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  1. A Relic of Design: Against Proper Functions in Biology.Emanuele Ratti & Pierre-Luc Germain - 2022 - Biology and Philosophy 37 (4):1-28.
    The notion of biological function is fraught with difficulties—intrinsically and irremediably so, we argue. The physiological practice of functional ascription originates from a time when organisms were thought to be designed and remained largely unchanged since. In a secularized worldview, this creates a paradox which accounts of functions as selected effect attempt to resolve. This attempt, we argue, misses its target in physiology and it brings problems of its own. Instead, we propose that a better solution to the conundrum of (...)
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  • Sustainability: An Interdisciplinary Guide.John Pezzey - 1992 - Environmental Values 1 (4):321-362.
    A definition of sustainability as maintaining 'utility' over the very long term future is used to build ideas from physics, ecology, evolutionary biology, anthropology, history, philosophy, economics and psychology, into a coherent, interdisciplinary analysis of the potential for sustaining industrial civilisation. This potential is highly uncertain, because it is hard to know how long the 'technology treadmill', of substituting accumulated tools and knowledge for declining natural resource inputs to production, can continue. Policies to make the treadmill work more efficiently, by (...)
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  • The Emotional Mind: The Affective Roots of Culture and Cognition.Stephen Asma & Rami Gabriel - 2019 - Harvard University Press.
    Tracing the leading role of emotions in the evolution of the mind, a philosopher and a psychologist pair up to reveal how thought and culture owe less to our faculty for reason than to our capacity to feel. Many accounts of the human mind concentrate on the brain’s computational power. Yet, in evolutionary terms, rational cognition emerged only the day before yesterday. For nearly 200 million years before humans developed a capacity to reason, the emotional centers of the brain were (...)
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  • The Cyclical Return of the IQ Controversy: Revisiting the Lessons of the Resolution on Genetics, Race and Intelligence.Davide Serpico - 2021 - Journal of the History of Biology 54 (2):199-228.
    In 1976, the Genetics Society of America published a document entitled “Resolution of Genetics, Race, and Intelligence.” This document laid out the Society’s position in the IQ controversy, particularly that on scientific and ethical questions involving the genetics of intellectual differences between human populations. Since the GSA was the largest scientific society of geneticists in the world, many expected the document to be of central importance in settling the controversy. Unfortunately, the Resolution had surprisingly little influence on the discussion. In (...)
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  • The Bell Curve Case for Heredity.Max Hocutt & Michael Levin - 1999 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 29 (3):389-415.
    City College of New York The hereditarian theory of race differences in IQ was briefly revived with the appearance of The Bell Curve but then quickly dismissed. The authors attempt a defense of it here, with an eye to conceptual and logical issues of special interests to philosophers, such as alleged infirmities in the heritability concept. At the same time, some relevant post-Bell Curve empirical data are introduced.
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  • International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching.Michael R. Matthews (ed.) - 2014 - Springer.
    This inaugural handbook documents the distinctive research field that utilizes history and philosophy in investigation of theoretical, curricular and pedagogical issues in the teaching of science and mathematics. It is contributed to by 130 researchers from 30 countries; it provides a logically structured, fully referenced guide to the ways in which science and mathematics education is, informed by the history and philosophy of these disciplines, as well as by the philosophy of education more generally. The first handbook to cover the (...)
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  • Scientific Pluralism.Stephen H. Kellert, Helen E. Longino & C. Kenneth Waters (eds.) - 1956 - Univ of Minnesota Press.
    Scientific pluralism is an issue at the forefront of philosophy of science. This landmark work addresses the question, Can pluralism be advanced as a general, philosophical interpretation of science?
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  • Genetic Determinism in the Genetics Curriculum.Annie Jamieson & Gregory Radick - 2017 - Science & Education 26 (10):1261-1290.
    Twenty-first-century biology rejects genetic determinism, yet an exaggerated view of the power of genes in the making of bodies and minds remains a problem. What accounts for such tenacity? This article reports an exploratory study suggesting that the common reliance on Mendelian examples and concepts at the start of teaching in basic genetics is an eliminable source of support for determinism. Undergraduate students who attended a standard ‘Mendelian approach’ university course in introductory genetics on average showed no change in their (...)
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  • From Biological Inhibitions to Cultural Prohibitions, or How Not to Refute Edward Westermarck.Neven Sesardic - 1998 - Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):413-426.
