentless proceduralism, while others, conversely, argue for a proceduralism that permits some content in the form of moral claims. This paper argues that the content P2 permits ought to be expanded to include some metaphysical commitments, in an approach referred to as P2+. The need for P2+ is demonstrated by analyzing and rejecting (...)
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  • Postponed Withholding: Balanced Decision-Making at the Margins of Viability.Janicke Syltern, Lars Ursin, Berge Solberg & Ragnhild Støen - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics:1-12.
    Advances in neonatology have led to improved survival for periviable infants. Immaturity still carries a high risk of short- and long-term harms, and uncertainty turns provision of life support int...
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  • The Zone of Parental Discretion: An Ethical Tool for Dealing with Disagreement Between Parents and Doctors About Medical Treatment for a Child.Lynn Gillam - 2016 - Clinical Ethics 11 (1):1-8.
    Dealing with situations where parents’ views about treatment for their child are strongly opposed to doctors’ views is one major area of ethical challenge in paediatric health care. The traditional approach focuses on the child’s best interests, but this is problematic for a number of reasons. The Harm Principle test is regarded by many ethicists as more appropriate than the best interests test. Despite this, use of the best interests test for intervening in parental decisions is still very common in (...)
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  • Acquiescence is Not Agreement: The Problem of Marginalization in Pediatric Decision Making.Amy E. Caruso Brown - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics:1-19.
    Although parents are the default legal surrogate decision-makers for minor children in the U.S., shared decision making in a pluralistic society is often much more complicated, involving not just p...
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  • What Conditions Justify Risky Nontherapeutic or "No Benefit" Pediatric Studies: A Sliding Scale Analysis.Loretta M. Kopelman - 2004 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (4):749-758.
    Many pediatric research regulations, including those of the United States, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Science, and South Africa, offer similar rules for review board approval of higher hazard studies holding out no therapeutic or direct benefit to children with disorders or conditions. Authorization requires gaining parental permissions and the children’s assent, if that is possible, and showing that these studies are intended to gain vitally important and generalizable information about children’s conditions; it also requires limiting the risks (...)
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  • What Conditions Justify Risky Nontherapeutic or “No Benefit” Pediatric Studies: A Sliding Scale Analysis.Loretta M. Kopelman - 2004 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (4):749-758.
    Many pediatric research regulations, including those of the United States, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Science, and South Africa, offer similar rules for review board approval of higher hazard studies holding out no therapeutic or direct benefit to children with disorders or conditions. Authorization requires gaining parental permissions and the children’s assent, if that is possible, and showing that these studies are intended to gain vitally important and generalizable information about children’s conditions; it also requires limiting the risks (...)
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  • Fetal Protection in Wisconsin's Revised Child Abuse Law: Right Goal, Wrong Remedy.Kenneth A. De Ville & Loretta M. Kopelman - 1999 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 27 (4):332-342.
    In the summer of 1998, the Wisconsin State legislature amended its child protection laws. Under new child abuse provisions, Wisconsin judges can confine pregnant women who abuse alcohol or drugs for the duration of their pregnancies. South Dakota enacted similar legislation almost simultaneously. The South Dakota statute requires mandatory drug and alcohol treatment for pregnant women who abuse those substances and classifies such activity as child abuse. In addition, the South Dakota legislation gives relatives the power to commit pregnant women (...)
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  • Predictive Genetic Testing of Children and the Role of the Best Interest Standard: Currents in Contemporary Bioethics.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (4):899-906.
    The “best interest standard” is the guidance principle for pediatric healthcare in the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK). In the UK, the best interest standard may also be used as an intervention principle when parents make good but non-ideal decisions whereas intervention in the US requires a determination of abuse or neglect. I examine whether and how the different uses of the best interest standard influence predictive genetic testing of children.
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  • Predictive Genetic Testing of Children and the Role of the Best Interest Standard: Currents in Contemporary Bioethics.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (4):899-906.
    The genetic testing and screening of children has been fraught with controversy since Robert Guthrie developed the bacterial inhibition assay to test for phenylketonuria and advocated for rapid uptake of universal newborn screening in the early 1960s. Today with fast and affordable mass screening of the whole genome on the horizon, the debate about when and in what scenarios children should undergo genetic testing and screening has gained renewed attention. United States professional guidelines — both the American College of Medical (...)
