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  1. “Genetic Load”: How the Architects of the Modern Synthesis Became Trapped in a Scientific Ideology.Alexandra Soulier - 2018 - Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science 4:118.
    The term “genetic load” first emerged in a paper written in 1950 by the geneticist H. Muller. It is a mathematical model based on biological, social, political and ethical arguments describing the dramatic accumulation of disadvantageous mutations in human populations that will occur in modern societies if eugenic measures are not taken. The model describes how the combined actions of medical and social progress will supposedly impede natural selection and make genes of inferior quality likely to spread across populations – (...)
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  • Science is Not Always “Self-Correcting” : Fact–Value Conflation and the Study of Intelligence.Nathan Cofnas - 2016 - Foundations of Science 21 (3):477-492.
    Some prominent scientists and philosophers have stated openly that moral and political considerations should influence whether we accept or promulgate scientific theories. This widespread view has significantly influenced the development, and public perception, of intelligence research. Theories related to group differences in intelligence are often rejected a priori on explicitly moral grounds. Thus the idea, frequently expressed by commentators on science, that science is “self-correcting”—that hypotheses are simply abandoned when they are undermined by empirical evidence—may not be correct in all (...)
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  • The Mind, the Lab, and the Field: Three Kinds of Populations in Scientific Practice.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther, Ryan Giordano, Michael D. Edge & Rasmus Nielsen - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 52:12-21.
    Scientists use models to understand the natural world, and it is important not to conflate model and nature. As an illustration, we distinguish three different kinds of populations in studies of ecology and evolution: theoretical, laboratory, and natural populations, exemplified by the work of R.A. Fisher, Thomas Park, and David Lack, respectively. Biologists are rightly concerned with all three types of populations. We examine the interplay between these different kinds of populations, and their pertinent models, in three examples: the notion (...)
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  • The Molecular Basis of Evolution and Disease: A Cold War Alliance.Edna Suárez-Díaz - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (2):325-346.
    This paper extends previous arguments against the assumption that the study of variation at the molecular level was instigated with a view to solving an internal conflict between the balance and classical schools of population genetics. It does so by focusing on the intersection of basic research in protein chemistry and the molecular approach to disease with the enactment of global health campaigns during the Cold War period. The paper connects advances in research on protein structure and function as reflected (...)
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  • Sexual Selection and Mate Choice in Evolutionary Psychology.Chris Haufe - 2008 - Biology and Philosophy 23 (1):115-128.
    The importance of mate choice and sexual selection has been emphasized by the majority of evolutionary psychologists. This paper assesses three cases of work on mate choice and sexual selection in evolutionary psychology: David Buss on cross-cultural human mate preferences, Randy Thornhill and Steve Gangestad on the link between mate preferences and fluctuating asymmetry, and Geoffrey Miller on the role of Fisher’s runaway process in human evolution. A mixture of conceptual and empirical problems in each case highlights the general weakness (...)
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  • Biological Species: Natural Kinds, Individuals, or What?,„.Ruse Michael - 1987 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (2):225-242.
    What are biological species? Aristotelians and Lockeans agree that they are natural kinds; but, evolutionary theory shows that neither traditional philosophical approach is truly adequate. Recently, Michael Ghiselin and David Hull have argued that species are individuals. This claim is shown to be against the spirit of much modern biology. It is concluded that species are natural kinds of a sort, and that any 'objectivity' they possess comes from their being at the focus of a consilience of inductions.
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  • Race, Genomics, and Philosophy of Science.Jonathan Michael Kaplan, Ludovica Lorusso & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2014 - Critical Philosophy of Race 2 (2):160-223.
  • Evolution in Thermodynamic Perspective: An Ecological Approach. [REVIEW]Bruce H. Weber, David J. Depew, C. Dyke, Stanley N. Salthe, Eric D. Schneider, Robert E. Ulanowicz & Jeffrey S. Wicken - 1989 - Biology and Philosophy 4 (4):373-405.
    Recognition that biological systems are stabilized far from equilibrium by self-organizing, informed, autocatalytic cycles and structures that dissipate unusable energy and matter has led to recent attempts to reformulate evolutionary theory. We hold that such insights are consistent with the broad development of the Darwinian Tradition and with the concept of natural selection. Biological systems are selected that re not only more efficient than competitors but also enhance the integrity of the web of energetic relations in which they are embedded. (...)