    My aim in this paper is to take a closer look at an influential argument that purports to prove that the existence of cultural prohibitions could never be explained by biological inhibitions. The argument is two-pronged. The first prong reduces to the claim: inhibitions cannot cause prohibitions simply because inhibitions undermine the raison dêtre of prohibitions. The second strategy consists in arguing that inhibitions cannot cause prohibitions because the two differ importantly in their contents. I try to show that both (...)
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  • The Social Dimensions of Scientific Knowledge.Helen Longino - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • The Human Genome Project.Lisa Gannett - 2009 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  • Trying to Make Race Science the “Civil” Science: Charisma in the Race and Intelligence Debates.Kushan Dasgupta, Aaron Panofsky & Nicole Iturriaga - 2022 - Theory and Society 51 (4):595-627.
    When studying science contexts, scholars typically position charismatic authority as an adjunct or something that provides a meaning-laden boost to rational authority. In this paper, we re-theorize these relationships. We re-center charismatic authority as an interpretive resource that allows scientists and onlookers to recast a professional conflict in terms of a public drama. In this mode, both professionals and lay enthusiasts portray involvement in the scientific process as a story of suppression and persecution, in which only a few remarkable figures (...)
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  • A Plea for Human Nature.Edouard Machery - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):321 – 329.
    Philosophers of biology, such as David Hull and Michael Ghiselin, have argued that the notion of human nature is incompatible with modern evolutionary biology and they have recommended rejecting this notion. In this article, I rebut this argument: I show that an important notion of human nature is compatible with modern evolutionary biology.
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  • Espousing Interactions and Fielding Reactions: Addressing Laypeople's Beliefs About Genetic Determinism.David S. Moore - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):331 – 348.
    Although biologists and philosophers of science generally agree that genes cannot determine the forms of biological and psychological traits, students, journalists, politicians, and other members of the general public nonetheless continue to embrace genetic determinism. This article identifies some of the concerns typically raised by individuals when they first encounter the systems perspective that biologists and philosophers of science now favor over genetic determinism, and uses arguments informed by that perspective to address those concerns. No definitive statements can yet be (...)
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  • Synthesis in the Human Evolutionary Behavioural Sciences.Rebecca Sear, David W. Lawson & Thomas E. Dickins - unknown
    Over the last three decades, the application of evolutionary theory to the human sciences has shown remarkable growth. This growth has also been characterised by a ‘splitting’ process, with the emergence of distinct sub-disciplines, most notably: Human Behavioural Ecology (HBE), Evolutionary Psychology (EP) and studies of Cultural Evolution (CE). Multiple applications of evolutionary ideas to the human sciences are undoubtedly a good thing, demonstrating the usefulness of this approach to human affairs. Nevertheless, this fracture has been associated with considerable tension, (...)
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  • Racism and Rationality: The Need for a New Critique.David Theo Goldberg - 1990 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 20 (3):317-350.
    Two classes of argument, logical and moral, are usually offered for the general assumption that racism is inherently irrational. The logical arguments involve accusations concerning stereotyping (category mistakes and empirical errors resulting from overgeneralization) as well as inconsistencies between attitudes and behavior and inconsistencies in beliefs. Moral arguments claim that racism fails as means to well-defined ends, or that racist acts achieve ends other than moral ones. Based on a rationality-neutral definition of racism, it is argued in this article that (...)
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  • Beyond Interactionism: A Transactional Approach to Behavioral Development.David B. Miller - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (4):641-642.
  • The Molecular and Mathematical Basis of Waddington's Epigenetic Landscape: A Framework for Post‐Darwinian Biology?Sui Huang - 2012 - Bioessays 34 (2):149-157.
  • From Eden to a Hell of Uniformity? Directed Evolution in Humans.Jürgen Brosius - 2003 - Bioessays 25 (8):815-821.
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  • Feminist Scholarship in the Sciences: Where Are We Now and When Can We Expect A Theoretical Breakthrough?Sue V. Rosser - 1987 - Hypatia 2 (3):5 - 17.
    The work of feminists in science may seem less voluminous and less theoretical than the feminist scholarship in some humanities and social science disciplines. However, the recent burst of scholarship on women and science allows categorization of feminist work into six distinct but related categories: 1) teaching and curriculum transformation in science, 2) history of women in science, 3) current status of women in science, 4) feminist critique of science, 5) feminine science, 6) feminist theory of science. More feminists in (...)
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  • Is 'School Effectiveness' Anti-Democratic?Terry Wrigley - 2003 - British Journal of Educational Studies 51 (2):89 - 112.
