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  1. Putting appraisal in context: Toward a relational model of appraisal and emotion.Craig A. Smith & Leslie D. Kirby - 2009 - Cognition and Emotion 23 (7):1352-1372.
    According to appraisal theory, emotions result from an individual's meaning analysis of the implications of his/her circumstances for personal well-being, and individual differences in emotion arise when individuals appraise similar situations differently. Relational models of appraisal attempt to describe the situational and dispositional antecedents of appraisals, and should allow one to predict such individual differences. In this article, we review three examples of our efforts toward developing relational appraisal models. In two, we start with a particular appraisal component, motivational relevance (...)
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  • The dynamic architecture of emotion: Evidence for the component process model.Klaus R. Scherer - 2009 - Cognition and Emotion 23 (7):1307-1351.
    Emotion is conceptualised as an emergent, dynamic process based on an individual's subjective appraisal of significant events. It is argued that theoretical models of emotion need to propose an architecture that reflects the essential nature and functions of emotion as a psychobiological and cultural adaptation mechanism. One proposal for such a model and its underlying dynamic architecture, the component process model, is briefly sketched and compared with some of its major competitors. Recent empirical evidence in support of the model is (...)
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  • The sufficiency and necessity of appraisals for negative emotions.Eddie M. W. Tong - 2010 - Cognition and Emotion 24 (4):692-701.
    Past appraisal studies have shown that single appraisals are neither sufficient nor necessary for emotions but no study has examined the same issue with appraisal configurations (combinations of different single appraisals). Undergraduate participants repeatedly indicated their negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, and guilt) and relevant appraisals as they occurred, or immediately after, in their everyday environments. The results not only replicated past findings on single appraisals but also suggested that appraisal configurations are neither sufficient nor necessary for these negative emotions.
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  • Are the sources of interest the same for everyone? Using multilevel mixture models to explore individual differences in appraisal structures.Paul J. Silvia, Robert A. Henson & Jonathan L. Templin - 2009 - Cognition and Emotion 23 (7):1389-1406.
    How does personality influence the relationship between appraisals and emotions? Recent research suggests individual differences in appraisal structures: people may differ in an emotion's appraisal pattern. We explored individual differences in interest's appraisal structure, assessed as the within-person covariance of appraisals with interest. People viewed images of abstract visual art and provided ratings of interest and of interest's appraisals (novelty–complexity and coping potential) for each picture. A multilevel mixture model found two between-person classes that reflected distinct within-person appraisal styles. For (...)
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  • Deriving meaning from others’ emotions: attribution, appraisal, and the use of emotions as social information.Evert A. van Doorn, Gerben A. van Kleef & Joop van der Pligt - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • The Influence of Anger on Ethical Decision Making: Comparison of a Primary and Secondary Appraisal.Chase E. Thiel, Shane Connelly & Jennifer A. Griffith - 2011 - Ethics and Behavior 21 (5):380 - 403.
    Higher order cognitive processes, including ethical decision making (EDM), are influenced by the experiencing of discrete emotions. Recent research highlights the negative influence one such emotion, anger, has on EDM and its underlying processes. The mechanism, however, by which anger disrupts the EDM has not been investigated. The current study sought to discover whether cognitive appraisals of an emotion-evoking event are the driving mechanisms behind the influence of anger on EDM. One primary (goal obstacle) and one secondary (certainty) appraisal of (...)
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  • Appraisal components and emotion traits: Examining the appraisal basis of trait curiosity.Paul J. Silvia - 2008 - Cognition and Emotion 22 (1):94-113.
    Individual differences related to emotions are typically represented as emotion traits. Although important, these descriptive models often do not address the psychological dynamics that underlie the trait. Appraisal theories of emotion assume that individual differences in emotions can be traced to differences in patterns of appraisal, but this hypothesis has largely gone untested. The present research explored whether individual differences in the emotion of interest, known as trait curiosity, consist of patterns of appraisal. After completing several measures of trait curiosity, (...)
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  • Using Bandura's Self-Efficacy Theory to Explain Individual Differences in the Appraisal of Problem-Focused Coping Potential.Olga Poluektova, Arvid Kappas & Craig A. Smith - 2023 - Emotion Review 15 (4):302-312.
    Appraisal theory assumes that the individual variability of emotional reactions to the same situation is due to individual differences in appraisal. However, the question of how interindividual differences in appraisal come about has been rarely formally addressed. We focus on one of the central dimensions of appraisal—problem-focused coping potential—and attempt to explain individual differences in appraisals along this dimension using self-efficacy theory. We integrate outcome expectancies, self-efficacy expectations, and problem-focused coping potential into a single framework and outline their personality antecedents. (...)