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  • Michael Ruse and His Fifteen Years of Booknotes – for Better or for Worse.David L. Hull - 2001 - Biology and Philosophy 16 (3):423-435.
    In this paper I trace Michael Ruse's Booknotes from the first volumeof Biology and Philosophy in 1986 to the present. I deal withboth the style and the content of these booknotes. Ruse paid specialattention to authors outside of the traditional English axis as wellas to feminist writers. He complained that too much attention wasbeing paid to certain topics (e.g., evolutionary ethics, evolutionaryepistemology, the species problem and reduction) while other, moreimportant topics were all but ignored (e.g., natural selection,population genetics, levels of (...)
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  • The Fate of Darwinism: Evolution After the Modern Synthesis.David J. Depew & Bruce H. Weber - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (1):89-102.
    We trace the history of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, and of genetic Darwinism generally, with a view to showing why, even in its current versions, it can no longer serve as a general framework for evolutionary theory. The main reason is empirical. Genetical Darwinism cannot accommodate the role of development in many evolutionary processes. We go on to discuss two conceptual issues: whether natural selection can be the “creative factor” in a new, more general framework for evolutionary theorizing; and whether (...)
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  • Book Reviews : Problems of Scientific Revolution: Progress and Obstacles to Progress in the Sciences. The Herbert Spencer Lectures 1973. Edited by Rom Harré. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1975. Pp. VI + 104. Can. $5.75. [REVIEW]David L. Hull - 1976 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 6 (4):375-380.
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  • Sarkar on Frank.David Robert Crawford - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (1):122-128.
    In a recent paper, Sahotra Sarkar compares the Standard Dynamical interpretation of natural selection with the Information-Theoretic interpretation from Steven A. Frank. I address Sarkar’s three arguments against Frank’s interpretation. I show that Sarkar’s major argument that a key component of Frank’s account “does not have any natural biological interpretation” is premised on a contradiction stemming from a mathematical error. Consequently, Sarkar’s major argument is unsound. I also address Sarkar’s claim that a central equation in Frank’s interpretation is dynamically insufficient (...)
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  • Human Ethology and Human Sociobiology.David P. Barash - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (1):26-27.
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  • Characters as the Units of Evolutionary Change.David Houle - 2001 - In G. P. Wagner (ed.), The Character Concept in Evolutionary Biology. Academic Press. pp. 109--140.
  • Genome Reduction as the Dominant Mode of Evolution.Yuri I. Wolf & Eugene V. Koonin - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (9):829-837.
  • Plant‐Microbe Symbioses: New Insights Into Common Roots.Pedro T. Lima, Vitor G. Faria, Pedro Patraquim, Alessandro C. Ramos, José A. Feijó & Élio Sucena - 2009 - Bioessays 31 (11):1233-1244.
  • Human Genetic Diversity: Lewontin's Fallacy.Anthony W. F. Edwards - 2003 - Bioessays 25 (8):798-801.
    In popular articles that play down the genetical differences among human populations, it is often stated that about 85% of the total genetical variation is due to individual differences within populations and only 15% to differences between populations or ethnic groups. It has therefore been proposed that the division of Homo sapiens into these groups is not justified by the genetic data. This conclusion, due to R.C. Lewontin in 1972, is unwarranted because the argument ignores the fact that most of (...)
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  • A Bayesian Approach to the Evolution of Perceptual and Cognitive Systems.Wilson S. Geisler & Randy L. Diehl - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (3):379-402.
  • Spirit, Method, and Content in Science and Religion: The Theological Perspective of a Geneticist.Lindon Eaves - 1989 - Zygon 24 (2):185-216.
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  • Evolution’s Republic: Groundwork for a Biosocial Contract.Alex Schulman - 2014 - Social Science Information 53 (4):518-541.
    Are the concepts of the state of nature and the social contract still relevant for contemporary political theory? I argue that these ideas from early modern and Enlightenment political theory can be fruitfully reapplied via the data and methods of evolutionary biology. Alignment of evolutionary theory with social contract theory can answer the charge that Darwinism, however accurate its picture of the natural world or natural history, provides no defensible grounding for ethics or politics. The implications of the biosocial contract (...)