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  • Parental Manual Ventilation in Resource-Limited Settings: An Ethical Controversy.Emily Barsky & Sadath Sayeed - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (7):459-464.
    Lower respiratory tract infections are a leading cause of paediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide. Children in low-income countries are disproportionately affected. This is in large part due to limitations in healthcare resources and medical technologies. Mechanical ventilation can be a life-saving therapy for many children with acute respiratory failure. The scarcity of functioning ventilators in low-income countries results in countless preventable deaths. Some hospitals have attempted to adapt to this scarcity by using hand-bag ventilation, as either a bridge to a (...)
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  • Minority Report: Can Minor Parents Refuse Treatment for Their Child?Helen Lynne Turnham, Ariella Binik & Dominic Wilkinson - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (6):355-359.
    Infants are unable to make their own decisions or express their own wishes about medical procedures and treatments. They rely on surrogates to make decisions for them. Who should be the decision-maker when an infant’s biological parents are also minors? In this paper, we analyse a case in which the biological mother is a child. The central questions raised by the case are whether minor parents should make medical decisions on behalf of an infant, and if so, what are the (...)
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  • The Best Interest Standard and Children: Clarifying a Concept and Responding to its Critics.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (2):117-124.
    This work clarifies the role of the best interest standard as ethical principle in the medical care of children. It relates the BIS to the ethical framework of medical practice. The BIS is shown to be a general principle in medical ethics, providing grounding to prima facie obligations. The foundational BIS of Kopelman and Buchanan and Brock are reviewed and shown to be in agreement with the BIS here defended. Critics describe the BIS as being too demanding, narrow, opaque, not (...)
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  • Settling for Second Best: When Should Doctors Agree to Parental Demands for Suboptimal Medical Treatment?Tara Nair, Julian Savulescu, Jim Everett, Ryan Tonkens & Dominic Wilkinson - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (12):831-840.
    Background Doctors sometimes encounter parents who object to prescribed treatment for their children, and request suboptimal substitutes be administered instead. Previous studies have focused on parental refusal of treatment and when this should be permitted, but the ethics of requests for suboptimal treatment has not been explored. Methods The paper consists of two parts: an empirical analysis and an ethical analysis. We performed an online survey with a sample of the general public to assess respondents’ thresholds for acceptable harm and (...)
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  • Harm: As Indeterminate as ‘Best Interests’, but Useful for Triage.Charles Foster - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (2):121-122.
  • Harm Isn't All You Need: Parental Discretion and Medical Decisions for a Child: Table 1.Dominic Wilkinson & Tara Nair - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (2):116-118.
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  • Is It in the Best Interests of an Intellectually Disabled Infant to Die?D. Wilkinson - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (8):454-459.
    One of the most contentious ethical issues in the neonatal intensive care unit is the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment from infants who may otherwise survive. In practice, one of the most important factors influencing this decision is the prediction that the infant will be severely intellectually disabled. Most professional guidelines suggest that decisions should be made on the basis of the best interests of the infant. It is, however, not clear how intellectual disability affects those interests. Why should intellectual disability (...)
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  • Overriding Parents’ Medical Decisions for Their Children: A Systematic Review of Normative Literature.Rosalind J. McDougall & Lauren Notini - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (7):448-452.
    This paper reviews the ethical literature on conflicts between health professionals and parents about medical decision-making for children. We present the results of a systematic review which addressed the question ‘when health professionals and parents disagree about the appropriate course of medical treatment for a child, under what circumstances is the health professional ethically justified in overriding the parents’ wishes?’ We identified nine different ethical frameworks that were put forward by their authors as applicable across various ages and clinical scenarios. (...)
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  • Moral Hazard in Pediatrics.Donald Brunnquell & Christopher M. Michaelson - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (7):29-38.
    “Moral hazard” is a term familiar in economics and business ethics that illuminates why rational parties sometimes choose decisions with bad moral outcomes without necessarily intending to behave selfishly or immorally. The term is not generally used in medical ethics. Decision makers such as parents and physicians generally do not use the concept or the word in evaluating ethical dilemmas. They may not even be aware of the precise nature of the moral hazard problem they are experiencing, beyond a general (...)