    This paper explores the connections between School Effectiveness as a research paradigm and developments in policy and practice. With a particular focus on the English school system, 'effectiveness' is examined as a discourse which underpins the accountability regime, and in terms of its influence on the related field of School Improvement. Anti-democratic tendencies in areas such as school leadership, teacher professionalism, curriculum and pedagogy are related to a failure, at the heart of the 'effectiveness' concept, to give critical consideration to (...)
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  • Revisiting the Left-Wing Response to Sociobiology: The Case of Finland in a European Context.Antti Lepistö - 2015 - Journal of the History of Biology 48 (1):99-136.
    This article revisits the left-wing response to sociobiology in the 1970s and 1980s by examining the sociobiology debate in Finland in a larger European context. It argues that the Finnish academic left’s response to sociobiology represents a “third way” alongside the purely negative, often Marxist denial of biology’s relevance, which characterized the left’s response to sociobiology in many European countries such as Hungary and Sweden, and alongside the disregard that sociobiology confronted in most parts of Eastern Europe, as well as (...)
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  • Dialectics, Complexity,and the Systemic Approach: Toward a Critical Reconciliation.Poe Yu-ze Wan - 2013 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (4):411-452.
    This article attempts to assess Mario Bunge’s important but widely neglected criticisms of dialectics. It begins by providing a contextualized interpretation of Friedrich Engels’s metaphysics of the dialectics of nature before embarking on a detailed discussion of Leon Trotsky’s and contemporary “dialectical” scientists’ views on materialist dialectics. It argues that while some of Bunge’s criticisms are eminently sensible, the principles underlying the works of dialectical scientists are compatible with Bunge’s emergentist and systemic approach and can shed light on such issues (...)
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  • An Empirically Informed Critique of Habermas’ Argument From Human Nature.Nicolae Morar - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (1):95-113.
    In a near-future world of bionics and biotechnology, the main ethical and political issue will be the definition of who we are. Could biomedical enhancements transform us to such an extent that we would be other than human? Habermas argues that any genetic enhancement intervention that could potentially alter ‘human nature’ should be morally prohibited since it alters the child’s nature or the very essence that makes the child who he is. This practice also commits the child to a specific (...)
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  • Prisoners of Abstraction? The Theory and Measure of Genetic Variation, and the Very Concept of 'Race'.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (1):401-412.
    It is illegitimate to read any ontology about "race" off of biological theory or data. Indeed, the technical meaning of "genetic variation" is fluid, and there is no single theoretical agreed-upon criterion for defining and distinguishing populations (or groups or clusters) given a particular set of genetic variation data. Thus, by analyzing three formal senses of "genetic variation"—diversity, differentiation, and heterozygosity—we argue that the use of biological theory for making epistemic claims about "race" can only seem plausible when it relies (...)
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  • Realism, Antirealism, and Conventionalism About Race.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):1039-1052.
    This paper distinguishes three concepts of "race": bio-genomic cluster/race, biological race, and social race. We map out realism, antirealism, and conventionalism about each of these, in three important historical episodes: Frank Livingstone and Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1962, A.W.F. Edwards' 2003 response to Lewontin (1972), and contemporary discourse. Semantics is especially crucial to the first episode, while normativity is central to the second. Upon inspection, each episode also reveals a variety of commitments to the metaphysics of race. We conclude by interrogating (...)
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  • Historical Evidence and Human Adaptations.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (S3):S294-S304.
    Phylogenetic information is often necessary to distinguish between evolutionary scenarios. Recently, some prominent proponents of evolutionary psychology have acknowledged this, and have claimed that such evidence has in fact been brought to bear on adaptive hypotheses involving complex human psychological traits. Were this possible, it would be a valuable source of evidence regarding hypothesized adaptive traits in humans. However, the structure of the Hominidae family makes this difficult or impossible. For many traits of interest, the closest extant relatives to the (...)
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  • Religion as a Language: Exploring Alternative Paths in Conversation with Postreductionist Anthropologies.Lluis Oviedo - 2015 - Zygon 50 (4):982-1001.
    New scientific approaches to religion have delivered a considerable number of theories aimed at explaining it, despite its cognitive and adaptive oddities. These efforts were built on available theoretical frameworks, including those from cognitive science, biology, and anthropology. Many voices have raised criticism against several aspects in the cognitive and evolutionist program, even if recognizing their legitimacy and the fruits collected to date. A pressing issue is whether the problem with the new scientific study of religion is related, to some (...)
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  • Understanding Depressive Feelings as Situated Affections.Güler Cansu Ağören - 2021 - Sage Publications: Emotion Review 14 (1):55-65.
