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  1. Prefrontal Lesion Evidence Against Higher-Order Theories of Consciousness.Benjamin Kozuch - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 167 (3):721-746.
    According to higher-order theories of consciousness, a mental state is conscious only when represented by another mental state. Higher-order theories must predict there to be some brain areas (or networks of areas) such that, because they produce (the right kind of) higher-order states, the disabling of them brings about deficits in consciousness. It is commonly thought that the prefrontal cortex produces these kinds of higher-order states. In this paper, I first argue that this is likely correct, meaning that, if some (...)
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  • A Higher-Order Theory of Emotional Consciousness.Richard Brown & Joseph LeDoux - 2017 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
    Emotional states of consciousness, or what are typically called emotional feelings, are traditionally viewed as being innately programed in subcortical areas of the brain, and are often treated as different from cognitive states of consciousness, such as those related to the perception of external stimuli. We argue that conscious experiences, regardless of their content, arise from one system in the brain. On this view, what differs in emotional and non-emotional states is the kind of inputs that are processed by a (...)
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  • Consciousness Is More Complicated Than That: Theoretical Limitations of Interactive Capacity.Michal Klincewicz - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 4 (4):38-39.
  • Quantum Mechanics of 'Conscious Energy'.Syed Ismyl Mahmood Rizvi - 2018 - International Journal of Mind, Brain and Cognition 9 (1-2):132-160.
    This paper is aiming to investigate the physical substrate of conscious process. It will attempt to find out: How does conscious process establish relations between their external stimuli and internal stimuli in order to create reality? How does consciousness devoid of new sensory input result to its new quantum effects? And how does conscious process gain mass in brain? This paper will also try to locate the origins of consciousness at the level of neurons along with the quantum effects of (...)
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  • Temporal Mental Qualities and Selective Attention.Michał Klincewicz - 2016 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 7 (2):11-24.
    This article presents an argument for the view that we can perceive temporal features without awareness. Evidence for this claim comes from recent empirical work on selective visual attention. An interpretation of selective attention as a mechanism that processes high-level perceptual features is offered and defended against one particular objection. In conclusion, time perception likely has an unconscious dimension and temporal mental qualities can be instantiated without ever being conscious.
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  • Measuring Consciousness: Relating Behavioural and Neurophysiological Approaches.Anil K. Seth, Zoltán Dienes, Axel Cleeremans, Morten Overgaard & Luiz Pessoa - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (8):314-321.
  • Consciousness, Accessibility, and the Mesh Between Psychology and Neuroscience.Ned Block - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5):481--548.
    How can we disentangle the neural basis of phenomenal consciousness from the neural machinery of the cognitive access that underlies reports of phenomenal consciousness? We can see the problem in stark form if we ask how we could tell whether representations inside a Fodorian module are phenomenally conscious. The methodology would seem straightforward: find the neural natural kinds that are the basis of phenomenal consciousness in clear cases when subjects are completely confident and we have no reason to doubt their (...)
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  • A Cross-Order Integration Hypothesis for the Neural Correlate of Consciousness.Uriah Kriegel - 2007 - Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):897-912.
    One major problem many hypotheses regarding the neural correlate of consciousness, face is what we might call “the why question”: why would this particular neural feature, rather than another, correlate with consciousness? The purpose of the present paper is to develop an NCC hypothesis that answers this question. The proposed hypothesis is inspired by the cross-order integration theory of consciousness, according to which consciousness arises from the functional integration of a first-order representation of an external stimulus and a second-order representation (...)
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  • Know Thyself: Well-Being and Subjective Experience.Joseph LeDoux, Richard Brown, Daniel S. Pine & Stefan G. Hofmann - 2018 - Cerebrum (2018).
  • The Speed of Metacognition: Taking Time to Get to Know One’s Structural Knowledge.Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):123-136.
    The time course of different metacognitive experiences of knowledge was investigated using artificial grammar learning. Experiment 1 revealed that when participants are aware of the basis of their judgments decisions are made most rapidly, followed by decisions made with conscious judgment but without conscious knowledge of underlying structure , and guess responses were made most slowly, even when controlling for differences in confidence and accuracy. In experiment 2, short response deadlines decreased the accuracy of unconscious but not conscious structural knowledge. (...)