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  • Pluralism in Evolutionary Controversies: Styles and Averaging Strategies in Hierarchical Selection Theories.Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther, Michael J. Wade & Christopher C. Dimond - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (6):957-979.
    Two controversies exist regarding the appropriate characterization of hierarchical and adaptive evolution in natural populations. In biology, there is the Wright-Fisher controversy over the relative roles of random genetic drift, natural selection, population structure, and interdemic selection in adaptive evolution begun by Sewall Wright and Ronald Aylmer Fisher. There is also the Units of Selection debate, spanning both the biological and the philosophical literature and including the impassioned group-selection debate. Why do these two discourses exist separately, and interact relatively little? (...)
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  • Naturalizing Theorizing: Beyond a Theory of Biological Theories. [REVIEW]Werner Callebaut - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (4):413-429.
    Although “theory” has been the prevalent unit of analysis in the meta-study of science throughout most of the twentieth century, the concept remains elusive. I further explore the leitmotiv of several authors in this issue: that we should deal with theorizing (rather than theory) in biology as a cognitive activity that is to be investigated naturalistically. I first contrast how philosophers and biologists have tended to think about theory in the last century or so, and consider recent calls to upgrade (...)
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  • The Long and Winding Road of Molecular Data in Phylogenetic Analysis.Edna Suárez-Díaz - 2014 - Journal of the History of Biology 47 (3):443-478.
    The use of molecules and reactions as evidence, markers and/or traits for evolutionary processes has a history more than a century long. Molecules have been used in studies of intra-specific variation and studies of similarity among species that do not necessarily result in the analysis of phylogenetic relations. Promoters of the use of molecular data have sustained the need for quantification as the main argument to make use of them. Moreover, quantification has allowed intensive statistical analysis, as a condition and (...)
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  • Realism, Antirealism, and Conventionalism About Race.Jonathan Michael Kaplan & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):1039-1052.
    This paper distinguishes three concepts of "race": bio-genomic cluster/race, biological race, and social race. We map out realism, antirealism, and conventionalism about each of these, in three important historical episodes: Frank Livingstone and Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1962, A.W.F. Edwards' 2003 response to Lewontin (1972), and contemporary discourse. Semantics is especially crucial to the first episode, while normativity is central to the second. Upon inspection, each episode also reveals a variety of commitments to the metaphysics of race. We conclude by interrogating (...)
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  • The Role of Causal Processes in the Neutral and Nearly Neutral Theories.Michael R. Dietrich & Roberta L. Millstein - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (5):548-559.
    The neutral and nearly neutral theories of molecular evolution are sometimes characterized as theories about drift alone, where drift is described solely as an outcome, rather than a process. We argue, however, that both selection and drift, as causal processes, are integral parts of both theories. However, the nearly neutral theory explicitly recognizes alleles and/or molecular substitutions that, while engaging in weakly selected causal processes, exhibit outcomes thought to be characteristic of random drift. A narrow focus on outcomes obscures the (...)
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  • Stochastic Evolutionary Dynamics: Drift Versus Draft.Robert A. Skipper - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):655-665.
    In a small handful of papers in theoretical population genetics, John Gillespie (2000a, 2000b, 2001) argues that a new stochastic process he calls "genetic draft" is evolutionarily more significant than genetic drift. This case study of chance in evolution explores Gillespie's proposed stochastic evolutionary force and sketches the implications of Gillespie's argument for philosophers' explorations of genetic drift.
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  • The Heuristic Role of Sewall Wright’s 1932 Adaptive Landscape Diagram.Robert A. Skipper - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1176-1188.
    Sewall Wright's adaptive landscape is the most influential heuristic in evolutionary biology. Wright's biographer, Provine, criticized Wright's adaptive landscape, claiming that its heuristic value is dubious because of deep flaws. Ruse has defended Wright against Provine. Ruse claims Provine has not shown Wright's use of the landscape is flawed, and that, even if it were, it is heuristically valuable. I argue that both Provine's and Ruse's analyses of the adaptive landscape are defective and suggest a more adequate understanding of it.
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  • The Trials of Life: Natural Selection and Random Drift.Denis M. Walsh, Andre Ariew & Tim Lewens - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (3):452-473.