    Emotion Review, Volume 14, Issue 1, Page 55-65, January 2022. Phenomenologists define social impairments as key aspects of depression and argue that depression is irreducible to the individual. In this article I aim to further elaborate this non-reductionist notion of depression by claiming that depression not only corresponds to an impaired experience of social relations, but also arises from a socially impaired world. To pursue this goal, I will challenge the understanding of depression as an affective disorder blocking the affective (...)
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  • Exploring the Concept of Spirit as a Model for the God-World Relationship in the Age of Genetics.Lindon Eaves & Lora Gross - 1992 - Zygon 27 (3):261-285.
  • How Did Morality Evolve?William Irons - 1991 - Zygon 26 (1):49-89.
  • Conceptual Variation or Incoherence? Textbook Discourse on Genes in Six Countries.Niklas M. Gericke, Mariana Hagberg, Vanessa Carvalho dos Santos, Leyla Mariane Joaquim & Charbel N. El-Hani - 2014 - Science & Education 23 (2):381-416.
  • From Science Studies to Scientific Literacy: A View From the Classroom.Douglas Allchin - 2014 - Science & Education 23 (9):1911-1932.
  • The Evolution of Complexity.Mark Bedau - 2009 - In Anouk Barberousse, M. Morange & T. Pradeau (eds.), Mapping the Future of Biology. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol 266. Dordrecht: Springer.
  • The Naturalizing Error.Douglas Allchin & Alexander J. Werth - 2017 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 48 (1):3-18.
    We describe an error type that we call the naturalizing error: an appeal to nature as a self-justified description dictating or limiting our choices in moral, economic, political, and other social contexts. Normative cultural perspectives may be subtly and subconsciously inscribed into purportedly objective descriptions of nature, often with the apparent warrant and authority of science, yet not be fully warranted by a systematic or complete consideration of the evidence. Cognitive processes may contribute further to a failure to notice the (...)
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  • Normality, Disease, and Enhancement.Theodore M. Benditt - 2007 - In Harold Kincaid & Jennifer McKitrick (eds.), Establishing medical reality: Methodological and metaphysical issues in philosophy of medicine. Springer. pp. 13-21.
    The vagueness or imprecision of ‘the normal’ allows it to be exploited for various purposes and political ends. It is conspicuous in both medicine and athletics; I am going to try to say something about the normal in each of these areas. In medicine the idea of the normal is often deployed in understanding what constitutes disease and hence, as some see it, in determining the role of physicians, in determining what is or ought to be covered by insurance, and (...)
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  • Tractable Genes, Entrenched Social Structures.Lisa Gannett - 1997 - Biology and Philosophy 12 (3):403-419.
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  • Culture, Biology, and Human Behavior.Horst D. Steklis & Alex Walter - 1991 - Human Nature 2 (2):137-169.
    Social scientists have not integrated relevant knowledge from the biological sciences into their explanations of human behavior. This failure is due to a longstanding antireductionistic bias against the natural sciences, which follows on a commitment to the view that social facts must be explained by social laws. This belief has led many social scientists into the error of reifying abstract analytical constructs into entities that possess powers of agency. It has also led to a false nature-culture dichotomy that effectively undermines (...)
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  • Ernst Rüdin: Hitler’s Racial Hygiene Mastermind. [REVIEW]Jay Joseph & Norbert A. Wetzel - 2013 - Journal of the History of Biology 46 (1):1-30.
    Ernst Rüdin was the founder of psychiatric genetics and was also a founder of the German racial hygiene movement. Throughout his long career he played a major role in promoting eugenic ideas and policies in Germany, including helping formulate the 1933 Nazi eugenic sterilization law and other governmental policies directed against the alleged carriers of genetic defects. In the 1940s Rüdin supported the killing of children and mental patients under a Nazi program euphemistically called “Euthanasia.” The authors document these crimes (...)
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  • The Cultural Politics of the Sociobiology Debate.Neil Jumonville - 2002 - Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):569 - 593.
    The sociobiology debate, in the final quarter of the twentieth century, featured many of the same issues disputed in the culture war in the humanities during this same time period. This is evident from a study of the writings of Edward O. Wilson, the best known of the sociobiologists, and from an examination of both the minutes of the meetings of the Sociobiology Study Group (SSG) and the writings of Stephen Jay Gould, the SSG's most prominent member. Many critics of (...)
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  • The Identity of Living Beings, Epigenetics, and the Modesty of Philosophy.Giovanni Boniolo & Giuseppe Testa - 2012 - Erkenntnis 76 (2):279-298.