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  • Minority Reports: Consciousness and the Prefrontal Cortex.Matthias Michel & Jorge Morales - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    Whether the prefrontal cortex is part of the neural substrates of consciousness is currently debated. Against prefrontal theories of consciousness, many have argued that neural activity in the prefrontal cortex does not correlate with consciousness but with subjective reports. We defend prefrontal theories of consciousness against this argument. We surmise that the requirement for reports is not a satisfying explanation of the difference in neural activity between conscious and unconscious trials, and that prefrontal theories of consciousness come out of this (...)
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  • Occipital and Left Temporal EEG Correlates of Phenomenal Consciousness.Vitor Manuel Dinis Pereira - 2015 - In Quoc Nam Tran & Hamid Arabnia (eds.), Emerging Trends in Computational Biology, Bioinformatics, and Systems Biology. Elsevier. pp. 335–354.
    Phenomenal consciousness is “what is it like to be” a mental state: the stinging sharpness of a pin prick, the taste of chocolate or the vibrant red of a fire truck. “Access consciousness” refers to the possibility of a mental state to be available to the rest of the cognitive system (to be available, for example, to our production system language like when we try to describe the stinging sharpness of a pin prick, the taste of chocolate or the vibrant (...)
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  • How to Measure Metacognition.Stephen M. Fleming & Hakwan C. Lau - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  • Visibility Is Not Equivalent to Confidence in a Low Contrast Orientation Discrimination Task.Manuel Rausch & Michael Zehetleitner - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Answering Questions About Consciousness by Modeling Perception as Covert Behavior.Gustav Markkula - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Visual Anticipation Biases Conscious Decision Making but Not Bottom-Up Visual Processing.Zenon Mathews, Ryszard Cetnarski & Paul F. M. J. Verschure - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Training Visual Imagery: Improvements of Metacognition, but Not Imagery Strength.Rosanne L. Rademaker & Joel Pearson - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
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  • Type-2 Blindsight: Empirical and Philosophical Perspectives.Robert Foley & Robert W. Kentridge - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 32:1-5.
  • Working Memory and Consciousness: The Current State of Play.Marjan Persuh, Eric LaRock & Jacob Berger - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
    Working memory, an important posit in cognitive science, allows one to temporarily store and manipulate information in the service of ongoing tasks. Working memory has been traditionally classified as an explicit memory system – that is, as operating on and maintaining only consciously perceived information. Recently, however, several studies have questioned this assumption, purporting to provide evidence for unconscious working memory. In this paper, we focus on visual working memory and critically examine these studies as well as studies of unconscious (...)
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  • Self-Evaluation of Decision-Making: A General Bayesian Framework for Metacognitive Computation.Stephen M. Fleming & Nathaniel D. Daw - 2017 - Psychological Review 124 (1):91-114.
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  • Testing the Involvement of the Prefrontal Cortex in Lucid Dreaming: A tDCS Study.Tadas Stumbrys, Daniel Erlacher & Michael Schredl - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1214-1222.
    Recent studies suggest that lucid dreaming might be associated with increased brain activity over frontal regions during rapid eye movement sleep. By applying transcranial direct current stimulation , we aimed to manipulate the activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during REM sleep to increase dream lucidity. Nineteen participants spent three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. On the second and third nights they randomly received either 1 mA tDCS for 10 min or sham stimulation during each REM period starting with (...)
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  • Caring About Dostoyevsky: The Untapped Potential of Studying Literature.Roel M. Willems & Arthur M. Jacobs - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (4):243-245.
  • The Experiential Blink: Mapping the Cost of Working Memory Encoding Onto Conscious Perception in the Attentional Blink.Hannah Pincham, Howard Bowman & Szucs Denes - unknown
    The attentional blink represents a cognitive deficit in reporting the second of two targets, when that second target appears 200-600 msec after the first. However, it is unclear how this paradigm impacts the subjective visibility of T2, and whether the temporal profile of T2 report accuracy matches the temporal profile of subjective visibility. In order to compare report accuracy and subjective visibility, we asked participants to identify T1 and T2, and to rate the subjective visibility of T2 across two experiments. (...)