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  • When Surrogate Decision-Making Is Not Straightforward.Marcia Sue DeWolf Bosek, Teresa A. Savage, Lisa Anderson Shaw & Camille Renella - 2001 - Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 3 (2):47-57.
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  • On Pellegrino and Thomasma’s Admission of a Dilemma and Inconsistency.Loretta M. Kopelman - 2019 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 44 (6):677-697.
    Edmund Pellegrino and David Thomasma’s writings have had a worldwide impact on discourse about the philosophy of medicine, professionalism, bioethics, healthcare ethics, and patients’ rights. Given their works’ importance, it is surprising that commentators have ignored their admission of an unresolved and troubling dilemma and inconsistency in their theory. The purpose of this article is to identify and state what problems worried them and to consider possible solutions. It is argued that their dilemma stems from their concerns about how to (...)
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  • Deciding Together? Best Interests and Shared Decision-Making in Paediatric Intensive Care.Giles Birchley - 2014 - Health Care Analysis 22 (3):203-222.
    In the western healthcare, shared decision making has become the orthodox approach to making healthcare choices as a way of promoting patient autonomy. Despite the fact that the autonomy paradigm is poorly suited to paediatric decision making, such an approach is enshrined in English common law. When reaching moral decisions, for instance when it is unclear whether treatment or non-treatment will serve a child’s best interests, shared decision making is particularly questionable because agreement does not ensure moral validity. With reference (...)
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  • Intervention Principles in Pediatric Health Care: The Difference Between Physicians and the State.D. MacDougall - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (4):279-297.
    According to various accounts, intervention in pediatric decisions is justified either by the best interests standard or by the harm principle. While these principles have various nuances that distinguish them from each other, they are similar in the sense that both focus primarily on the features of parental decisions that justify intervention, rather than on the competency or authority of the parties that intervene. Accounts of these principles effectively suggest that intervention in pediatric decision making is warranted for both physicians (...)
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  • Rola świadomej zgody rodziców w opiece nad noworodkami na granicy zdolności do przeżycia.Paweł Łuków - 2020 - Diametros 17 (63):40-55.
    The paper analyses the application of the best interest standard in the medical care of extremely preterm babies. It proposes that as long as the parents base their decision on a well-founded medical opinion regarding the neonate’s diagnosis and prognosis and are not victims of superstition or prejudice, medical professionals are obligated to respect the parents’ informed consent, even if the professionals disagree with the parents’ opinion. In their assessments of the neonate’s interest, medical professionals can be primarily guided by (...)
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  • Best Interests or Harm to Reverse Parental Decisions: Each in Its Own Domain.Allan J. Jacobs - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (8):41-44.
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  • Pediatric Decision Making Requires Both Guidance and Intervention Principles.Erin Talati Paquette & Lainie Friedman Ross - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (8):44-46.
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  • Why the Best Interest Standard Is Not Self-Defeating, Too Individualistic, Unknowable, Vague or Subjective.Loretta M. Kopelman - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (8):34-36.
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  • The Best Interest Standard for Health Care Decision Making: Definition and Defense.Thaddeus Mason Pope - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (8):36-38.
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  • Dominic Wilkinson: Death or Disability? The “Carmentis Machine” and Decision-Making for Critically Ill Children: Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013, 320 Pp, $54.00 , ISBN: 978-0-19-966943-1.Fermín J. González-Melado - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (5):363-368.
  • The Not Unreasonable Standard for Assessment of Surrogates and Surrogate Decisions.Rosamond Rhodes & Ian Holzman - 2004 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 25 (4):367-386.
    Standard views on surrogate decision making present alternative ideal models of what ideal surrogates should consider in rendering a decision. They do not, however, explain the physician''s responsibility to a patient who lacks decisional capacity or how a physician should regard surrogates and surrogate decisions. The authors argue that it is critical to recognize the moral difference between a patient''s decisions and a surrogate''s and the professional responsibilities implied by that distinction. In every case involving a patient who lacks decisional (...)
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  • Minors and Contested Medical-Surgical Treatment.Jeanne Snelling - 2016 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 25 (1):50-62.
