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  1. Discrete Symmetries of Off-Shell Electromagnetism.Martin Land - 2005 - Foundations of Physics 35 (7):1263-1288.
    This paper discusses the discrete symmetries of off-shell electromagnetism, the Stueckelberg–Schrodinger relativistic quantum theory and its associated 5D local gauge theory. Seeking a dynamical description of particle/antiparticle interactions, Stueckelberg developed a covariant mechanics with a monotonically increasing Poincaré-invariant parameter. In Stueckelberg’s framework, worldlines are traced out through the parameterized evolution of spacetime events, which may advance or retreat with respect to the laboratory clock, depending on the sign of the energy, so that negative energy trajectories appear as antiparticles when the (...)
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  • Particles and Events in Classical Off-Shell Electrodynamics.M. C. Land - 1997 - Foundations of Physics 27 (1):19-41.
    Despite the many successes of the relativistic quantum theory developed by Horwitz et al., certain difficulties persist in the associated covariant classical mechanics. In this paper, we explore these difficulties through an examination of the classical. Coulomb problem in the framework of off-shell electrodynamics. As the local gauge theory of a covariant quantum mechanics with evolution paratmeter τ, off-shell electrodynamics constitutes a dynamical theory of ppacetime events, interacting through five τ-dependent pre-Maxwell potentials. We present a straightforward solution of the classical (...)
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