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  1. Randomization and Rules for Causal Inferences in Biology: When the Biological Emperor (Significance Testing) Has No Clothes.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (2):154-161.
  • Conceptual Analysis and Special-Interest Science: Toxicology and the Case of Edward Calabrese.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2010 - Synthese 177 (3):449 - 469.
    One way to do socially relevant investigations of science is through conceptual analysis of scientific terms used in special-interest science (SIS). SIS is science having welfare-related consequences and funded by special interests, e.g., tobacco companies, in order to establish predetermined conclusions. For instance, because the chemical industry seeks deregulation of toxic emissions and avoiding costly cleanups, it funds SIS that supports the concept of "hormesis" (according to which low doses of toxins/carcinogens have beneficial effects). Analyzing the hormesis concept of its (...)
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  • Agents, Modeling Processes, and the Allure of Prophecy.William A. Griffin, Manfred D. Laubichler & Werner Callebaut - 2008 - Biological Theory 3 (1):73-78.
    Ioannidis [Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Med 2: e124 ] identifies six factors that contribute to explaining why most of the current published research findings are more likely to be false than true, and argues that for many current scientific fields, claimed research findings may often be simply accurate measures of the prevailing bias. In this article, we argue that three “hot” areas in current biological research, viz., agent-based modeling, evolutionary developmental biology , and systems biology, are (...)
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