    We distinguish dynamical and statistical interpretations of evolutionary theory. We argue that only the statistical interpretation preserves the presumed relation between natural selection and drift. On these grounds we claim that the dynamical conception of evolutionary theory as a theory of forces is mistaken. Selection and drift are not forces. Nor do selection and drift explanations appeal to the (sub-population-level) causes of population level change. Instead they explain by appeal to the statistical structure of populations. We briefly discuss the implications (...)
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  • Species Are Individuals: Therefore Human Nature is a Metaphysical Delusion.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (1):77-78.
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  • The New Mutation Theory of Phenotypic Evolution.Masatoshi Nei - 2007 - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104 (30):12335-12242.
    Recent studies of developmental biology have shown that the genes controlling phenotypic characters expressed in the early stage of development are highly conserved and that recent evolutionary changes have occurred primarily in the characters expressed in later stages of development. Even the genes controlling the latter characters are generally conserved, but there is a large component of neutral or nearly neutral genetic variation within and between closely related species. Phenotypic evolution occurs primarily by mutation of genes that interact with one (...)
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  • Goldschmidt’s Heresy and the Explanatory Promise of Ontogenetic Evolutionary Theory.Scott E. Kleiner - 1996 - Philosophica 58.
  • From Genotype to Phenotype: Buffering Mechanisms and the Storage of Genetic Information.Suzanne L. Rutherford - 2000 - Bioessays 22 (12):1095-1105.
  • Understanding and Attenuating the Complexity Catastrophe in Kauffman'sN K Model of Genome Evolution.Daniel Solow, Apostolos Burnetas, Ming-Chi Tsai & Neil S. Greenspan - 1999 - Complexity 5 (1):53-66.
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  • How Genomic and Developmental Dynamics Affect Evolutionary Processes.Gabriel Dover - 2000 - Bioessays 22 (12):1153-1159.
  • Problems And Paradigms: Metaphors and the Role of Genes in Development.H. F. Nijhout - 1990 - Bioessays 12 (9):441-446.
  • Universality and Species Specificity.David L. Hull - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (1):38-39.
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  • Optimality and Constraint.David A. Helweg & Herbert L. Roitblat - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (2):222-223.
  • From Exaptation to Radical Niche Construction in Biological and Technological Complex Systems.Pierpaolo Andriani & Jack Cohen - 2013 - Complexity 18 (5):7-14.
  • Darwinism Then and Now: The Divide Over Form and Function.Michael Ruse - 2010 - Science & Education 19 (4-5):367-389.
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  • Punctuated Equilibria and Phyletic Gradualism: Even Partners Can Be Good Friends.J. C. Von Vaupel Klein - 1994 - Acta Biotheoretica 42 (1):15-48.
    The allegedly alternative theories of Phyletic Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibria are examined as regards the nature of their differences. The explanatory value of both models is determined by establishing their actual connection with reality. It is concluded that they are to be considered complementary rather than mutually exclusive at all levels of infraspecific, specific, and supraspecific evolution. So, in order to be described comprehensively, the pathways of evolution require at least two distinct models, each based on a discrete range of (...)
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  • Interdisciplinary Integration in Biology? An Overview.Wim J. van der Steen - 1990 - Acta Biotheoretica 38 (1):23-36.
    Philosophical theories about reduction and integration in science are at variance with what is happenign in science. A realistic approach to science show that possibilities for reduction and integration are limited. The classical ideal of a unified science has since long been rejected in philosophy. But the current emphasis on interdisciplinary integration in philosophy and in science shows that it survives in a different guise. It is necessary to redress the balance, specifically in biology. Methodological analysis shows that many of (...)
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  • Darwin's Evolutionary Philosophy: The Laws of Change.Edward S. Reed - 1978 - Acta Biotheoretica 27 (3-4):201-235.
    The philosophical or metaphysical architecture of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is analyzed and diflussed. It is argued that natural selection was for Darwin a paradigmatic case of a natural law of change — an exemplar of what Ghiselin (1969) has called selective retention laws. These selective retention laws lie at the basis of Darwin's revolutionary world view. In this essay special attention is paid to the consequences for Darwin's concept of species of his selective retention laws. Although (...)
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  • On Inference in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology: The Problem of Multiple Causes.Ray Hilborn & Stephen C. Stearns - 1982 - Acta Biotheoretica 31 (3):145-164.