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  • A Task-Independent Neural Representation of Subjective Certainty in Visual Perception.Johannes Heereman, Henrik Walter & Hauke R. Heekeren - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  • Interocular Suppression Prevents Interference in a Flanker Task.Qiong Wu, Jonathan T. H. Lo Voi, Thomas Y. Lee, Melissa-Ann Mackie, Yanhong Wu & Jin Fan - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • How Best to Study the Function of Consciousness?Jason Samaha - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • The Attention Schema Theory: A Mechanistic Account of Subjective Awareness.Michael S. A. Graziano & Taylor W. Webb - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • On a Confusion About Which Intuitions to Trust: From the Hard Problem to a Not Easy One.Miguel Ángel Sebastián - 2017 - Topoi 36 (1):31-40.
    Alleged self-evidence aside, conceivability arguments are one of the main reasons in favor of the claim that there is a Hard Problem. These arguments depend on the appealing Kripkean intuition that there is no difference between appearances and reality in the case of consciousness. I will argue that this intuition rests on overlooking a distinction between cognitive access and consciousness, which has received recently important empirical support. I will show that there are good reasons to believe that the intuition is (...)
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  • The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Consciousness.Uriah Kriegel (ed.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
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  • Measuring Consciousness: Is One Measure Better Than the Other?Kristian Sandberg, Bert Timmermans, Morten Overgaard & Axel Cleeremans - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1069-1078.
    What is the best way of assessing the extent to which people are aware of a stimulus? Here, using a masked visual identification task, we compared three measures of subjective awareness: The Perceptual Awareness Scale , through which participants are asked to rate the clarity of their visual experience; confidence ratings , through which participants express their confidence in their identification decisions, and Post-decision wagering , in which participants place a monetary wager on their decisions. We conducted detailed explorations of (...)
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  • Metaphor Between Embodiment and Imaginative Processes.Tiziana Giudice - 2008 - Anthropology and Philosophy 9 (1/2):42-57.
    In this paper I will analyse the relationship between metaphor and imagination. This issue has been recently studied by cognitive linguists who appreciate its importance, while other semantic perspectives neglect it. I will analyse the thesis which affirms that metaphors are based on cognitive components which are not logical-propositional but imaginative: the “image schemata” are recurrent models of corporeal experiences, centres of knowledge organization which structure – in a non-propositional form – an amount of salient information. This information emerges from (...)
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  • Consciousness and its Function.David Rosenthal - manuscript
    MS, under submission, derived from a Powerpoint presentation at a Conference on Consciousness, Memory, and Perception, in honor of Larry Weiskrantz, City University, London, September 15, 2006.
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  • Comparing Unconscious Processing During Continuous Flash Suppression and Meta-Contrast Masking Just Under the Limen of Consciousness.Ziv Peremen & Dominique Lamy - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Using Brain Stimulation to Disentangle Neural Correlates of Conscious Vision.Tom A. de Graaf & Alexander T. Sack - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Measuring Perceptual Consciousness.Marjan Persuh - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • On the Use of Continuous Flash Suppression for the Study of Visual Processing Outside of Awareness.Eunice Yang, Jan Brascamp, Min-Suk Kang & Randolph Blake - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Evidence of Weak Conscious Experiences in the Exclusion Task.Kristian Sandberg, Simon H. Del Pin, Bo M. Bibby & Morten Overgaard - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Consciousness, Non-Conscious Experiences and Functions, Proto-Experiences and Proto-Functions, and Subjective Experiences.Ram L. P. Vimal - 2010 - Journal of Consciousness Exploration and Research 1 (3):383-389.
    A general definition of consciousness that accommodates most views (Vimal, 2010b) is: “ ‘consciousness is a mental aspect of a system or a process, which is a conscious experience, a conscious function, or both depending on the context and particular bias (e.g. metaphysical assumptions)’, where experiences can be conscious experiences and/or non-conscious experiences and functions can be conscious functions and/or non-conscious functions that include qualities of objects. These are a posteriori definitions because they are based on observations and the categorization.” (...)
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  • Metacognition of Visual Short-Term Memory: Dissociation Between Objective and Subjective Components of VSTM.Silvia Bona, Zaira Cattaneo, Tomaso Vecchi, David Soto & Juha Silvanto - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  • Solely Generic Phenomenology.Ned Block - 2015 - Open MIND 2015.