    Two problems related to the biological identity of living beings are faced: the who-problem (which are the biological properties making that living being unique and different from the others?); the persistence-problem (what does it take for a living being to persist from a time to another?). They are discussed inside a molecular biology framework, which shows how epigenetics can be a good ground to provide plausible answers. That is, we propose an empirical solution to the who-problem and to the persistence-problem (...)
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  • Justification Through Biological Faith: A Rejoinder. [REVIEW]Robert J. Richards - 1986 - Biology and Philosophy 1 (3):337-354.
    Though I have not found enough of the latter to test out this bromide, I am sensible of the value bestowed by colleagues who have taken such exacting care in analyzing my arguments. While their incisive observation and hard objections threaten to leave an extinct theory, I hope the reader will rather judge it one strengthened by adversity. Let me initially expose the heart of my argument so as to make obvious the shocks it must endure. I ask the reader (...)
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  • Moral and Nonmoral Innate Constraints.Kathryn Paxton George - 1992 - Biology and Philosophy 7 (2):189-202.
    Charles J. Lumsden and E.O. Wilson, in their writings together and individually, have proposed that human behaviors, whether moral or nonmoral, are governed by innate constraints (which they have termed epigenetic rules). I propose that if a genetic component of moral behavior is to be discovered, some sorting out of specifically moral from nonmoral innate constraints will be necessary. That some specifically moral innate constraits exist is evidenced by virtuous behaviors exhibited in nonhuman mammals, whose behavior is usually granted to (...)
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  • J. M. Keynes's Position on the General Applicability of Mathematical, Logical and Statistical Methods in Economics and Social Science.Michael Emmett Brady - 1988 - Synthese 76 (1):1 - 24.
    The author finds no support for the claim that J. M. Keynes had severe reservations, in general, as opposed to particular, concerning the application of mathematical, logical and statistical methods in economics. These misinterpretations rest on the omission of important source material as well as a severe misconstrual ofThe Treatise on Probability (1921).
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  • The Motivational Role of Affect in an Ecological Model.Rami Gabriel - 2021 - Theory and Psychology 32 (1):1-21.
    Drawing from empirical literature on ecological psychology, affective neuroscience, and philosophy of mind, this article describes a model of affect-as-motivation in the intentional bond between organism and environment. An epistemological justification for the motivating role of emotions is provided through articulating the perceptual context of emotions as embodied, situated, and functional, and positing perceptual salience as a biasing signal in an affordance competition model. The motivational role of affect is pragmatically integrated into discussions of action selection in the neurosciences.
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  • Interactionism, Post-Interactionism, and Causal Complexity: Lessons From the Philosophy of Causation.María Ferreira Ruiz & Jon Umerez - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    In biology and philosophy of biology, discussing the notion of interaction leads to an examination of interactionism, which is, broadly speaking, the view that rejects gene-centrism and gene determinism and instead emphasizes the fact that traits of organisms are always the result of genes and environments. It has long been asserted that the nature-nurture problem requires an interactionist solution of sorts, the so-called interactionist consensus. This consensus, however, has been deemed insufficient and challenged by several authors triggering an extension of (...)
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  • Sociotechnical Practices and Difference: On the Interferences Between Disability, Gender, and Class.Ingunn Moser - 2006 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 31 (5):537-564.
    In feminist and cultural studies, there is a growing body of work concerned with how people’s lives are subjected to multiple, intersecting axes of differentiation and power. There is growing concern that we seem unable to address more than one difference at a time, thus failing to interrogate enactments of class, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality in science, technology, and medicine. This article aims to contribute to the effort to conceptualize the making of and interactions between differences. It explores how (...)
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  • Solidarity and Distinction in Blood: Contamination, Morality and Variability.Jing Shao & Mary Scoggin - 2009 - Body and Society 15 (2):29-49.
    This is an ethnographic exploration into the meanings of contaminated blood. Intense commercial harvesting of human plasma, a blood component, in rural central China during the 1990s resulted in extensive HIV infection among donors. The lack of viral diversity among these infected donors, as revealed by research in molecular epidemiology, confirms that this epidemic took hold and spread rapidly with deadly efficiency through unsanitary plasmapheresis. The distinction in viral strains between this epidemic and the spread of HIV via other routes (...)
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  • Ethnocentrism and Socialist-Feminist Theory.Mary McIntosh & Michèle Barrett - 2005 - Feminist Review 80 (1):64-86.
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  • Ethnocentrism and Socialist-Feminist Theory.Mary Mcintosh & Michèle Barrett - 1985 - Feminist Review 20 (1):23-47.
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