    If one investigates a process that has several causes but assumes that it has only one cause, one risks ruling out important causal factors. Three mechanisms account for this mistake: either the significance of the single cause under test is masked by noise contributed by the unsuspected and uncontrolled factors, or the process appears only when two or more causes interact, or the process appears when there are present any of a number of sufficient causes which are not mutally exclusive. (...)
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  • Unlocking the Black Box Between Genotype and Phenotype: Cell Condensations as Morphogenetic (Modular) Units. [REVIEW]Brian K. Hall - 2003 - Biology and Philosophy 18 (2):219-247.
    Embryonic development and ontogeny occupy whatis often depicted as the black box betweengenes – the genotype – and the features(structures, functions, behaviors) of organisms– the phenotype; the phenotype is not merelya one-to-one readout of the genotype. Thegenes home, context, and locus of operation isthe cell. Initially, in ontogeny, that cell isthe single-celled zygote. As developmentensues, multicellular assemblages of like cells(modules) progressively organized as germlayers, embryonic fields, anlage,condensations, or blastemata, enable genes toplay their roles in development and evolution.As modules, condensations are (...)
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  • The Units of Selection Revisited: The Modules of Selection. [REVIEW]Robert N. Brandon - 1999 - Biology and Philosophy 14 (2):167-180.
    Richard Lewontin's (1970) early work on the units of selection initiated the conceptual and theoretical investigations that have led to the hierarchical perspective on selection that has reached near consensus status today. This paper explores other aspects of his work, work on what he termed continuity and quasi-independence, that connect to contemporary explorations of modularity in development and evolution. I characterize such modules and argue that they are the true units of selection in that they are what evolution by natural (...)
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  • Individuals, Populations and the Balance of Nature: The Question of Persistence in Ecology.G. H. Walter - 2008 - Biology and Philosophy 23 (3):417-438.
    Explaining the persistence of populations is an important quest in ecology, and is a modern manifestation of the balance of nature metaphor. Increasingly, however, ecologists see populations (and ecological systems generally) as not being in equilibrium or balance. The portrayal of ecological systems as “non-equilibrium” is seen as a strong alternative to deterministic or equilibrium ecology, but this approach fails to provide much theoretical or practical guidance, and warrants formalisation at a more fundamental level. This is available in adaptation theory, (...)
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  • The Hypothesis of a Genetic Protolanguage: An Epistemological Investigation. [REVIEW]Gregory Katz - 2008 - Biosemiotics 1 (1):57-73.
    Progress in molecular biology has revealed profound relations between linguistic and genomic sciences, mainly through advances in bioinformatics. The structural symmetries between biochemical and verbal syntaxes raise the question of their origins: did they emerge independently, or did one arise from the other? Does the genetic code contain the traces of a protolanguage, a universal grammar whose gradual evolution and successive mutations progressively led to the polymorphism of natural languages? To explore this question, we review the isomorphism of the genetic (...)
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  • A Web of Controversies: Complexity in the Burgess Shale Debate. [REVIEW]Christian Baron - 2011 - Journal of the History of Biology 44 (4):745 - 780.
    Using the Burgess Shale controversies as a case-study, this paper argues that controversies within different domains may interact as to create a situation of "complicated intricacies," where the practicing scientist has to navigate through a context of multiple thought collectives. To some extent each of these collectives has its own dynamic complete with fairly negotiated standards for investigation and explanation, theoretical background assumptions and certain peculiarities of practice. But the intellectual development in one of these collectives may "spill over" having (...)
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  • Colleagues in Conflict: An 'in Vivo' Analysis of the Sociobiology Controversy. [REVIEW]Ullica Segerstrale - 1986 - Biology and Philosophy 1 (1):53-87.
    Edward O. Wilson's forays into human sociobiology have been the target of persistent, vehement attack by his Harvard colleague in evolutionary biology, Richard C. Lewontin. Through examination of existing documents in the case, together with in-depth personal interviews of Wilson, Lewontin, and other biologists, the reasons for Wilson's stance and Lewontin's criticisms are uncovered. It is argued that the dispute is not primarily personally or politically motivated, but involves a conflict between long-term scientific-cum-moral agendas, with the reductionist program as a (...)
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  • Adaptation and Self-Organization in Primate Societies.Bernard Thierry - 1997 - Diogenes 45 (180):39-71.
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