    :Use of the best-interests test as the legal standard to justify medical treatment in respect to legally incompetent adults or minors has come under sustained critique over the years. “Best interests” has variously been alleged to be indeterminate as well as susceptible to majoritarian ideology and inherent bias. It has also been alleged to be inferior to rights-based approaches. Against the background of several particularly hard cases involving minors discussed by Gillett in a prior article in this journal, this article (...)
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  • Make Her a Virgin Again: When Medical Disputes About Minors Are Cultural Clashes.L. M. Kopelman - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (1):8-25.
    Recalcitrant disputes among health care providers and patients or their families may signal deep cultural differences about what interventions are needed or about clinicians’s professional duties. These issues arose in relation to a mother’s request for hymenoplasty or revirgination for her minor daughter to enable an overseas, forced marriage and protect her from an honor killing. The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology committee recommends against members performing a hymenoplasty or other female genital cosmetic surgeries due to a lack of (...)
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  • Neither the Harm Principle nor the Best Interest Standard Should Be Applied to Pediatric Research.Marcin Waligora, Karolina Strzebonska & Mateusz T. Wasylewski - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (8):72-74.
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  • The Harm Principle Cannot Replace the Best Interest Standard: Problems With Using the Harm Principle for Medical Decision Making for Children.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (8):9-19.
    For many years the prevailing paradigm for medical decision making for children has been the best interest standard. Recently, some authors have proposed that Mill’s “harm principle” should be used to mediate or to replace the best interest standard. This article critically examines the harm principle movement and identifies serious defects within the project of using Mill’s harm principle for medical decision making for children. While the harm principle proponents successfully highlight some difficulties in present-day use of the best interest (...)
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  • Are Physicians Obligated Always to Act in the Patient's Best Interests?D. Wendler - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (2):66-70.
    The principle that physicians should always act in the best interests of the present patient is widely endorsed. At the same time, and often within the same document, it is recognised that there are appropriate exceptions to this principle. Unfortunately, little, if any, guidance is provided regarding which exceptions are appropriate and how they should be handled. These circumstances might be tenable if the appropriate exceptions were rare. Yet, evaluation of the literature reveals that there are numerous exceptions, several of (...)
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  • Bioethics in a Clinic for Women with Psychosis.M. V. Seeman & B. Seeman - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (9):518-522.
    Clinical ethics takes on a special cast in a rehabilitation clinic for psychosis where many patients come from severely disadvantaged backgrounds and many suffer from fluctuating decisional capacity. This paper illustrates several ethical issues—truth telling and partiality, prescribing concealed medication, questionable billing practices, industry collaboration, limits of confidentiality, grounds for abandonment and the primacy of autonomy—in the hope that discussing such matters will lead to a clearer framework for work with this population.
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  • Rejecting the Baby Doe Rules and Defending a "Negative" Analysis of the Best Interests Standard.Loretta Kopelman - 2005 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (4):331 – 352.
    Two incompatible policies exist for guiding medical decisions for extremely premature, sick, or terminally ill infants, the Best Interests Standard and the newer, 20-year old "Baby Doe" Rules. The background, including why there were two sets of Baby Doe Rules, and their differences with the Best Interests Standard, are illustrated. Two defenses of the Baby Doe Rules are considered and rejected. The first, held by Reagan, Koop, and others, is a "right-to-life" defense. The second, held by some leaders of the (...)
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  • Toward a Coherent Account of Pediatric Decision Making.A. S. Iltis - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (5):526-552.
    Within and among societies, there are competing understandings of the status of children, including debates over whether they can bear rights and, if so, which rights they bear and against whom, and their capacity to make decisions and be held responsible and accountable for actions. There also are different understandings of what constitutes a family; what authority parents have over and regarding their children; and what should happen to children who are without parents because of death, desertion, or imprisonment. These (...)
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  • Children's Participation in the Decision-Making Process During Hospitalization: An Observational Study.Ingrid Runeson, Inger Hallström, Gunnel Elander & Göran Hermerén - 2002 - Nursing Ethics 9 (6):583-598.
    Twenty-four children (aged 5 months to 18 years) who were admitted to a university hospital were observed for a total of 135 hours with the aim of describing their degree of participation in decisions concerning their own care. Grading of their participation was made by using a 5-point scale. An assessment was also made of what was considered as optimal participation in each situation. The results indicate that children are not always allowed to participate in decision making to the extent (...)
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