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  1. Risk Disclosure and the Recruitment of Oocyte Donors: Are Advertisers Telling the Full Story?Hillary B. Alberta, Roberta M. Berry & Aaron D. Levine - 2014 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 42 (2):232-243.
    In vitro fertilization using donated oocytes has proven to be an effective treatment option for many prospective parents struggling with infertility, and the usage of donated oocytes in assisted reproduction has increased markedly since the technique was first successfully used in 1984. Data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the use of assisted reproductive technologies in the United States indicate that approximately 12% of all ART cycles in the country now use donated oocytes. The increased use (...)
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  • Conflicts of Interest and Effective Oversight of Assisted Reproduction Using Donated Oocytes.Valarie K. Blake, Michelle L. McGowan & Aaron D. Levine - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):410-424.
    Oocyte donation raises conflicts of interest and commitment for physicians but little attention has been paid to how to reduce these conflicts in practice. Yet the growing popularity of assisted reproduction has increased the stakes of maintaining an adequate oocyte supply and minimizing conflicts. A growing body of professional guidelines, legal challenges to professional self-regulation, and empirical research on the practice of oocyte donation all call for renewed attention to the issue. As empirical findings better inform existing conflicts and their (...)
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  • Risk Disclosure and the Recruitment of Oocyte Donors: Are Advertisers Telling the Full Story?Hillary B. Alberta, Roberta M. Berry & Aaron D. Levine - 2014 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 42 (2):232-243.
    This study analyzes 435 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements to assess whether entities recruiting donors of oocytes to be used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures include a disclosure of risks associated with the donation process in their advertisements. Such disclosure is required by the self-regulatory guidelines of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) and by law in California for advertisements placed in the state. We find very low rates of risk disclosure across entity types and regulatory regimes, although risk (...)
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  • Buying and Selling Human Eggs: Infertility Providers’ Ethical and Other Concerns Regarding Egg Donor Agencies.Robert Klitzman - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):71.
    BackgroundEgg donor agencies are increasingly being used as part of IVF in the US, but are essentially unregulated, posing critical ethical and policy questions concerning how providers view and use them, and what the implications might be.MethodsThirty-seven in-depth interviews of approximately 1 h were conducted – with 27 IVF providers and 10 patients.ResultsClinicians vary in their views and interactions concerning egg donor agencies, ranging widely in whether and how often they use agencies. Agencies may offer egg recipients increased choices, but (...)
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  • Exploitation, Structural Injustice, and the Cross-Border Trade in Human Ova.Monique Deveaux - 2016 - Journal of Global Ethics 12 (1):48-68.
    ABSTRACTGlobal demand for human ova in in vitro fertilization has led to its expansion in countries with falling average incomes and rising female unemployment. Paid egg donation in the context of national, regional, and global inequalities has the potential to exploit women who are socioeconomically vulnerable, and indeed there is ample evidence that it does. Structural injustices that render women in middle-income countries – and even some high-income countries – economically vulnerable contribute to a context of ‘omissive coercion’ that is (...)
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  • The Oversight and Practice of Oocyte Donation in the United States, United Kingdom and Canada.Aaron D. Levine - 2011 - HEC Forum 23 (1):15-30.
    In vitro fertilization using donated oocytes is an important medical technique that provides the only option for some infertile patients to have children. The technique remains ethically contentious, however, and, as a result of this controversy, different oversight approaches have been developed in countries around the world. This paper examines the oversight and practice of oocyte donation in Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States to examine how policy choices have influenced the development and use of this medical technology. (...)
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  • Egg Donation Compensation: Ethical and Legal Challenges.Nancy Kenney & Michelle McGowan - 2014 - Medicolegal and Bioethics:15.
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  • Reconsidering Risk to Women: Oocyte Donation for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research.Rebecca Bamford - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (9):37-39.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 9, Page 37-39, September 2011.
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  • The Conundrum of Oocyte Donation, Human Research, OHSS, and Ethics.Andrea L. Stein - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (9):35-37.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 9, Page 35-37, September 2011.
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  • Banking on Infertility:Medical Ethics and the Marketing of Fertility Loans.Alisa von Hagel - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (6):15-17.
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