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  1. Finding ERP-Signatures of Target Awareness: Puzzle Persists Because of Experimental Co-Variation of the Objective and Subjective Variables☆.Talis Bachmann - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (3):804-808.
    Using masking techniques combined with electrophysiological recordings is a promising way to study neural correlates of visual awareness, as shown in recent studies. Here I comment on the following puzzling aspects typical for this endeavour that have made obstacles for a potentially even more impressive progress. First, the continuing practice of confounds between objective stimulus variables and subjective dependent measures. Second, complexity of timing the emergence of subjective conscious percept which is partly due to complex interactivity between target and mask. (...)
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  • Tracking the Processes Behind Conscious Perception: A Review of Event-Related Potential Correlates of Visual Consciousness. [REVIEW]Henry Railo, Mika Koivisto & Antti Revonsuo - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):972-983.
    Event-related potential studies have attempted to discover the processes that underlie conscious visual perception by contrasting ERPs produced by stimuli that are consciously perceived with those that are not. Variability of the proposed ERP correlates of consciousness is considerable: the earliest proposed ERP correlate of consciousness coincides with sensory processes and the last one marks postperceptual processes. A negative difference wave called visual awareness negativity , typically observed around 200 ms after stimulus onset in occipitotemporal sites, gains strong support for (...)
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  • The Cognitive Impenetrability of Perception and Theory-Ladenness.Athanassios Raftopoulos - 2015 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (1):87-103.
    In this paper, I claim that since there is a cognitively impenetrable stage of visual perception, namely early vision, and cognitive penetrability and theory-ladenness are coextensive, the CI of early vision entails that early vision content is theory neutral. This theory-neutral part undermines relativism. In this paper, I consider two objections against the thesis. The one adduces evidence from cases of rapid perceptual learning to undermine my thesis that early vision is CI. The other emphasizes that the early perceptual system, (...)
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  • Visual Anticipation Biases Conscious Decision Making but Not Bottom-Up Visual Processing.Zenon Mathews, Ryszard Cetnarski & Paul F. M. J. Verschure - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Why Visual Attention and Awareness Are Different.Victor A. F. Lamme - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (1):12-18.
  • Towards a True Neural Stance on Consciousness.Victor A. F. Lamme - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (11):494-501.
  • Unconscious Priming by Color and Form: Different Processes and Levels.Bruno G. Breitmeyer, Haluk Ogmen & Jian Chen - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):138-157.
    Using a metacontrast masking paradigm, prior studies have shown that a target’s color information and form information, can be processed without awareness and that unconscious color processing occurs at early, wavelength-dependent levels in the cortical information processing hierarchy. Here we used a combination of paracontrast and metacontrast masking techniques to explore unconscious color and form priming effects produced by blue, green, and neutral stimuli. We found that color priming in normal observers is significantly reduced when an additional paracontrast mask precedes (...)
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  • A Comparison of Masking by Visual and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: Implications for the Study of Conscious and Unconscious Visual Processing.Bruno G. Breitmeyer, Tony Ro & Haluk Ogmen - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (4):829-843.
    Visual stimuli as well as transcranial magnetic stimulation can be used: to suppress the visibility of a target and to recover the visibility of a target that has been suppressed by another mask. Both types of stimulation thus provide useful methods for studying the microgenesis of object perception. We first review evidence of similarities between the processes by which a TMS mask and a visual mask can either suppress the visibility of targets or recover such suppressed visibility. However, we then (...)
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  • Separate Neural Definitions of Visual Consciousness and Visual Attention: A Case for Phenomenal Awareness.Victor A. F. Lamme - 2004 - Neural Networks 17 (5):861-872.