  • Immediate and Long-Term Priming Effects Are Independent of Prime Awareness.Jolien C. Francken, Simon van Gaal & Floris P. de Lange - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1793-1800.
    Subliminal primes are assumed to produce weaker and short-lived effects on subsequent behavior compared to clearly visible primes. However, this difference in priming effect may be due to differences in signal strength, rather than level of awareness. In the present study we manipulated prime discriminability by using metacontrast masks and pseudomasks, while keeping the prime strength equal. This manipulation resulted in large differences in discriminability of the primes. However, both immediate response priming and long-term response priming was equal for the (...)
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  • The Myth of Phenomenological Overflow.Richard Brown - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):599-604.
    In this paper I examine the dispute between Hakwan Lau, Ned Block, and David Rosenthal over the extent to which empirical results can help us decide between first-order and higher-order theories of consciousness. What emerges from this is an overall argument to the best explanation against the first-order view of consciousness and the dispelling of the mythological notion of phenomenological overflow that comes with it.
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  • Relating Inter-Individual Differences in Metacognitive Performance on Different Perceptual Tasks.Chen Song, Ryota Kanai, Stephen M. Fleming, Rimona S. Weil, D. Samuel Schwarzkopf & Geraint Rees - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1787.
    Human behavior depends on the ability to effectively introspect about our performance. For simple perceptual decisions, this introspective or metacognitive ability varies substantially across individuals and is correlated with the structure of focal areas in prefrontal cortex. This raises the possibility that the ability to introspect about different perceptual decisions might be mediated by a common cognitive process. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether inter-individual differences in metacognitive ability were correlated across two different perceptual tasks where individuals made judgments (...)
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  • How Rich is Consciousness? The Partial Awareness Hypothesis.Sid Kouider, Vincent de Gardelle, Jérôme Sackur & Emmanuel Dupoux - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (7):301-307.
  • The Magnitude of Priming Effects is Not Independent of Prime Awareness. Reply to Francken, van Gaal, & de Lange (2011).Kobe Desender & Eva Van den Bussche - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1571-1572.
  • Impulsivity, Self-Control, and Hypnotic Suggestibility.V. U. Ludwig, C. Stelzel, H. Krutiak, C. E. Prunkl, R. Steimke, L. M. Paschke, N. Kathmann & H. Walter - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (2):637-653.
    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale , and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility . BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A . Furthermore, (...)
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  • More Than Meets the Eye: Implicit Perception in Legally Blind Individuals.Alan S. Brown, Michael R. Best & David B. Mitchell - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):996-1002.
    Legally blind participants were able to identify a visual stimulus attribute in the absence of consciously identifying its presence. Specifically, participants—with their corrective lenses removed—correctly guessed the hour-hand position above chance on a clockface shown on a computer screen. This occurred both when presented in a 1-clockface display , as well as when shown a display containing 4 clockfaces , in which only 1 face contained a hand. Even more striking, hand identification accuracy in the 4-clockface condition was comparable whether (...)
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  • Prestimulus Alpha-Band Power Biases Visual Discrimination Confidence, but Not Accuracy.Jason Samaha, Luca Iemi & Bradley R. Postle - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 54:47-55.
  • Are There Unconscious Perceptual Processes?Berit Brogaard - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):449-63.
    Blindsight and vision for action seem to be exemplars of unconscious visual processes. However, researchers have recently argued that blindsight is not really a kind of uncon- scious vision but is rather severely degraded conscious vision. Morten Overgaard and col- leagues have recently developed new methods for measuring the visibility of visual stimuli. Studies using these methods show that reported clarity of visual stimuli correlates with accuracy in both normal individuals and blindsight patients. Vision for action has also come under (...)
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  • Relative Blindsight Arises From a Criterion Confound in Metacontrast Masking: Implications for Theories of Consciousness.Ali Jannati & Vincent Di Lollo - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):307-314.
    Relative blindsight is said to occur when different levels of subjective awareness are obtained at equality of objective performance. Using metacontrast masking, Lau and Passingham reported relative blindsight in normal observers at the shorter of two stimulus-onset asynchronies between target and mask. Experiment 1 replicated the critical asymmetry in subjective awareness at equality of objective performance. We argue that this asymmetry cannot be regarded as evidence for relative blindsight because the observers’ responses were based on different attributes of the stimuli (...)
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