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  • Cognition and Emotionover twenty-five years.Keith Oatley, W. Gerrod Parrott, Craig Smith & Fraser Watts - 2011 - Cognition and Emotion 25 (8):1341-1348.
  • The Role of Co-occurring Emotions and Personality Traits in Anger Expression.Aire Mill, Liisi Kööts-Ausmees, Jüri Allik & Anu Realo - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Emotions in Context: A Sociodynamic Model of Emotions.Batja Mesquita & Michael Boiger - 2014 - Emotion Review 6 (4):298-302.
    We propose a sociodynamic model of emotions, in which emotions are seen as dynamic systems that emerge from the interactions and relationships in which they take place. Our model does not deny that emotions are biologically constrained, yet it takes seriously that emotions are situated in specific contexts. We conceive emotions as largely functional to the sociocultural environment in which they occur; this is so because sociocultural environments foster the emergence of emotions that positively contribute to social cohesion. The role (...)
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  • Individual differences in emotion components and dynamics: Introduction to the special issue.Peter Kuppens, Jeroen Stouten & Batja Mesquita - 2009 - Cognition and Emotion 23 (7):1249-1258.
  • From Appraisal to Emotion.Peter Kuppens - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (2):157-158.
    For appraisal to be a likely cause of automatically elicited emotions, we not only need to account for how appraisals can occur automatically, but also how emotional experience can follow from appraised meaning in an automatic fashion. The simplest way to construe this is to assume that emotional feeling directly reflects the appraised meaning and its implications. Emotional feeling should be distinguished from verbally categorizing and labeling the experience, however, for understanding the relationship between appraisals and emotion terms.
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  • Comment: Appraisal Affords Flexibility to Emotion in More Ways Than One.Peter Kuppens - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (2):176-179.
    The appraisal theory formulations posited in this special section consider the appraisal process to afford flexibility to emotional responding by the malleability of how people appraise events. I argue that not only the way in which events are appraised but also the way in which appraisals drive changes in other emotion components is characterized by flexibility across persons and context. Accounting for such flexibility is crucial for the further development of appraisal theories and their application to other domains.
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  • Emotional Campaigning in Politics: Being Moved and Anger in Political Ads Motivate to Support Candidate and Party.David J. Grüning & Thomas W. Schubert - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Political advertising to recruit the support of voters is an inherent part of politics. Today, ads are distributed via television and online, including social media. This type of advertisement attempts to recruit support by presenting convincing arguments and evoking various emotions about the candidate, opponents, and policy proposals. We discuss recent arguments and evidence that a specific social emotion, namely the concept kama muta, plays a role in political advertisements. In vernacular language, kama muta is typically labeled as being moved (...)
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  • The Influence of Anger on Ethical Decision Making: Comparison of a Primary and Secondary Appraisal.Chase E. Thiel - 2011 - Ethics and Behavior 21 (5):380-403.
    Higher order cognitive processes, including ethical decision making (EDM), are influenced by the experiencing of discrete emotions. Recent research highlights the negative influence one such emotion, anger, has on EDM and its underlying processes. The mechanism, however, by which anger disrupts the EDM has not been investigated. The current study sought to discover whether cognitive appraisals of an emotion-evoking event are the driving mechanisms behind the influence of anger on EDM. One primary (goal obstacle) and one secondary (certainty) appraisal of (...)
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  • Variety is the spice of life: A psychological construction approach to understanding variability in emotion.Lisa Feldman Barrett - 2009 - Cognition and Emotion 23 (7):1284-1306.
  • Psychological Construction: The Darwinian Approach to the Science of Emotion.Lisa Feldman Barrett - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (4):379-389.
    Psychological construction constitutes a different paradigm for the scientific study of emotion when compared to the current paradigm that is inspired by faculty psychology. This new paradigm is more consistent with the post-Darwinian conceptual framework in biology that includes a focus on (a) population thinking (vs. typologies), (b) domain-general core systems (vs. physical essences), and (c) constructive analysis (vs. reductionism). Three psychological construction approaches (the OCC model, the iterative reprocessing model, and the conceptual act theory) are discussed with respect to (...)
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  • Emotions as functional kinds: A meta-theoretical approach to constructing scientific theories of emotions.Juan Raúl Loaiza Arias - 2020 - Dissertation, Humboldt-Universität Zu Berlin
    In this dissertation, I address the question of how to construct scientific theories of emotions that are both conceptually sound and empirically fruitful. To do this, I offer an analysis of the main challenges scientific theories of emotions face, and I propose a meta-theoretical framework to construct scientific concepts of emotions as explications of folk emotion concepts. Part I discusses the main challenges theories of emotions in psychology and neuroscience encounter. The first states that a proper scientific theory of emotions (...)
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